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Frontiers in Pediatrics

J Tod Olin
Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint in general pediatric practice. While a high proportion of the general pediatric population has asthma, other diagnoses, including exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction should be considered, especially when asthma therapy is not sufficient to control symptoms. This review describes some of the key clinical features of exercised-induced laryngeal obstruction as well as preferred diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Importantly, current diagnostic technology has considerably improved in the last decade at specialty centers...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Luz María Torres-Espíndola, Joel Demetrio-Ríos, Liliana Carmona-Aparicio, César Galván-Díaz, Martín Pérez-García, Juan Luís Chávez-Pacheco, Julio Granados-Montiel, Israel Torres-Ramírez de Arellano, Arnoldo Aquino-Gálvez, Manuel De Jesús Castillejos-López
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine whether a comorbidity index could be used to predict mortality in pediatric patients with chemotherapy-treated solid tumors. Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent chemotherapy treatment for solid tumors were included, and demographic, clinical, and comorbidity data were obtained from patient electronic records. Results: A total of 196 pediatric patients with embryonic solid tumors were included. Metastatic tumors were the most frequently observed ( n = 103, 52...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Meryl Vedrenne-Cloquet, Sophie Breinig, Agnes Dechartres, Camille Jung, Sylvain Renolleau, Laetitia Marchand-Martin, Xavier Durrmeyer
Purpose: This study aimed to describe cerebral Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) profiles during neonatal intubation using two different premedication regimens. Methods: Neonates requiring non-emergency intubation were enrolled in an ancillary study, conducted in two French Neonatal Intensive Care Units participating in a larger on-going multicenter, double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to the "atropine-propofol" (Prop) group or the "atropine-atracurium-sufentanil" (SufTrac) group...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Guido E Moro, Claude Billeaud, Buffin Rachel, Javier Calvo, Laura Cavallarin, Lukas Christen, Diana Escuder-Vieco, Antoni Gaya, David Lembo, Aleksandra Wesolowska, Sertac Arslanoglu, Debbie Barnett, Enrico Bertino, Clair-Yves Boquien, Corinna Gebauer, Anne Grovslien, Gillian A Weaver, Jean-Charles Picaud
Background: A mother's own milk (MOM) is the gold standard for the feeding and nutrition of preterm and full term infants. When MOM is not available or there is not enough, donor human milk (DHM) should be used. Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks (HMBs) should be pasteurized to inactivate viral and bacterial agents. Currently, a pasteurization process at 62.5°C for 30 min (Holder pasteurization, HoP) is recommended in all international HMBs guidelines. State of the art: It is known that HoP affects some of the nutritional and biological components of human milk...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lieke W J van den Elsen, Johan Garssen, Remy Burcelin, Valerie Verhasselt
Evidence is accumulating that demonstrates the importance of the gut microbiota in health and diseases such as allergy. Recent studies emphasize the importance of the "window of opportunity" in early life, during which interventions altering the gut microbiota induce long-term effects. The neonate's gut microbiota composition and metabolism could therefore play an essential role in allergic disease risk. Breastfeeding shapes the gut microbiota in early life, both directly by exposure of the neonate to the milk microbiota and indirectly, via maternal milk factors that affect bacterial growth and metabolism such as human milk oligosaccharides, secretory IgA, and anti-microbial factors...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Michael P Meyer, Elizabeth Nevill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Rachel R Atherton, Fiona V Cresswell, Jayne Ellis, Sabrina B Kitaka, David R Boulware
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant, yet under-recognized cause of death in the pediatric population, with a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2016 resulting in 250,000 deaths. Diagnosis is notoriously difficult; manifestations are protean due to the high proportion of cases of extra-pulmonary TB in children, and logistical problems exist in obtaining suitable specimens. These issues are compounded by the paucibacillary nature of disease with the result that an estimated 96% of pediatric TB-associated mortality occurs prior to commencing anti-tuberculous treatment...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Matteo Chinello, Margherita Mauro, Gaetano Cantalupo, Rita Balter, Massimiliano De Bortoli, Virginia Vitale, Ada Zaccaron, Elisa Bonetti, Rossella Gaudino, Elena Fiorini, Simone Cesaro
The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I is a rare hereditary autosomal recessive disease. We describe a child with the classic triad of the disease and her sister with pure red cell aplasia and cerebellar hypoplasia. The latter received two haematopoietic stem cell transplantations, complicated by an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Wei Zhou, Huizhong Li, Ting Huang, Yan Zhang, Chuanxia Wang, Maosheng Gu
Background: Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is attributed to a variation in the SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene which encodes the key protein of the carnitine cycle, the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. PCD is typically identified in childhood by either hypoketotic hypoglycemia, or skeletal and cardiac myopathy. The aim of this study was to the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of PCD patients via newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Methods: MS/MS was performed to screen newborns for inherited metabolic diseases...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sami Raja Alallasi, Amal A Kokandi, Babajan Banagnapali, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Bandar Ali Al-Shehri, Nuha Mohammad Alrayes, Jumana Yousuf Al-Aama, Musharraf Jelani
Background: Lamellar ichthyosis is an autosomal recessive type of rare skin disorders characterized with defective epidermis leading hyperkeratosis with brownish-gray scales over the body. These patients are born as collodion babies and may also exhibit additional features like erythema, ectropion, and eclabium. This disease is mainly caused by homozygous and compound heterozygous alterations in transglutaminase 1 encoding gene ( TGM1 ), which is located on 14q12. Case presentation: This study reports the genetic analysis of a 4-year Saudi girl presenting lamellar ichthyosis...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Elisabete Martins, Rita Cordovil, Raul Oliveira, Joana Pinho, Ana Diniz, Joao R Vaz
This study analyzes the immediate effects of wearing a Therasuit on sagittal plane lower limb angular displacements during gait in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (US-CP). Seven participants (median age = 7.00 years; ranging from 5.83 to 9.00 years) with US-CP, levels I and II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were assessed with kinematic gait analysis in three different conditions: (A) Baseline; (B) Therasuit without elastics and (C) Therasuit with elastics. Significant improvements were observed at the hip joint of both lower limbs during most of the gait cycle in participants wearing a Therasuit, including a decrease in the flexion pattern at the initial contact and swing phase in both lower limbs, and an increase in the extension pattern in the paretic lower limb during the stance phase...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mariëlle W Pijnenburg
Asthma-like symptoms like wheezing and dyspnea affect 1 in every 3 preschool children. An easily available biomarker that predicts later asthma or unfavorable lung growth in these children may be helpful in targeting the right child with the right drugs and avoiding exposure to potentially harmful drugs in others. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been suggested as a marker of eosinophilic inflammation. FeNO can be measured in a standardized way from the age of 4 but several methods have been developed to measure FeNO also in younger children...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Katherine S Rowe
Aim: To determine the reported duration of illness, the functional and educational long-term outcomes, predictive factors for recovery and seek feedback regarding management in pediatric/adolescent myalgic encepahalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Methods: A cohort observational study of 784 young people, mean age 14.6 (6-18) years, with ME/CFS diagnosed at a specialist pediatric hospital and receiving regular care, was conducted with follow-up for a mean 8 (range 1-21) years after onset. Baseline symptoms, history, depression and anxiety questionnaires were available from 418...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Monalisa Patel, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Sina Farsiu, Breda Munoz, Arlin B Blood, Christopher G Wilson, Jennifer B Griffin
Introduction: Anterior lens capsule vascularity (ALCV) is resorbed in the developing fetus from 27 to 35 weeks gestation. In this pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility and validity of combining smartphone ophthalmoscope videos of ALCV and image analysis for gestational age estimation. Methods: ALCV videos were captured longitudinally in preterm neonates from delivery using a PanOptic® Ophthalmoscope with an iExaminer ® adapter (Welch-Allyn). ALCV video frames were manually selected and quantified using semi-automatic image analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Norazlin Kamal Nor, Azilawati Hanim Ghozali, Juriza Ismail
Introduction: Prevalence of obesity in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been reported to be higher than in the general population. Determining prevalence may help increase awareness of obesity in ASD and potentially lead to initiatives to reduce obesity. In order to understand obesity in ASD children, common risk factors were assessed including physical activity, feeding problems and sleep disturbances. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed at the Child Development Center at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center on 151 ASD children aged 2-18 years...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Haiyan Li, Li Lin, Xiaoguang Hu, Changchong Li, Hailin Zhang
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a relatively rare disease in Asians with various clinical characteristics, including CF-associated liver disease (CFLD), which is a common early non-pulmonary complication. This case report describes a Chinese CF patient harboring a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1657C>T, p.R553X) who was failure to thrive and had intermittently diarrhea during the first year after birth. Liver function test of the patient showed the mildly and intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ranging from 70 to 92 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels ranging from 80 to 90 U/L, which began at 8 months of age and lasted for 4 years without CF diagnosis...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Frances A Rickard, Landy P Torre Flores, Sonali Malhotra, Alexander T Toth, Abeer Bader, Fatima Cody Stanford, Hang Lee, Miriam A Bredella, Madhusmita Misra, Vibha Singhal
Introduction: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often evaluated in adults and adolescents with obesity to estimate caloric requirements when advising dietary changes. However, data are lacking regarding the accuracy of methods used to clinically assess REE in adolescents with severe obesity. Moreover, there are no data regarding the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on REE in adolescents. We evaluated the accuracy and error rate between estimated and measured REE in adolescents with severe obesity and changes in REE following (SG)...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sarah Winter, Adélaïde Durand, Raja Brauner
Background: Precocious and early puberty are reported findings in children with pre-existing medical conditions including certain syndromes. Series pertaining to such situations are limited. Methods: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on children with central precocious puberty (onset before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys) or early puberty (onset between 8 and 9 years in girls and between 9 and 10.5 years in boys) diagnosed on the background of a known pre-existing chronic significant medical condition...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Miguel Podesta, Miguel Podesta
Background: Management of partial or complete traumatic urethral disruptions of the posterior urethra in children and adolescents, secondary to pelvic fracture poses a challenge. Controversy exists as to the correct acute treatment of posterior urethral injuries and delayed management of PFPUDDs. We reviewed the urological literature related to the treatment of traumatic posterior urethral injuries and delayed repair of these distraction defects in children and adolescents. Material and Methods: There are few long-term outcomes studies of patients who underwent PFPUDDs repairs in childhood; most reports included few cases with short follow up...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Michael Buyck, Sergio Manzano, Kevin Haddad, Anne-Catherine Moncousin, Annick Galetto-Lacour, Katherine Blondon, Oliver Karam
Background: Pediatric resuscitations are rare events. Simulation-based training improves clinical and non-clinical skills, as well as survival rate. We assessed the effectiveness of using blindfolds to further improve leadership skills in pediatric simulation-based training. Methods: Twelve teams, each composed of 1 pediatric emergency fellow, 1 pediatric resident, and 2 pediatric emergency nurses, were randomly assigned to the blindfold group (BG) or to the control group (CG). All groups participated in one session of five simulation-based resuscitation scenarios...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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