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Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports

Jack B Fu, Shinichiro Morishita, Rajesh Yadav
Neurologic tumors account for over 50% of American acute inpatient rehabilitation facility cancer admissions. WHO Grade IV astrocytoma (also known as glioblastoma multiforme, high grade glioma or GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and is invariably fatal. The majority of primary brain tumor patients experience neurologic deficits. However, under-referral from oncology to rehabilitation has been reported. This brief narrative review article covers functional, medical and regulatory considerations when rehabilitating brain tumor inpatients...
June 2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Kensuke Yamamura, Masayuki Kurose, Keiichiro Okamoto
Purpose of Review: Difficulty in initiating swallowing is one of the main symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Therefore, enhancing swallowing initiation is an important approach for the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. This review aims to introduce recent approaches to enhancing swallowing and to discuss their therapeutic potential. Recent Findings: Both central interventions such as non-invasive brain stimulation and peripheral interventions such as electrical stimulation to peripheral tissues are conducted to enhance swallowing...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Ann S Choe
Purpose of Review: This review provides an overview of the current spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate the healthy and injured spinal cords. Recent Findings: Spinal fMRI-derived outcome measures have previously been suggested to be sensitive to changes in neurological function in the spinal cord. A body of recent task-activated fMRI studies seems to confirm that detecting neural activity in the spinal cord using spinal fMRI may be feasible as well as reliable...
September 2017: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Sean Robinson Smith, Jasmine Yiqian Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the delivery of rehabilitation care to cancer patients with relation to disease prognosis. This includes the evaluation when patients are referred for rehabilitation services and the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions across the cancer continuum. RECENT FINDINGS: Although prognosticating life expectancy is difficult, referrals for rehabilitation interventions appear to be affected by physician attitudes towards patients with advanced disease, in part because of misconceptions about the nature of rehabilitation for oncology patients...
2017: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Tamara L Vos-Draper, Melissa M B Morrow
A PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to (1) assess the factors related to the occurrence of pressure injuries in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI), (2) review methods of pressure injury prevention, and (3) examine compensatory technologies developed to promote in-seat movement to reduce the risk of pressure injuries. B RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for seating-related pressure injuries are well documented, yet, ulceration remains a daily concern for individuals with SCI...
December 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Jeffrey Laut, Maurizio Porfiri, Preeti Raghavan
Robotic technology designed to assist rehabilitation can potentially increase the efficiency of and accessibility to therapy by assisting therapists to provide consistent training for extended periods of time, and collecting data to assess progress. Automatization of therapy may enable many patients to be treated simultaneously and possibly even remotely, in the comfort of their own homes, through telerehabilitation. The data collected can be used to objectively assess performance and document compliance as well as progress...
December 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Stephanie A Watts, Lauren Tabor, Emily K Plowman
PURPOSE: The clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE) represents a critical component of a comprehensive assessment of deglutition. Although universally utilized across clinical settings, the CSE demonstrates limitations in its ability to accurately identify all individuals with dysphagia. There exists a need to improve assessment and screening techniques to improve health outcomes, treatment recommendations and ultimately mortality in individuals at risk for dysphagia. The following narrative review provides a summary of currently used validated CSE's and examines the potential role of cough testing and screening in the CSE...
December 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Daniel L Smith, Ceren Yarar-Fisher
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induced changes in neurological function have significant impact on the metabolism and subsequent metabolic-related disease risk in injured individuals. This metabolic-related disease risk relationship is differential depending on the anatomic level and severity of the injury, with high level anatomic injuries contributing a greater risk of glucose and lipid dysregulation resulting in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk elevation. Although alterations in body composition, particularly excess adiposity and its anatomical distribution in the visceral depot or ectopic location in non-adipose organs, is known to significantly contribute to metabolic disease risk, changes in fat mass and fat-free mass do not fully account for this elevated disease risk in subjects with SCI...
September 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Nathan K Evanson, Andrea L Paulson, Brad G Kurowski
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of long-term disability in the United States. A significant proportion of children who experience a TBI will have moderate or severe injuries, which includes a period of decreased responsiveness. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities are used for treating disorders of consciousness after TBI in children. However, the evidence supporting the use of potential therapies is relatively scant, even in adults, and overall, there is a paucity of study in pediatrics...
March 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
David G Smithard
Dysphagia is one of the many complications of stroke. It is common and is an independent marker of outcome. Dysphagia management is important. Although the speech and language pathologist is the key worker in dysphagia management, they are supported by all members of the multi-disciplinary team. Stroke patients should be screened on admission for the presence of dysphagia and assessed by the speech and language therapist (or appropriate professional), where indicated investigation should be undertaken to understand the swallowing physiology and to guide treatment...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Alicja Raginis-Zborowska, Neil Pendleton, Shaheen Hamdy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the latest literature and evidence in the field of genetics and determinants of swallowing and its treatments-specifically, this is a very recent concept in the field of oropharyngeal dysphagia, with only now an emerging research interest in the relationship between our genetic makeup and the effect this has on swallowing function and dysfunction. As such our review will look at preclinical, clinical and hypothesis generating research covering all aspects of the genetics of swallowing, giving new importance to the genotype-phenotype influences pertaining to dysphagia and its recovery...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Katharina Stibrant Sunnerhagen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spasticity is a part of the upper motor neuron syndrome and can result in reduced function. Reduction of the complications may be facilitated by early intervention, making identification of stroke patients at high risk for developing spasticity essential. RECENT FINDING: Different predictors of poststroke spasticity (PSS) have been suggested in different studies, including development of increased muscle tone, greater severity of paresis, sensory impairment, and low Barthel Index score...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Hermano Igo Krebs, Bruce T Volpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Elizabeth R Skidmore
One of the major foci of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury is the design and implementation of interventions to train individuals to learn new knowledge and skills or new ways to access and execute previously acquired knowledge and skills. To optimize these interventions, rehabilitation professionals require a clear understanding of how traumatic brain injury impacts learning, and how specific approaches may enhance learning after traumatic brain injury. This brief conceptual review provides an overview of learning, the impact of traumatic brain injury on explicit and implicit learning, and the current state of the science examining selected training approaches designed to advance learning after traumatic brain injury...
June 1, 2015: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Dai Sugimoto, Gregory D Myer, Lyle J Micheli, Timothy E Hewett
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major concern in physically active females. Although ACL reconstruction techniques have seen significant advances in recent years, risk associated with re-injury and future osteoarthritis remains a major concern. Thus, prevention of ACL injury is a logical step to protect and preserve healthy knee joints in young athletes. The current report aims to summarize a list of evidence-based prevention strategies to reduce ACL injury in female athletes. A list of six critical principles, which come from documented, large scale clinical trial studies and further analyses, were presented with ABC format including age, biomechanics, compliance, dosage, exercise, and feedback...
March 1, 2015: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Alicia Vose, Jodi Nonnenmacher, Michele L Singer, Marlís González-Fernández
Swallowing dysfunction is common after stroke. More than 50% of the 665 thousand stroke survivors will experience dysphagia acutely of which approximately 80 thousand will experience persistent dysphagia at 6 months. The physiologic impairments that result in post-stroke dysphagia are varied. This review focuses primarily on well-established dysphagia treatments in the context of the physiologic impairments they treat. Traditional dysphagia therapies including volume and texture modifications, strategies such as chin tuck, head tilt, head turn, effortful swallow, supraglottic swallow, super-supraglottic swallow, Mendelsohn maneuver and exercises such as the Shaker exercise and Masako (tongue hold) maneuver are discussed...
December 1, 2014: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Amy A Blank, James A French, Ali Utku Pehlivan, Marcia K O'Malley
Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability today; therefore, many research efforts are focused on designing maximally effective and efficient treatment methods. In particular, robotic stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention for upper-limb therapy due to its ability to provide high-intensity repetitive movement therapy with less effort than would be required for traditional methods. Recent research has focused on increasing patient engagement in therapy, which has been shown to be important for inducing neural plasticity to facilitate recovery...
September 2014: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Maria T Schultheis, Elizabeth Whipple
The ability to return to driving is a common goal for individuals who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. However, specific and empirically validated guidelines for clinicians who make the return-to-drive decision are sparse. In this article, we attempt to integrate previous findings on driving after brain injury and detail the cognitive, motor, and sensory factors necessary for safe driving that may be affected by brain injury. Various forms of evaluation (both in clinic and behind-the-wheel) are discussed, as well as driver retraining and modifications that may be necessary...
September 2014: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
David R Dolbow, William R Holcomb, Ashraf S Gorgey
In order to enhance spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) it is important to examine the manner in which muscle fibers are recruited and the dose-response relationship. A review of the literature suggests that premature force decline and early fatigue with NMES and FES activities may be alleviated with decreased current frequency and increased current intensity. Dose-response relationships with NMES and FES are dependent on the goals of interest as reversing muscle atrophy can be achieved with activities 2-3 times per week for 6 or more weeks while increasing bone mass is more limited and requires more intense activity with greater exercise frequency and duration, e...
June 18, 2014: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
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