Angela Sofia Burkhart Colorado, Alessandro Lazzaro, Charles Preston Neff, Nichole Nusbacher, Kathryn Boyd, Suzanne Fiorillo, Casey Martin, Janet C Siebert, Thomas B Campbell, Margaret Borok, Brent E Palmer, Catherine Lozupone
BACKGROUND: The widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality and improved life expectancy for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, even with HIV-1 suppression, chronic immune activation and elevated inflammation persist and have been linked to a pro-inflammatory gut microbiome composition and compromised intestinal barrier integrity. PLWH in urban versus rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa experience differences in environmental factors that may impact the gut microbiome and immune system, in response to ART, yet this has not previously been investigated in these groups...
February 3, 2024: Microbiome
Eitan E Asher, Amir Bashan
BACKGROUND: The recent recognition of the importance of the microbiome to the host's health and well-being has yielded efforts to develop therapies that aim to shift the microbiome from a disease-associated state to a healthier one. Direct manipulation techniques of the species' assemblage are currently available, e.g., using probiotics or narrow-spectrum antibiotics to introduce or eliminate specific taxa. However, predicting the species' abundances at the new state remains a challenge, mainly due to the difficulties of deciphering the delicate underlying network of ecological interactions or constructing a predictive model for such complex ecosystems...
February 1, 2024: Microbiome
Julius Eyiuche Nweze, Vladimír Šustr, Andreas Brune, Roey Angel
BACKGROUND: Many arthropods rely on their gut microbiome to digest plant material, which is often low in nitrogen but high in complex polysaccharides. Detritivores, such as millipedes, live on a particularly poor diet, but the identity and nutritional contribution of their microbiome are largely unknown. In this study, the hindgut microbiota of the tropical millipede Epibolus pulchripes (large, methane emitting) and the temperate millipede Glomeris connexa (small, non-methane emitting), fed on an identical diet, were studied using comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics...
January 29, 2024: Microbiome
Luis E Valentin-Alvarado, Sirine C Fakra, Alexander J Probst, Jonathan R Giska, Alexander L Jaffe, Luke M Oltrogge, Jacob West-Roberts, Joel Rowland, Michael Manga, David F Savage, Chris Greening, Brett J Baker, Jillian F Banfield
BACKGROUND: Biofilms in sulfide-rich springs present intricate microbial communities that play pivotal roles in biogeochemical cycling. We studied chemoautotrophically based biofilms that host diverse CPR bacteria and grow in sulfide-rich springs to investigate microbial controls on biogeochemical cycling. RESULTS: Sulfide springs biofilms were investigated using bulk geochemical analysis, genome-resolved metagenomics, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at room temperature and 87 K...
January 26, 2024: Microbiome
Jianmin Chai, Yimin Zhuang, Kai Cui, Yanliang Bi, Naifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome of domestic animals carries antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) which can be transmitted to the environment and humans, resulting in challenges of antibiotic resistance. Although it has been reported that the rumen microbiome of ruminants may be a reservoir of ARGs, the factors affecting the temporal dynamics of the rumen resistome are still unclear. Here, we collected rumen content samples of goats at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of age, analyzed their microbiome and resistome profiles using metagenomics, and assessed the temporal dynamics of the rumen resistome in goats at the early stage of life under a conventional feeding system...
January 22, 2024: Microbiome
Changfeng Zhang, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Bethany K Dodds, Thi Bich Nguyen, Jelle Spooren, Alain Valzano-Held, Marco Cosme, Roeland L Berendsen
BACKGROUND: Plant microbiomes play crucial roles in nutrient cycling and plant growth, and are shaped by a complex interplay between plants, microbes, and the environment. The role of bacteria as mediators of the 400-million-year-old partnership between the majority of land plants and, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is still poorly understood. Here, we test whether AM hyphae-associated bacteria influence the success of the AM symbiosis. RESULTS: Using partitioned microcosms containing field soil, we discovered that AM hyphae and roots selectively assemble their own microbiome from the surrounding soil...
January 19, 2024: Microbiome
Yan Han, Xinglin Zeng, Lin Hua, Xingping Quan, Ying Chen, Manfei Zhou, Yaochen Chuang, Yang Li, Shengpeng Wang, Xu Shen, Lai Wei, Zhen Yuan, Yonghua Zhao
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in the aging population worldwide has become a significant concern due to subjectivity of evaluations and the lack of precise diagnostic methods and specific indicators. Developing personalized diagnostic strategies for NCDs has therefore become a priority. RESULTS: Multimodal electroencephalography (EEG) data of a matched cohort of normal aging (NA) and NCDs seniors were recorded, and their faecal samples and urine exosomes were collected to identify multi-omics signatures and metabolic pathways in NCDs by integrating metagenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analysis...
January 19, 2024: Microbiome
Naheed Tabassum, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Sabiha Parween, Arsheed H Sheikh, Maged M Saad, Simon G Krattinger, Heribert Hirt
BACKGROUND: Fonio (Digitaria exilis), an orphan millet crop, is the oldest indigenous crop in West Africa. Although the yield is low due to pre-domestication characteristics, the quick maturation time, drought tolerance, and the ability to thrive on poor soils make fonio a climate-smart crop. Being holobionts, plants evolve in close interaction with microbial partners, which is crucial for plant phenology and fitness. As seeds are the bottleneck of vertically transmitting plant microbiota, we proposed to unravel the seed microbiome of the under-domesticated and resilient crop fonio...
January 17, 2024: Microbiome
Weiguang Kong, Gaofeng Cheng, Jiafeng Cao, Jiaqian Yu, Xinyou Wang, Zhen Xu
BACKGROUND: The visual organ plays a crucial role in sensing environmental information. However, its mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to selective pressures from aquatic or airborne pathogens and microbial communities. Although few studies have characterized the conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) in the ocular mucosa (OM) of birds and mammals, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and functions of immune defense and microbiota homeostasis of the OM in the early vertebrates...
January 13, 2024: Microbiome
Gilda Varliero, Pedro H Lebre, Byron Adams, Steven L Chown, Peter Convey, Paul G Dennis, Dandan Fan, Belinda Ferrari, Beat Frey, Ian D Hogg, David W Hopkins, Weidong Kong, Thulani Makhalanyane, Gwynneth Matcher, Kevin K Newsham, Mark I Stevens, Katherine V Weigh, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: Antarctica and its unique biodiversity are increasingly at risk from the effects of global climate change and other human influences. A significant recent element underpinning strategies for Antarctic conservation has been the development of a system of Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). The datasets supporting this classification are, however, dominated by eukaryotic taxa, with contributions from the bacterial domain restricted to Actinomycetota and Cyanobacteriota...
January 12, 2024: Microbiome
Nejash A Ahmed, Timur Gulhan
BACKGROUND: Curbing the potential negative impact of antibiotic resistance, one of our era's growing global public health crises, requires regular monitoring of the resistance situations, including the reservoir of resistance genes. Wild birds, a possible bioindicator of antibiotic resistance, have been suggested to play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective of determining the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of 100 Escherichia coli isolates of gull and pigeon origin by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and PCR...
January 8, 2024: Microbiome
Jiahui Chen, Yingying Sun, Jie Li, Mengge Lyu, Li Yuan, Jiancheng Sun, Shangqi Chen, Can Hu, Qing Wei, Zhiyuan Xu, Tiannan Guo, Xiangdong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed marked differences in tongue images between individuals with gastric cancer and those without gastric cancer. However, the biological mechanism of tongue images as a disease indicator remains unclear. Tongue coating, a major factor in tongue appearance, is the visible layer on the tongue dorsum that provides a vital environment for oral microorganisms. While oral microorganisms are associated with gastric and intestinal diseases, the comprehensive function profiles of oral microbiota remain incompletely understood...
January 8, 2024: Microbiome
Ru-Yi Zhang, Yan-Ren Wang, Ru-Long Liu, Sung-Keun Rhee, Guo-Ping Zhao, Zhe-Xue Quan
BACKGROUND: The hadal sediment, found at an ocean depth of more than 6000 m, is geographically isolated and under extremely high hydrostatic pressure, resulting in a unique ecosystem. Thaumarchaeota are ubiquitous marine microorganisms predominantly present in hadal environments. While there have been several studies on Thaumarchaeota there, most of them have primarily focused on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). However, systematic metagenomic research specifically targeting heterotrophic non-AOA Thaumarchaeota is lacking...
January 8, 2024: Microbiome
Erica Bonazzi, Alexis Bretin, Lucile Vigué, Fuhua Hao, Andrew D Patterson, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND: The observation that the intestinal microbiota is  central in the development of IBD suggests that dietary fiber, the microbiota's primary source of nourishment, could play a central role in these diseases. Accordingly, enriching diets with specific soluble fibers remodels microbiota and modulates colitis sensitivity. In humans, a recent study suggests that the microbiota of select IBD patients might influence the impacts they would experience upon fiber exposure. We sought here to define the extent to which individual microbiotas varied in their responsiveness to purified soluble fiber inulin and psyllium...
January 5, 2024: Microbiome
S L Tsola, Y Zhu, Y Chen, I A Sanders, C K Economou, V Brüchert, Ö Eyice
BACKGROUND: In anoxic coastal and marine sediments, degradation of methylated compounds is the major route to the production of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is the most abundant biogenic organic sulphur compound in the environment and an abundant methylated compound leading to methane production in anoxic sediments. However, understanding of the microbial diversity driving DMS-dependent methanogenesis is limited, and the metabolic pathways underlying this process in the environment remain unexplored...
January 3, 2024: Microbiome
Runxiang Xie, Yu Gu, Mengfan Li, Lingfeng Li, Yunwei Yang, Yue Sun, Bingqian Zhou, Tianyu Liu, Sinan Wang, Wentian Liu, Rongcun Yang, Xiaomin Su, Weilong Zhong, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
BACKGROUND: The overgrowth of Desulfovibrio, an inflammation promoting flagellated bacteria, has been found in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. However, the molecular mechanism in promoting colitis remains unestablished. METHODS: The relative abundance Desulfovibrio vulgaris (D. vulgaris) in stool samples of UC patients was detected. Mice were treated with dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis with or without administration of D. vulgaris or D. vulgaris flagellin (DVF), and the severity of colitis and the leucine-rich repeat containing 19 (LRRC19) signaling were assessed...
January 3, 2024: Microbiome
Ming Li, Hui Liang, Hongwei Yang, Qianwen Ding, Rui Xia, Jie Chen, Wenhao Zhou, Yalin Yang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanyuan Yao, Chao Ran, Zhigang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Aquaculture plays an important role in global protein supplies and food security. The ban on antibiotics as feed additive proposes urgent need to develop alternatives. Gut microbiota plays important roles in the metabolism and immunity of fish and has the potential to give rise to novel solutions for challenges confronted by fish culture. However, our understanding of fish gut microbiome is still lacking. RESULTS: We identified 575,856 non-redundant genes by metagenomic sequencing of the intestinal content samples of grass carp...
January 3, 2024: Microbiome
Abdelrahman Alahmad, Mourad Harir, Sylvain Fochesato, Joris Tulumello, Alesia Walker, Mohamed Barakat, Papa Mamadou Sitor Ndour, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Laurent Cournac, Laurent Laplaze, Thierry Heulin, Wafa Achouak
BACKGROUND: The rhizosheath, a cohesive soil layer firmly adhering to plant roots, plays a vital role in facilitating water and mineral uptake. In pearl millet, rhizosheath formation is genetically controlled and influenced by root exudates. Here, we investigated the impact of root exudates on the microbiota composition, interactions, and assembly processes, and rhizosheath structure in pearl millet using four distinct lines with contrasting soil aggregation abilities. RESULTS: Utilizing 16S rRNA gene and ITS metabarcoding for microbiota profiling, coupled with FTICR-MS metabonomic analysis of metabolite composition in distinct plant compartments and root exudates, we revealed substantial disparities in microbial diversity and interaction networks...
January 3, 2024: Microbiome
Rachel M Bleich, Chuang Li, Shan Sun, Ju-Hyun Ahn, Belgin Dogan, Cassandra J Barlogio, Christopher A Broberg, Adrienne R Franks, Emily Bulik-Sullivan, Ian M Carroll, Kenneth W Simpson, Anthony A Fodor, Janelle C Arthur
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients experience recurrent episodes of intestinal inflammation and often follow an unpredictable disease course. Mucosal colonization with adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are believed to perpetuate intestinal inflammation. However, it remains unclear if the 24-year-old AIEC in vitro definition fully predicts mucosal colonization in vivo. To fill this gap, we have developed a novel molecular barcoding approach to distinguish strain variants in the gut and have integrated this approach to explore mucosal colonization of distinct patient-derived E...
December 20, 2023: Microbiome
Danrui Wang, Jiangtao Li, Lei Su, Wenli Shen, Kai Feng, Xi Peng, Zhujun Wang, Bo Zhao, Zheng Zhang, Zhaojing Zhang, Étienne Yergeau, Ye Deng
BACKGROUND: Leakages of cold, methane-rich fluids from subsurface reservoirs to the sea floor are termed cold seeps. Recent exploration of the deep sea has shed new light on the microbial communities in cold seeps. However, conventional metagenomic methods largely rely on reference databases and neglect the phylogeny of functional genes. RESULTS: In this study, we developed the REMIRGE program to retrieve the full-length functional genes from shotgun metagenomic reads and fully explored the phylogenetic diversity in cold seep sediments...
December 15, 2023: Microbiome
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