Camille Prioux, Romie Tignat-Perrier, Ophélie Gervais, Tristan Estaque, Quentin Schull, Stéphanie Reynaud, Eric Béraud, Bastien Mérigot, Anaïs Beauvieux, Maria-Isabelle Marcus, Justine Richaume, Olivier Bianchimani, Adrien Cheminée, Denis Allemand, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
BACKGROUND: Climate change has accelerated the occurrence and severity of heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea and poses a significant threat to the octocoral species that form the foundation of marine animal forests (MAFs). As coral health intricately relies on the symbiotic relationships established between corals and microbial communities, our goal was to gain a deeper understanding of the role of bacteria in the observed tissue loss of key octocoral species following the unprecedented heatwaves in 2022...
December 5, 2023: Microbiome
Wenchao Deng, Zihao Zhao, Yufang Li, Rongguang Cao, Mingming Chen, Kai Tang, Deli Wang, Wei Fan, Anyi Hu, Guangcheng Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Yao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Active hydrothermal vents create extreme conditions characterized by high temperatures, low pH levels, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals and other trace elements. These conditions support unique ecosystems where chemolithoautotrophs serve as primary producers. The steep temperature and pH gradients from the vent mouth to its periphery provide a wide range of microhabitats for these specialized microorganisms. However, their metabolic functions, adaptations in response to these gradients, and coping mechanisms under extreme conditions remain areas of limited knowledge...
December 5, 2023: Microbiome
Zhi-Luo Deng, Dietmar H Pieper, Andreas Stallmach, Arndt Steube, Marius Vital, Michael Reck, Irene Wagner-Döbler
BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard of care after total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC). Around 50% of patients will experience pouchitis, an idiopathic inflammatory condition. Antibiotics are the backbone of treatment of pouchitis; however, antibiotic-resistant pouchitis develops in 5-10% of those patients. It has been shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for UC, but results for FMT antibiotic-resistant pouchitis are inconsistent...
December 1, 2023: Microbiome
Marcell Costa de Medeiros, Stephanie The, Emily Bellile, Nickole Russo, Ligia Schmitd, Erika Danella, Priyanka Singh, Rajat Banerjee, Christine Bassis, George R Murphy, Maureen A Sartor, Isabelle Lombaert, Thomas M Schmidt, Avi Eisbruch, Carol Anne Murdoch-Kinch, Laura Rozek, Gregory T Wolf, Gen Li, Grace Y Chen, Nisha J D'Silva
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with oral microbial dysbiosis. In this unique study, we compared pre- to post-treatment salivary microbiome in patients with SCC by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and examined how microbiome changes correlated with the expression of an anti-microbial protein. RESULTS: Treatment of SCC was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial richness and diversity. There were significant changes in the microbial community structure, including a decrease in the abundance of Porphyromonaceae and Prevotellaceae and an increase in Lactobacillaceae...
November 30, 2023: Microbiome
Johanna B Holm, Michael T France, Pawel Gajer, Bing Ma, Rebecca M Brotman, Michelle Shardell, Larry Forney, Jacques Ravel
BACKGROUND: A Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiome provides the first line of defense against adverse genital tract health outcomes. However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which the vaginal microbiome modulates protection, as prior work mostly described its composition through morphologic assessment and marker gene sequencing methods that do not capture functional information. To address this gap, we developed metagenomic community state types (mgCSTs) which use metagenomic sequences to describe and define vaginal microbiomes based on both composition and functional potential...
November 30, 2023: Microbiome
Datao Lin, Jinni Hong, Benjamin Sanogo, Shuling Du, Suoyu Xiang, Jerome Ho-Lam Hui, Tao Ding, Zhongdao Wu, Xi Sun
BACKGROUND: Studies on the gut microbiota of animals have largely focused on vertebrates. The transmission modes of commensal intestinal bacteria in mammals have been well studied. However, in gastropods, the relationship between gut microbiota and hosts is still poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the composition of gut microbes and their transmission routes in gastropods, a large-scale and long-term experiment on the dynamics and transmission modes of gut microbiota was conducted on freshwater snails...
November 29, 2023: Microbiome
Miaomiao Teng, Yunxia Li, Xiaoli Zhao, Jason C White, Lihui Zhao, Jiaqi Sun, Wentao Zhu, Fengchang Wu
BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated how nanoplastics (NPs) exposure mediates nerve and intestinal toxicity through a dysregulated brain-gut axis interaction, but there are few studies aimed at alleviating those effects. To determine whether and how vitamin D can impact that toxicity, fish were supplemented with a vitamin D-low diet and vitamin D-high diet. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) accumulated in zebrafish brain and intestine, resulting in brain blood-brain barrier basement membrane damage and the vacuolization of intestinal goblet cells and mitochondria...
November 27, 2023: Microbiome
Yanting Liu, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Martine Berger, Anja Poehlein, Sonja Voget, Lucas Paoli, Shinichi Sunagawa, Rudolf Amann, Meinhard Simon
BACKGROUND: The RCA (Roseobacter clade affiliated) cluster belongs to the family Roseobacteracea and represents a major Roseobacter lineage in temperate to polar oceans. Despite its prevalence and abundance, only a few genomes and one described species, Planktomarina temperata, exist. To gain more insights into our limited understanding of this cluster and its taxonomic and functional diversity and biogeography, we screened metagenomic datasets from the global oceans and reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) affiliated to this cluster...
November 25, 2023: Microbiome
Jie Ma, Miao Zhou, Zehe Song, Yuankun Deng, Siting Xia, Yunxia Li, Xingguo Huang, Dingfu Xiao, Yulong Yin, Jie Yin
BACKGROUND: Compared to that of bacteria, the role of gut fungi in obesity development remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, alterations in gut fungal biodiversity and composition were confirmed in obese pig models and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Antifungal drugs improved diet-induced obesity, while fungal reconstruction by cohousing or fecal microbiota transplantation maintained the obese phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Fungal profiling identified 5 fungal species associated with obesity...
November 25, 2023: Microbiome
Kait F Al, Benjamin R Joris, Brendan A Daisley, John A Chmiel, Jennifer Bjazevic, Gregor Reid, Gregory B Gloor, John D Denstedt, Hassan Razvi, Jeremy P Burton
BACKGROUND: Inquiry of microbiota involvement in kidney stone disease (KSD) has largely focussed on potential oxalate handling abilities by gut bacteria and the increased association with antibiotic exposure. By systematically comparing the gut, urinary, and oral microbiota of 83 stone formers (SF) and 30 healthy controls (HC), we provide a unified assessment of the bacterial contribution to KSD. RESULTS: Amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing approaches were consistent in identifying multi-site microbiota disturbances in SF relative to HC...
November 25, 2023: Microbiome
Hongtao Xu, Fang Fang, Kaizhang Wu, Jiangping Song, Yaqian Li, Xingyu Lu, Juncheng Liu, Liuyang Zhou, Wenqing Yu, Fei Yu, Jie Gao
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced dyslipidemia is linked to the gut microbiota, but the causality of microbiota-host interaction affecting lipid metabolism remains controversial. Here, the humanized dyslipidemia mice model was successfully built by using fecal microbiota transplantation from dyslipidemic donors (FMT-dd) to study the causal role of gut microbiota in diet-induced dyslipidemia. RESULTS: We demonstrated that FMT-dd reshaped the gut microbiota of mice by increasing Faecalibaculum and Ruminococcaceae UCG-010, which then elevated serum cholicacid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and deoxycholic acid (DCA), reduced bile acid synthesis and increased cholesterol accumulation via the hepatic farnesoid X receptor-small heterodimer partner (FXR-SHP) axis...
November 25, 2023: Microbiome
Seungil Kim, Sohyeon Lee, Tae-Young Kim, Su-Hyun Lee, Sang-Uk Seo, Mi-Na Kweon
BACKGROUND: The modulation of immune responses by probiotics is crucial for local and systemic immunity. Recent studies have suggested a correlation between gut microbiota and lung immunity, known as the gut-lung axis. However, the evidence and mechanisms underlying this axis remain elusive. RESULTS: In this study, we screened various Lactobacillus (L.) strains for their ability to augment type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling using an IFN-α/β reporter cell line...
November 23, 2023: Microbiome
Siqi Tao, G F Ciska Veen, Naili Zhang, Tianhe Yu, Laiye Qu
BACKGROUND: Declines in plant biodiversity often have negative consequences for plant community productivity, and it becomes increasingly acknowledged that this may be driven by shifts in soil microbial communities. So far, the role of fungal communities in driving tree diversity-productivity relationships has been well assessed in forests. However, the role of bacteria and archaea, which are also highly abundant in forest soils and perform pivotal ecosystem functions, has been less investigated in this context...
November 23, 2023: Microbiome
Javad Sadeghi, Subba Rao Chaganti, Timothy B Johnson, Daniel D Heath
BACKGROUND: While many studies have reported that the structure of the gut and skin microbiota is driven by both species-specific and habitat-specific factors, the relative importance of host-specific versus environmental factors in wild vertebrates remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and composition of fish skin, gut, and surrounding water bacterial communities (hereafter referred to as microbiota) and assess the extent to which host habitat and phylogeny predict microbiota similarity...
November 20, 2023: Microbiome
H Domin, J Zimmermann, J Taubenheim, G Fuentes Reyes, L Saueressig, D Prasse, M Höppner, R A Schmitz, U Hentschel, C Kaleta, S Fraune
BACKGROUND: The microbiota of multicellular organisms undergoes considerable changes during host ontogeny but the general mechanisms that control community assembly and succession are poorly understood. Here, we use bacterial recolonization experiments in Nematostella vectensis as a model to understand general mechanisms determining bacterial establishment and succession. We compared the dynamic establishment of the microbiome on the germfree host and on inert silicone tubes. RESULTS: Following the dynamic reconstruction of microbial communities on both substrates, we show that the initial colonization events are strongly influenced by the host but not by the silicone tube, while the subsequent bacteria-bacteria interactions are the main driver of bacterial succession...
November 18, 2023: Microbiome
Kibrom M Alula, Alexander S Dowdell, Brittany LeBere, J Scott Lee, Cassandra L Levens, Kristine A Kuhn, Benny A Kaipparettu, Winston E Thompson, Richard S Blumberg, Sean P Colgan, Arianne L Theiss
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) mitochondrial dysfunction involvement in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease affecting the small intestine, is emerging in recent studies. As the interface between the self and the gut microbiota, IECs serve as hubs of bidirectional cross-talk between host and luminal microbiota. However, the role of mitochondrial-microbiota interaction in the ileum is largely unexplored. Prohibitin 1 (PHB1), a chaperone protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane required for optimal electron transport chain function, is decreased during IBD...
November 17, 2023: Microbiome
Jane Pascar, Henry Middleton, Steve Dorus
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia is a widespread bacterial endosymbiont that can inhibit vector competency when stably transinfected into the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a primary vector of the dengue virus (DENV) and other arboviruses. Although a complete mechanistic understanding of pathogen blocking is lacking, it is likely to involve host immunity induction and resource competition between Wolbachia and DENV, both of which may be impacted by microbiome composition. The potential impact of Wolbachia transinfection on host fitness is also of importance given the widespread release of mosquitos infected with the Drosophila melanogaster strain of Wolbachia (wMel) in wild populations...
November 17, 2023: Microbiome
Xue-Bing Bai, Shuo Xu, Lu-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Qian Meng, Yu-Lin Li, Yan-Lin Chen, Yi-Han Jiang, Wen-Zhen Lin, Bo-Yan Chen, Lin-Juan Du, Guo-Cai Tian, Yan Liu, Sheng-Zhong Duan, Ya-Qin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurological disorder with a high risk of disability and no cure. Periodontitis is an infectious bacterial disease occurring in periodontal supporting tissues. Studies have shown that periodontitis is closely related to PD. However, direct evidence of the effect of periodontitis on PD is lacking. Here, we demonstrated that ligature-induced periodontitis with application of subgingival plaque (LIP-SP) exacerbated motor dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic neuron loss in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice...
November 17, 2023: Microbiome
Yan Sun, Minxiao Wang, Lei Cao, Inge Seim, Li Zhou, Jianwei Chen, Hao Wang, Zhaoshan Zhong, Hao Chen, Lulu Fu, Mengna Li, Chaolun Li, Song Sun
BACKGROUND: The within-species diversity of symbiotic bacteria represents an important genetic resource for their environmental adaptation, especially for horizontally transmitted endosymbionts. Although strain-level intraspecies variation has recently been detected in many deep-sea endosymbionts, their ecological role in environmental adaptation, their genome evolution pattern under heterogeneous geochemical environments, and the underlying molecular forces remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we conducted a fine-scale metagenomic analysis of the deep-sea mussel Gigantidas platifrons bacterial endosymbiont collected from distinct habitats: hydrothermal vent and methane seep...
November 16, 2023: Microbiome
Anna Kaisanlahti, Jenni Turunen, Nadiya Byts, Anatoliy Samoylenko, Genevieve Bart, Nikke Virtanen, Mysore V Tejesvi, Artem Zhyvolozhnyi, Sonia Sarfraz, Sohvi Kumpula, Jenni Hekkala, Sonja Salmi, Olga Will, Johanna Korvala, Niko Paalanne, Pande Putu Erawijantari, Marko Suokas, Tuula Peñate Medina, Seppo Vainio, Oula Peñate Medina, Leo Lahti, Terhi Tapiainen, Justus Reunanen
BACKGROUND: Reports regarding the presence of bacteria in the fetal environment remain limited and controversial. Recently, extracellular vesicles secreted by the human gut microbiota have emerged as a novel mechanism for host-microbiota interaction. We aimed to investigate the presence of bacterial extracellular vesicles in the fetal environment during healthy pregnancies and determine whether extracellular vesicles derived from the gut microbiota can cross biological barriers to reach the fetus...
November 13, 2023: Microbiome
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