journal
Journals Evolution, Medicine, and Publi...

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

https://read.qxmd.com/read/37941735/discriminating-between-sick-and-healthy-faces-based-on-early-sickness-cues-an-exploratory-analysis-of-sex-differences
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arnaud Tognetti, Evelina Thunell, Marta Zakrzewska, Jonas Olofsson, Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Mats J Olsson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been argued that sex and disease-related traits should influence how observers respond to sensory sickness cues. In fact, there is evidence that humans can detect sensory cues related to infection in others, but lack of power from earlier studies prevents any firm conclusion regarding whether perception of sickness cues is associated with sex and disease-related personality traits. Here, we tested whether women (relative to men), individuals with poorer self-reported health, and who are more sensitive to disgust, vulnerable to disease, and concerned about their health, overestimate the presence of, and/or are better at detecting sickness cues...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37928960/mother-s-warmth-from-maternal-genes-genomic-imprinting-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#22
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lynn Ayache, Aiden Bushell, Jessica Lee, Iiro Salminen, Bernard Crespi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays key roles in mammalian physiology, most notably with regard to thermoregulation in infants and juveniles. Previous studies have suggested that intragenomic conflict, in the form of genomic imprinting, mediates BAT thermogenesis, because it represents a public good for groups of siblings, or a mother with her offspring, who huddle together to conserve warmth. By this hypothesis, maternally expressed imprinted genes should promote BAT, while paternally expressed genes should repress it...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37899938/signalling-need-for-care-a-neglected-functional-role-of-medical-treatment
#23
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mícheál de Barra, Kawthar Hakimy, Marijn de Bruin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While the primary goals of medical treatment are typically to shorten illness or relieve symptoms, we explore the idea that an important additional goal for some patients is to communicate their needs. Drawing on signalling theory , we argue that undergoing treatments can help patients legitimize their illness and thereby enable access to crucial support during convalescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four pre-registered within-subjects experiments ( n = 874) show that participants are more inclined to provide care to people who undergo treatment, especially when that treatment is painful...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37881688/the-evmed-assessment-a-test-for-measuring-student-understanding-of-core-concepts-in-evolutionary-medicine
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Taya Misheva, Randolph M Nesse, Daniel Z Grunspan, Sara E Brownell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Universities throughout the USA increasingly offer undergraduate courses in evolutionary medicine (EvMed), which creates a need for pedagogical resources. Several resources offer course content (e.g. textbooks) and a previous study identified EvMed core principles to help instructors set learning goals. However, assessment tools are not yet available. In this study, we address this need by developing an assessment that measures students' ability to apply EvMed core principles to various health-related scenarios...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37868078/the-reproductive-status-determines-tolerance-and-resistance-to-mycobacterium-marinum-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marta Arch, Maria Vidal, Esther Fuentes, Anmaw Shite Abat, Pere-Joan Cardona
Sex and reproductive status of the host have a major impact on the immune response against infection. Our aim was to understand their impact on host tolerance or resistance in the systemic Mycobacterium marinum infection of Drosophila melanogaster . We measured host survival and bacillary load at time of death, as well as expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of immune genes (diptericin and drosomycin). We also assessed the impact of metabolic and hormonal regulation in the protection against infection by measuring expression of upd3, impl2 and ecR...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37868077/disease-from-opposing-forces-in-regulatory-control
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Steven A Frank
Danger requires a strong rapid response. Speedy triggers are prone to false signals. False alarms can be costly, requiring strong negative regulators to oppose the initial triggers. Strongly opposed forces can easily be perturbed, leading to imbalance and disease. For example, immunity and fear response balance strong rapid triggers against widespread slow negative regulators. Diseases of immunity and behavior arise from imbalance. A different opposition of forces occurs in mammalian growth, which balances strong paternally expressed accelerators against maternally expressed suppressors...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37841024/the-effects-of-lifestyle-change-on-indicators-of-cardiometabolic-health-in-semi-nomadic-pastoralists
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zane S Swanson, Hilary Bethancourt, Rosemary Nzunza, Emmanuel Ndiema, David R Braun, Asher Y Rosinger, Herman Pontzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable disease risk and the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases continue to grow across the expanding industrialized world. Probing the relationships between evolved human physiology and modern socioecological conditions is central to understanding this health crisis. Therefore, we investigated the relationships between increased market access, shifting subsistence patterns and cardiometabolic health indicators within Daasanach semi-nomadic pastoralists who vary in their engagement in traditional lifestyle and emerging market behaviors...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37711226/evolution-informed-therapy-for-kidney-disease
#28
Robert L Chevalier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37706031/first-impressions-of-a-new-face-are-shaped-by-infection-concerns
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Paola Bressan
Along with a classical immune system, we have evolved a behavioral one that directs us away from potentially contagious individuals. Here I show, using publicly available cross-cultural data, that this adaptation is so fundamental that our first impressions of a male stranger are largely driven by the perceived health of his face. Positive (likeable, capable, intelligent, trustworthy) and negative (unfriendly, ignorant, lazy) first impressions are affected by facial health in adaptively different ways, inconsistent with a mere halo effect; they are also modulated by one's current state of health and inclination to feel disgusted by pathogens...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37680454/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-social-inequality-and-health-disparities-insights-from-the-producer-scrounger-game
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jonathan C K Wells
There is growing concern with social disparities in health, whether relating to gender, ethnicity, caste, socio-economic position or other axes of inequality. Despite addressing inequality, evolutionary biologists have had surprisingly little to say on why human societies are prone to demonstrating exploitation. This article builds on a recent book, ' The Metabolic Ghetto ', describing an overarching evolutionary framework for studying all forms of social inequality involving exploitation. The dynamic 'producer-scrounger' game, developed to model social foraging, assumes that some members of a social group produce food, and that others scrounge from them...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37649729/using-evolutionary-principles-to-make-clinical-decisions-a-case-series-of-urinary-tract-infections
#31
Michelle Blyth
The principles of evolutionary medicine have significant potential to be useful in a wide variety of clinical situations. Despite this, few demonstrations of clinical applications exist. To address this paucity, a case series applying evolutionary medicine principles to urinary tract infections, a common medical condition is presented. This series demonstrates how applying evolutionary medicine principles can be used to augment clinical decision-making.
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37621878/integrating-evolutionary-developmental-and-physiological-mismatch
#32
REVIEW
Paul E Griffiths, Pierrick Bourrat
Contemporary evolutionary medicine has unified the idea of 'evolutionary mismatch', derived from the older idea of 'adaptive lag' in evolution, with ideas about the mismatch in development and physiology derived from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm. A number of publications in evolutionary medicine have tried to make this theoretical framework explicit. The integrative theory of mismatch captures how organisms track environments across space and time on multiple scales in order to maintain an adaptive match to the environment, and how failures of adaptive tracking lead to disease...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37599857/biomarkers-or-biotargets-using-competition-to-lure-cancer-cells-into-evolutionary-traps
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anuraag Bukkuri, Frederick R Adler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer biomarkers provide information on the characteristics and extent of cancer progression and help inform clinical decision-making. However, they can also play functional roles in oncogenesis, from enabling metastases and inducing angiogenesis to promoting resistance to chemotherapy. The resulting evolution could bias estimates of cancer progression and lead to suboptimal treatment decisions. METHODOLOGY: We create an evolutionary game theoretic model of cell-cell competition among cancer cells with different levels of biomarker production...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37485055/a-novel-indicator-of-selection-in-utero
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ralph Catalano, Tim A Bruckner, Alison Gemmill, Joan A Casey, Claire Margerison, Terry Hartig
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Selection in utero predicts that population stressors raise the standard for how quickly fetuses must grow to avoid spontaneous abortion. Tests of this prediction must use indirect indicators of fetal loss in birth cohorts because vital statistics systems typically register fetal deaths at the 20th week of gestation or later, well after most have occurred. We argue that tests of selection in utero would make greater progress if researchers adopted an indicator of selection against slow-growing fetuses that followed from theory, allowed sex-specific tests and used readily available data...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37485054/low-birthweight-is-associated-with-epigenetic-age-acceleration-in-the-first-3-years-of-life
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Edward B Quinn, Chu J Hsiao, Felicien M Maisha, Connie J Mulligan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis posits that early life adversity is associated with poor adult health outcomes. Epidemiological evidence has supported this framework by linking low birthweight with adult health and mortality, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Accelerated epigenetic aging may be a pathway to connect early life experiences with adult health outcomes, based on associations of accelerated epigenetic aging with increased morbidity and mortality...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37475838/maternal-mental-health-and-economic-autonomy-in-lowland-rural-nepal-do-parents-in-law-provide-constraint-or-support
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Akanksha A Marphatia, Laura K Busert-Sebela, Lu Gram, Mario Cortina-Borja, Alice M Reid, Dharma S Manandhar, Jonathan C K Wells, Naomi M Saville
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patrilocal societies, married women typically co-reside with their parents-in-law, who may act in their son's reproductive interests. These relationships may shape maternal mental health and autonomy. Few studies have examined these dynamics from an evolutionary perspective. Theoretically, marital kin may increase their fitness by increasing maternal investment or by reducing paternity uncertainty. We explored how co-residence with parents-in-law and husband is associated with maternal outcomes to evaluate whether marital kin provide support or constraint...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37426329/humans-can-detect-axillary-odor-cues-of-an-acute-respiratory-infection-in-others
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arnaud Tognetti, Megan N Williams, Nathalie Lybert, Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Mats J Olsson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Body odor conveys information about health status to conspecifics and influences approach-avoidance behaviors in animals. Experiments that induce sickness in otherwise healthy individuals suggest that humans too can detect sensory cues to infection in others. Here, we investigated whether individuals could detect through smell a naturally occurring acute respiratory infection in others and whether sickness severity, measured via body temperature and sickness symptoms, was associated with the accuracy of detection...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37404250/double-trouble-trypanosomatids-with-two-hosts-have-lower-infection-prevalence-than-single-host-trypanosomatids
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hawra Al-Ghafli, Seth M Barribeau
Trypanosomatids are a diverse family of protozoan parasites, some of which cause devastating human and livestock diseases. There are two distinct infection life cycles in trypanosomatids; some species complete their entire life cycle in a single host (monoxenous) while others infect two hosts (dixenous). Dixenous trypanosomatids are mostly vectored by insects, and the human trypanosomatid diseases are caused mainly by vectored parasites. While infection prevalence has been described for subsets of hosts and trypanosomatids, little is known about whether monoxenous and dixenous trypanosomatids differ in infection prevalence...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37388194/social-determinants-of-health-and-disease-in-companion-dogs-a-cohort-study-from-the-dog-aging-project
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brianah M McCoy, Layla Brassington, Kelly Jin, Greer A Dolby, Sandi Shrager, Devin Collins, Matthew Dunbar, Audrey Ruple, Noah Snyder-Mackler
Exposure to social environmental adversity is associated with health and survival across many social species, including humans. However, little is known about how these health and mortality effects vary across the lifespan and may be differentially impacted by various components of the environment. Here, we leveraged a relatively new and powerful model for human aging, the companion dog, to investigate which components of the social environment are associated with dog health and how these associations vary across the lifespan...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37360836/combination-antimicrobial-therapy-to-manage-resistance
#40
Robert J Woods, Andrew F Read
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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