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Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863546/sexual-selection
#1
Tim Janicke, Edward H Morrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847220/publisher-s-note-phage-treatment-of-an-aortic-graft-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Benjamin K Chan, Paul E Turner, Samuel Kim, Hamid R Mojibian, John A Elefteriades, Deepak Narayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838127/interpreting-polygenic-scores-polygenic-adaptation-and-human-phenotypic-differences
#3
REVIEW
Noah A Rosenberg, Michael D Edge, Jonathan K Pritchard, Marcus W Feldman
Recent analyses of polygenic scores have opened new discussions concerning the genetic basis and evolutionary significance of differences among populations in distributions of phenotypes. Here, we highlight limitations in research on polygenic scores, polygenic adaptation and population differences. We show how genetic contributions to traits, as estimated by polygenic scores, combine with environmental contributions so that differences among populations in trait distributions need not reflect corresponding differences in genetic propensity...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805187/the-origins-of-the-great-pandemic
#4
REVIEW
Michael Worobey, Jim Cox, Douglas Gill
The timing and location of the first cases of the 1918 influenza pandemic are still controversial, a century after the pandemic became widely recognized. Here, we critically review competing hypotheses on the timing and geographical origin of this important outbreak and provide new historical insights into debates within military circles as to the nature of putative pre-1918 influenza activity. We also synthesize current knowledge about why the 1918 pandemic was so intense in young adults. Although it is still not clear precisely when and where the outbreak began and symptom-based reports are unlikely to reveal the answer, indirect methods including phylogenetics provide important clues, and we consider whether intense influenza activity as far back as 1915 in the USA may have been caused by viral strains closely related to the 1918 one...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800316/tandem-repeat-disorders
#5
Calen P Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799869/genes-that-improved-fitness-also-cost-modern-humans-evidence-for-genes-with-antagonistic-effects-on-longevity-and-disease
#6
Sean G Byars, Konstantinos Voskarides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799868/response-to-genes-that-improved-fitness-also-cost-modern-humans-evidence-for-genes-with-antagonistic-effects-on-longevity-and-disease
#7
Steven N Austad, Jessica M Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740224/the-shapes-of-virulence-to-come
#8
Aakash Pandey, Daniel E Dawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697425/tinbergen-s-four-questions-two-proximate-two-evolutionary
#9
REVIEW
Randolph M Nesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697424/the-smoke-detector-principle-signal-detection-and-optimal-defense-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Randolph M Nesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595840/editorial-comment-pre-eclampsia
#11
EDITORIAL
Gillian R Bentley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30524730/is-antagonistic-pleiotropy-ubiquitous-in-aging-biology
#12
REVIEW
Steven N Austad, Jessica M Hoffman
Lay Summary: An evolutionary mechanism of aging was hypothesized 60 years ago to be the genetic trade-off between early life fitness and late life mortality. Genetic evidence supporting this hypothesis was unavailable then, but has accumulated recently. These tradeoffs, known as antagonistic pleiotropy, are common, perhaps ubiquitous. George Williams' 1957 paper developed the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of aging, which had previously been hinted at by Peter Medawar. Antagonistic pleiotropy, as it applies to aging, hypothesizes that animals possess genes that enhance fitness early in life but diminish it in later life and that such genes can be favored by natural selection because selection is stronger early in life even as they cause the aging phenotype to emerge...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487969/an-ecosystem-framework-for-understanding-and-treating-disease
#13
REVIEW
Michael E Hochberg
Pathogens and cancers are pervasive health risks in the human population. I argue that if we are to better understand disease and its treatment, then we need to take an ecological perspective of disease itself . I generalize and extend an emerging framework that views disease as an ecosystem and many of its components as interacting in a community. I develop the framework for biological etiological agents (BEAs) that multiply within humans-focusing on bacterial pathogens and cancers-but the framework could be extended to include other host and parasite species...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30455951/influenza-evolution-and-the-next-pandemic
#14
REVIEW
David S Fedson
Mortality rates in influenza appear to have been shaped by evolution. During the 1918 pandemic, mortality rates were lower in children compared with adults. This mortality difference occurs in a wide variety of infectious diseases. It has been replicated in mice and might be due to greater tolerance of infection, not greater resistance. Importantly, combination treatment with inexpensive and widely available generic drugs (e.g. statins and angiotensin receptor blockers) might change the damaging host response in adults to a more tolerant response in children...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30455950/probing-the-evolutionary-robustness-of-two-repurposed-drugs-targeting-iron-uptake-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Chiara Rezzoagli, David Wilson, Michael Weigert, Stefan Wyder, Rolf K├╝mmerli
Lay Summary: We probed the evolutionary robustness of two antivirulence drugs, gallium and flucytosine, targeting the iron-scavenging pyoverdine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Using an experimental evolution approach in human serum, we showed that antivirulence treatments are not evolutionarily robust per se, but vary in their propensity to select for resistance. Background and objectives: Treatments that inhibit the expression or functioning of bacterial virulence factors hold great promise to be both effective and exert weaker selection for resistance than conventional antibiotics...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30430010/variation-among-populations-in-the-immune-protein-composition-of-mother-s-milk-reflects-subsistence-pattern
#16
Laura D Klein, Jincui Huang, Elizabeth A Quinn, Melanie A Martin, Alicia A Breakey, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Brooke Scelza, Carlito B Lebrilla, Katie Hinde
Lay Summary: Adaptive immune proteins in mothers' milk are more variable than innate immune proteins across populations and subsistence strategies. These results suggest that the immune defenses in milk are shaped by a mother's environment throughout her life. Background and objectives: Mother's milk contains immune proteins that play critical roles in protecting the infant from infection and priming the infant's developing immune system during early life. The composition of these molecules in milk, particularly the acquired immune proteins, is thought to reflect a mother's immunological exposures throughout her life...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30410762/the-influenza-of-1918-evolutionary-perspectives-in-a-historical-context
#17
REVIEW
Margaret Humphreys
The 1918 influenza pandemic was the deadliest in known human history. It spread globally to the most isolated of human communities, causing clinical disease in a third of the world's population, and infecting nearly every human alive at the time. Determination of mortality numbers is complicated by weak contemporary surveillance in the developing world, but recent estimates put the death toll at 50 million or even higher. This outbreak is of great interest to modern day epidemiologists, virologists, global health researchers and evolutionary biologists...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374404/pre-eclampsia-and-maternal-fetal-conflict
#18
P J Varas Enriquez, L J McKerracher, M G Elliot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364450/autism-evolution-and-the-inadequacy-of-spectrum
#19
Neil S Greenspan
Lay Summary: Individuals diagnosed with autism display variation in many traits, such as interest and ability in social interaction or resistance to change. Referring to this variation as a 'spectrum', defined as a range of values along an axis, understates the extent of such variation and can foster incorrect inferences. In psychiatry, the currently accepted term for a developmental disability characterized by variably impaired social and communicative skills, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests is "autism spectrum disorder...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30323930/pre-eclampsia-understanding-clinical-complexity
#20
Arjen R Buschman, Annelies Rep
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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