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Journals Evolution, Medicine, and Publi...

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38807860/the-uncontrollable-mortality-risk-hypothesis-theoretical-foundations-and-implications-for-public-health
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Richard D Brown, Gillian V Pepper
The 'Uncontrollable Mortality Risk Hypothesis' employs a behavioural ecological model of human health behaviours to explain the presence of social gradients in health. It states that those who are more likely to die due to factors beyond their control should be less motivated to invest in preventative health behaviours. We outline the theoretical assumptions of the hypothesis and stress the importance of incorporating evolutionary perspectives into public health. We explain how measuring perceived uncontrollable mortality risk can contribute towards understanding socioeconomic disparities in preventative health behaviours...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38757096/senolytics-and-cell-senescence-historical-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Caleb E Finch
Senolytics are a new class of anti-aging drugs developed to selectively kill 'senescent' cells that are considered harmful in normal aging. More than 20 drug trials are ongoing with diverse 'senolytic cocktails'. This commentary on recent reviews of senolytics gives a historical context of mammalian cell senescence that enabled these new drugs. While cell senescence is considered harmful to aging tissues, many studies show its essential role in some regenerative and developmental processes for which senolytic drugs may interfere...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38711789/nausea-vomiting-and-conflict-in-pregnancy-the-adaptive-significance-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bernard J Crespi
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is heritable, common and aversive, and its extreme, hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), can be highly deleterious to the mother and fetus. Recent influential studies have demonstrated that HG is caused predominantly by high levels of Growth-Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15), a hormone produced by the placenta in substantial amounts. This work has led to calls for therapeutic modulation of this hormone to reduce GDF15 levels and ameliorate HG risk. I describe three main lines of evidence relevant to the hypothesis that GDF15 production is typically adaptive for the fetus, in the context of enhanced placental invasion, reduced rates of miscarriage and preterm birth and higher birth weight...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38618241/introduction-to-the-special-issue-evolutionary-and-biopsychosocial-perspectives-on-sickness-communication
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eric C Shattuck, Chloe C Boyle
Here, we introduce the EMPH special issue on Evolutionary and Biopsychosocial Perspectives on Sickness Communication. This Commentary provides an overview of each article and places them in the wider context of sickness as a social phenomenon with verbal and nonverbal signals. This Commentary, and the special issue, in general, calls for greater attention to these signals that can affect pathogen transmission and may be at the evolutionary root of our caregiving systems and behaviours.
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38601345/a-multi-million-year-natural-experiment-comparative-genomics-on-a-massive-scale-and-its-implications-for-human-health
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Iker Rivas-González, Jenny Tung
Improving the diversity and quality of genome assemblies for non-human mammals has been a long-standing goal of comparative genomics. The last year saw substantial progress towards this goal, including the release of genome alignments for 240 mammals and nearly half the primate order. These resources have increased our ability to identify evolutionarily constrained regions of the genome, and together strongly support the importance of these regions to biomedically relevant trait variation in humans. They also provide new strategies for identifying the genetic basis of changes unique to individual lineages, illustrating the value of evolutionary comparative approaches for understanding human health...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38380131/could-care-giving-have-altered-the-evolution-of-human-immune-strategies
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bethany L P Gilbert, Sharon E Kessler
Life history theory indicates that individuals/species with a slow pace of life invest more in acquired than innate immunity. Factors that decrease the pace of life and predict greater investment in acquired immunity include increased nutritional resources, increased pathogen exposure and decreased risk of extrinsic mortality. Common care behaviors given to sick individuals produce exactly these effects: provisioning increases nutritional resources; hygiene assistance increases disease exposure of carers; and protection can reduce the risk of extrinsic mortality to sick individuals...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38380130/reconsidering-the-developmental-origins-of-adult-disease-paradigm-the-metabolic-coordination-of-childbirth-hypothesis
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Gernot Desoye, David A Leon
In uncomplicated pregnancies, birthweight is inversely associated with adult non-communicable disease (NCD) risk. One proposed mechanism is maternal malnutrition during pregnancy. Another explanation is that shared genes link birthweight with NCDs. Both hypotheses are supported, but evolutionary perspectives address only the environmental pathway. We propose that genetic and environmental associations of birthweight with NCD risk reflect coordinated regulatory systems between mother and foetus, that evolved to reduce risks of obstructed labour...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38380129/evolutionary-and-empirical-perspectives-on-demand-breastfeeding-the-baby-in-the-driver-s-seat-or-the-back-seat
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
David P Tracer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The concept of 'demand' breastfeeding is central in public health. A key feature of the concept is that the infant is the locus of control in the breastfeeding process; when the breast is demanded by the infant, it is given the opportunity to feed. This study questions this notion of the infant as the locus of control in demand breastfeeding for empirical and theoretical reasons. From an evolutionary perspective, infants are expected to seek maximal investment and, against this backdrop of maximal investment-seeking, parents decide how much investment to put into offspring...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38288320/host-gut-microbiota-interactions-during-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Katherine R Amato, Priyanka Pradhan, Elizabeth K Mallott, Wesley Shirola, Amy Lu
Mammalian pregnancy is characterized by a well-known suite of physiological changes that support fetal growth and development, thereby positively affecting both maternal and offspring fitness. However, mothers also experience trade-offs between current and future maternal reproductive success, and maternal responses to these trade-offs can result in mother-offspring fitness conflicts. Knowledge of the mechanisms through which these trade-offs operate, as well as the contexts in which they operate, is critical for understanding the evolution of reproduction...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38234421/sperm-intrusion-into-the-implantation-stage-blastocyst-and-its-potential-biological-significance
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jayasree Sengupta, Thomas Kroneis, Amy M Boddy, Rahul Roy, Anish Sarkar, Deepayan Sarkar, Debabrata Ghosh, Berthold Huppertz
The human embryo derives from fusion of oocyte and sperm, undergoes growth and differentiation, resulting in a blastocyst. To initiate implantation, the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, allowing access from external inputs. Modelling of uterine sperm distribution indicates that 200-5000 sperm cells may reach the implantation-stage blastocyst following natural coitus. We show ultrastructural evidence of sperm cells intruding into trophectoderm cells of zona-free blastocysts obtained from the uterus of rhesus monkeys...
2024: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38170074/the-role-of-the-behavioural-immune-system-on-covid-19-lockdown-attitudes-the-relationship-with-authoritarianism-and-collectivism
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Femke van Diepenbeek, Sharon E Kessler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The behavioural immune system (BIS) is a motivational system that facilitates the avoidance of pathogens and is thought to have evolved as a less costly mechanism to combat infectious diseases compared to the physiological immune system. The Parasite Stress Theory of Social Values predicts that authoritarianism and collectivist attitudes may impact the BIS by predisposing people to support disease control measures, including severe restrictions like lockdowns or stay-at-home orders...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38162252/take-a-load-off-skeletal-implications-of-sedentism-in-the-feet-of-modern-body-donors
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Malorie E Albee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Modern biocultural environments continue to place selective pressures on our skeletons. In the past century, a major cultural pressure has been the rise in sedentism. However, studies considering the effects of sedentism on the foot have largely considered pathological changes to the gross foot without particular regard for the pedal skeleton. To address this gap in the literature, temporal trends in the development of osteoarthritis and entheseal changes on the tarsals and metatarsals were analyzed in the context of biodemographic data for recent modern humans...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38145005/testosterone-is-positively-associated-with-coronary-artery-calcium-in-a-low-cardiovascular-disease-risk-population
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Benjamin C Trumble, Jacob Negrey, Stephanie V Koebele, Randall C Thompson, L Samuel Wann, Adel H Allam, Bret Beheim, M Linda Sutherland, James D Sutherland, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, David E Michalik, Chris J Rowan, Guido P Lombardi, Angela R Garcia, Daniel K Cummings, Edmond Seabright, Sarah Alami, Thomas S Kraft, Paul Hooper, Kenneth Buetow, Andrei Irimia, Margaret Gatz, Jonathan Stieglitz, Michael D Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Gregory S Thomas
BACKGROUND: In industrialized populations, low male testosterone is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular mortality. However, coronary risk factors like obesity impact both testosterone and cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we assess the role of endogenous testosterone on coronary artery calcium in an active subsistence population with relatively low testosterone levels, low cardiovascular risk and low coronary artery calcium scores. METHODOLOGY: In this cross-sectional community-based study, 719 Tsimane forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon aged 40+ years underwent computed tomography (49...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38111808/spatial-simulation-of-autologous-cell-defection-for-cancer-treatment
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jibeom Choi
Cancer cells are highly cooperative in a nepotistic way and evolutionarily dynamic. Present cancer treatments often overlook these aspects, inducing the selection of resistant cancer cells and the corresponding relapse. As an alternative method of cancer elimination, autologous cell defection (ACD) was suggested by which modified cancer cells parasitically reliant on other cancer cells are implemented to the cancer cluster. Specifically, modified cancer cells should not produce costly growth factors that promote the growth of other cancer cells while receiving the benefit of exposure to such growth factors...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38044930/sleep-tight-adolescent-sleep-quality-across-three-distinct-sleep-ecologies
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andrea Silva-Caballero, Helen L Ball, Karen L Kramer, Gillian R Bentley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Good sleep quality, associated with few arousals, no daytime sleepiness and self-satisfaction with one's sleep, is pivotal for adolescent growth, maturation, cognition and overall health. This article aims to identify what ecological factors impact adolescent sleep quality across three distinct sleep ecologies representing a gradient of dense urbanity to small, rural environments with scarce artificial lighting and no Internet. METHODOLOGY: We analyze variation of sleep efficiency, a quantitative measure of sleep quality-defined as the ratio of total time spent asleep to total time dedicated to sleep-in two agricultural indigenous populations and one post-industrial group in Mexico (Campeche = 44, Puebla = 51, Mexico City = 50, respectively)...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38022799/take-it-to-the-limit-the-limitations-of-energetic-explanations-for-birth-timing-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Cédric Cordey, Nicole M Webb, Martin Haeusler
A hallmark of modern humans is that our newborns are neurologically immature compared to other primates. It is disputed whether this so-called secondary altriciality evolved due to remodelling of the pelvis associated with bipedal locomotion, as suggested by the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis, or from maternal energetic limitations during pregnancy. Specifically, the 'Energetics of Gestation and Growth' (EGG) hypothesis posits that birth is initiated when foetal energy requirements exceed the maximum sustained maternal metabolic rate during pregnancy at around 2...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38022798/pain-behavioural-expression-and-response-in-an-evolutionary-framework
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Amanda C de C Williams
An evolutionary perspective offers insights into the major public health problem of chronic (persistent) pain; behaviours associated with it perpetuate both pain and disability. Pain is motivating, and pain-related behaviours promote recovery by immediate active or passive defence; subsequent protection of wounds; suppression of competing responses; energy conservation; vigilance to threat; and learned avoidance of associated cues. When these persist beyond healing, as in chronic pain, they are disabling. In mammals, facial and bodily expression of pain is visible and identifiable by others, while social context, including conspecifics' responses, modulate pain...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38022797/pathogen-disgust-is-associated-with-interpersonal-bias-among-healthcare-professionals
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anastasia Makhanova, W Allen Lambert, Ryan Blanchard, Joe Alcock, Eric C Shattuck, Michael P Wilson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogen avoidance is a fundamental motive that shapes many aspects of human behavior including bias against groups stereotypically linked to disease (e.g. immigrants, outgroup members). This link has only been examined in convenience samples and it is unknown how pathogen avoidance processes operate in populations experiencing prolonged and heightened pathogen threat such as healthcare professionals. We examined whether healthcare professionals demonstrate the same link between pathogen disgust and intergroup bias as has been documented among the general population...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37954982/epigenetic-aging-differences-between-wich%C3%A3-and-criollos-from-argentina-insights-from-genomic-history-and-ecology
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Vincenzo Iannuzzi, Stefania Sarno, Marco Sazzini, Paolo Abondio, Claudia Sala, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Davide Gentilini, Luciano Calzari, Federica Masciotta, Paolo Garagnani, Gastone Castellani, Edgardo Moretti, Maria Cristina Dasso, Federica Sevini, Zelda Alice Franceschi, Claudio Franceschi, Davide Pettener, Donata Luiselli, Cristina Giuliani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic estimators based on DNA methylation levels have emerged as promising biomarkers of human aging. These estimators exhibit natural variations across human groups, but data about indigenous populations remain underrepresented in research. This study aims to investigate differences in epigenetic estimators between two distinct human populations, both residing in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, the Native-American Wichí, and admixed Criollos who are descendants of intermarriages between Native Americans and the first European colonizers, using a population genetic approach...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37941735/discriminating-between-sick-and-healthy-faces-based-on-early-sickness-cues-an-exploratory-analysis-of-sex-differences
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arnaud Tognetti, Evelina Thunell, Marta Zakrzewska, Jonas Olofsson, Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Mats J Olsson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been argued that sex and disease-related traits should influence how observers respond to sensory sickness cues. In fact, there is evidence that humans can detect sensory cues related to infection in others, but lack of power from earlier studies prevents any firm conclusion regarding whether perception of sickness cues is associated with sex and disease-related personality traits. Here, we tested whether women (relative to men), individuals with poorer self-reported health, and who are more sensitive to disgust, vulnerable to disease, and concerned about their health, overestimate the presence of, and/or are better at detecting sickness cues...
2023: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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