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ISRN Preventive Medicine

Hemant Mahajan, Bhuwan Sharma
Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population...
2014: ISRN Preventive Medicine
K O Wright, O Aiyedehin, M R Akinyinka, O Ilozumba
Background. Cervical cancer prevention in developing countries is suboptimal compared with the developed world where there are fewer deaths and improved survival rates. This study describes the perception and preventive practices on cervical cancer by residents of an urban neighborhood of Lagos, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 317 consecutively recruited consenting participants at a medical outreach using a pretested, interviewer-administered, semistructured questionnaire...
2014: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Arjun Lakshman, Neeraj Manikath, Asma Rahim, V P Anilakumari
Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41...
2014: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Sreejith Sasidharan Nair, Ramesh Hanumantappa, Shashidhar Gurushantswamy Hiremath, Mohammed Asaduddin Siraj, Pooja Raghunath
Background. Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading measure to prevent cross-transmission of microorganisms. Regarding hospital acquired infections, the compliance of nurses with hand washing guidelines seems to be vital in preventing the disease transmission among patients. There is a paucity of studies exploring this subject in Asia. Especially medical and nursing student's knowledge of standard hand hygiene precautions is rarely compared. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 98 medical and 46 nursing students in a tertiary medical college in India...
2014: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Jolanda Nikolla, Milda Nanushi, Gentian Vyshka, Hasan Hafizi
Lung cancer is a potentially lethal disease, whose prevalence in Albania is constantly increasing, especially in women. Early diagnosis is extremely important with regard to life expectancy and quality. The authors conducted a survey on the behaviour in a sample group of Albanian women diagnosed with primary and secondary lung cancers. A discussion upon diagnostic methods, smoking habits, histological type, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and treatment modalities is made. The data collected by the authors suggest that nonsmokers formed the main group of lung cancer female patients...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Elena Bozzola, Mauro Bozzola, Valeria Calcaterra, Salvatore Barberi, Alberto Villani
Introduction. The circulation of infectious diseases puts small infants too young to be vaccinated at risk of morbidity and mortality, often requiring prolonged hospitalization. Material and Methods. We have reviewed the medical records of children not eligible for vaccination because of age, admitted to hospital for pertussis, measles, or varicella from February 1, 2010, till February 1, 2012. Results. Of the case records scrutinized, 21 were hospitalized for pertussis, 18 for measles, and 32 for varicella...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Victor Mundan, Margaret Muiva, Samuel Kimani
Background. Hypertensive disease is increasing in developing countries due to nutritional transition and westernization. Hypertensive disease among Kenya military may be lower because of health-focused recruitment, physical activities, routine checkups, and health awareness and management, but the disease has been increasing. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine physiological, behavioral, and dietary characteristics associated with hypertension among Kenyan military. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 340 participants was conducted at Armed Forces Memorial Hospital...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
M Dobbins, K Decorby, B C K Choi
Background. Cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to synthesize the evidence evaluating the association between obesity and 13 cancers shown previously to be significantly associated with obesity. Methods. Relevant papers from a previously conducted review were included in this paper. In addition, database searches of Medline and Embase identified studies published from the date of the search conducted for the previous review (January, 2007) until May, 2011...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Abdurrahman Charkazi, Afieh Samimi, Khadijeh Razzaghi, Ghorban Mohammad Kouchaki, Mitra Moodi, Kamal Meirkarimi, Ashoor Mohammad Kouchaki, Hossein Shahnazi
The aim of the current study was to investigate breast cancer screening performance among Iranian Turkmen women along with their knowledge and beliefs. A cross-sectional study was carried out in June to December 2011. Through clustered sampling method, 1080 Iranian Turkmen women completed the questionnaire including breast cancer screening adherence, knowledge, fatalism beliefs, and perceived threat using Champions Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS).The mean age of the participants was 43.04 (SD = 11.80) years...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Supanee Rassameemasmaung, Pakkarada Phusudsawang, Vanida Sangalungkarn
This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
M Anaul Kabir, Zulfiqar Ahmad
Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate drugs for antifungal therapy...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Tais F Galvao, Marcus T Silva, Ivan R Zimmermann, Luiz Antonio B Lopes, Eneida F Bernardo, Mauricio G Pereira
Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Mauro Carino, Paolo Romita, Caterina Foti
Working conditions in the construction industry have improved in many industrialized countries, but heavy physical work with recurrent exposure to chemical agents, dust, and climatic influences still represents considerable risk for construction workers and may affect their health. The aim of this review is to analyze available data of the literature on allergy-related respiratory and skin disorders with emphasis on a preventive appraisal in order to produce statements and recommendations based on research evidence...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi, Mehrdad Mostaghaci, Maryam Bahaloo, Mohammad Heydari, Ehsan Samimi, Mahnaz Zohal, Mohammad Hossein Davari
Introduction. Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are among the most important diseases in the world and determination of their risk factors is essential for primary and secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate these risk factors in workers of tile and ceramic industry, a main industry in Yazd. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 1075 tile and ceramic workers were selected by simple sampling method. BMI, blood pressure, FBS, and lipid profile were measured and compared to international standards...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Gopal K Singh, Sue C Lin
We examined trends in adult obesity and overweight prevalence among major Asian/Pacific Islander (API) subgroups and the non-Hispanic whites from 1992 to 2011. Using 1992-2011 National Health Interview Surveys, obesity, overweight, and BMI differentials were analyzed by logistic, linear, and log-linear regression. Between 1992 and 2011, obesity prevalence doubled for the Chinese, the Asian Indians, the Japanese, and the Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders; and tripled for the Filipinos. Obesity prevalence among API adults tripled from 3...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Lakaii A Jones, Catherine Cook-Cottone
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Sasha A Fleary, Reynolette Ettienne-Gittens, Robert W Heffer
This paper examines Head Start parents' perceptions of preventive health and healthy lifestyle choices and Head Start administrators' perceptions of the needs of parents they serve. To address the preventive health of the population, it is necessary that we explore perceptions, risks, and protective factors of preventive health. Focus groups were conducted with parents and administrators to elicit this information and to obtain suggestions for improving preventive health and healthy lifestyle choices among this group...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Chythra R Rao, Veena G Kamath, Avinash Shetty, Asha Kamath
Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ≥30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ≥30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Emmanuel Chanda, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Richard W Steketee, Michael B Macdonald, Olusegun Babaniyi, Victor M Mukonka
The Zambian national malaria control programme has made great progress in the fight against Malaria. The country has solid, consistent, and coordinated policies, strategies, and guidelines for malaria control, with government prioritizing malaria in both the National Health Strategic Plan and the National Development Plan. This has translated into high coverage of proven and effective key preventive, curative, and supportive interventions with concomitant marked reduction in both malaria cases and deaths. The achievements attained can be attributed to increased advocacy, communication and behaviour changes, efficient partnership coordination including strong community engagement, increased financial resources, and evidence-based deployment of key technical interventions in accordance with the national malaria control programme policy and strategic direction...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
Thomas L Lenz, Nicole D Gillespie, Jessica J Skradski, Laura K Viereck, Kathleen A Packard, Michael S Monaghan
An important component to optimal health is quality of life (QOL). Several healthy lifestyle behaviors have independently shown to improve QOL. The simultaneous implementation of multiple lifestyle behaviors is thought to be difficult, and the current literature lacks the assessment of multiple lifestyle behaviors simultaneously with respect to the effect on QOL. This current pilot study sought to develop a method to quantify multiple lifestyle behaviors into a single index value. This value was then measured with QOL for a possible correlation...
2013: ISRN Preventive Medicine
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