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Food Science & Nutrition

Amir Pouya Ghandahari Yazdi, Mohsen Barzegar, Mohammad Ali Sahari, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi
Phenolic compounds form an essential part of the human diet because of their functional properties. In this study, the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from pistachio green hull were optimized by enzymatic method (using pectinase, cellulase, and tannase enzymes). For this purpose, the effective factors including the solid to solvent ratio, enzyme concentration, particles size, and extraction time were optimized. Also, the effect of enzymatic extraction on the antioxidant activity of the extracts were investigated using three different methods (DPPH˙, ABTS˙+ , and FRAP)...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Jingui Zheng, Jun He, Sufeng Liao, Zuxin Cheng, Jinke Lin, Ke Huang, Xiaocen Li, Kaibin Zheng, Xuanyang Chen, Lihui Lin, Fagang Xia, Jianghong Liu, Ming Xu, Tuansheng Chen, Xinying Huang, Xiaohua Cao, Zhijian Yang
The World Cancer Research Fund International has released 32 anticancer effects (ACEs) that targeted every stage of cancer processes. Thus, we designed two formulas of natural food combination Diet I and Diet II, mainly produced by elite crop varieties rich in ACEs with different mixture ratios, and evaluated their cancer preventive effects on N- nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. After 20 weeks of dietary intervention, Diet I and Diet II reduced incidence, size, and number of hepatic nodules ( p  <   0...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
You-Suk Lee, Il Je Cho, Joo Wan Kim, Min-Ki Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi, Hae-Jeung Lee
The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of blue honeysuckle (BH) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatic damage in mice. The experiment used a total of 60 ICR mice, which were divided into six groups. Except for the intact control groups, all groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after a 7 day pre-treatment period with distilled water, BH extracts, or silymarin. Twenty-four hours after the CCl4 injection, the following observations, representative of classical oxidative stress-mediated centrolobular necrotic acute liver injuries, were observed: decreased body weight; small nodule formation and enlargement on the gross inspections with related liver weight increase; elevation of serum AST and ALT, increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation and related depletion of endogenous antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes; centrolobular necrosis; increases in apoptotic markers, lipid peroxidation markers, and oxidative stress markers...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Shintaro Ono, Naoki Yoshida, Daisuke Maekawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Takehiro Kitano, Takanori Fujita, Hirotaka Okuwa-Hayashi, Naoki Harada, Yoshihisa Nakano, Ryoichi Yamaji
Skeletal muscle plays a critical role in locomotion and energy metabolism. Maintenance or enhancement of skeletal muscle mass contributes to the improvement of mobility and prevents the development of metabolic diseases. The extracts from Kaempferia parviflora rhizomes contain at least ten methoxyflavone derivatives that exhibit enhancing effects on ATP production and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ten K. parviflora -derived methoxyflavone derivatives (six 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) derivatives and four 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (HMF) derivatives) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Laurene Boateng, Wilhemina Quarpong, Agartha Ohemeng, Matilda Asante, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
Complementary foods that are deficient in both macronutrients and micronutrients coupled with a high burden of infections during the complementary feeding period are major underlying causes of child malnutrition in developing countries. Among the recent efforts to combat malnutrition by improving the quality of complementary foods in the developing world is the use of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) as a food fortificant. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of feeding MLP-fortified complementary food on hemoglobin concentration and growth of infants and young children after 4 months of feeding...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Li-Mei Wang, Yang Yi, Yi-Lan Yao, Ge Feng, Chang Shu, Hong-Xun Wang, Xi-Feng Zhang
Although Walnut oil (WO) has been reported to enhance cognitive function, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study was designed to assess the effects of WO on spatial memory in rats through modulation of the expression of acid-sensing ion channel genes, Asic2a and Asic4 . To investigate the effect of WO on cognitive performance, we supplemented the diet of female rats with WO. The results showed that supplementation with WO at doses of 2.2 and 11 g kg-1  day-1 significantly improved learning and memory...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Jean Bernard Ndayambaje, Antoine Nsabimana, Sylvie Dushime, Florence Ishimwe, Habinshuti Janvier, Martin P Ongol
Coffee is a socioeconomic important plant all over the world due to its exportation and how it provides income to the farmers and the country. However, potato taste defect (PTD) affects the Rwandan coffee quality. The smell is reported to be caused by some bacteria that are responsible for the off-flavor and may also be related to the infestation of Antestia pest which are in its elimination process. The aim of this study was to isolate, biochemically characterize, and identify bacteria producing potato flavor from Rwandan coffee...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Martin Charles Likongwe, William Kasapila, Mangani Katundu, Placid Mpeketula
Microbiological quality of smoked catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) locally known as Mlamba was assessed in this study where traditional and improved smoking kilns were used to smoke fish. Catfish is common fish caught in abundance in the Lake Chilwa basin, and the fish is usually smoked to reduce postharvest losses and increase shelf life. Samples were collected in sterile polythene bags, well labeled, and collected in cooler boxes transported ready for laboratory analysis. One gram representative sample was obtained aseptically from the muscle of the fresh and smoked catfish (Mlamba) samples...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Mohsen Azadbakht, Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi, Mohammad Javad Mahmoodi
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an effective noninvasive tool to visualize fresh agricultural commodities' internal components and quality attributes, also imaging via X-ray CT is a non-destructive and well-developed method applied in measuring the internal effects of agricultural products. In the present research, 120 healthy pears with their health verification through the CT were selected. Next, 81 healthy pears were selected and subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading. The impact of the incoming pressures was investigated within 5, 10, and 15 days of storage...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Young-Sang Lee, Yejin Oh, Tae-Hyung Kim, Yoo-Hyun Cho
Aseptic-packaged cooked rice (APCR) is a rice-based food product with a rapidly increasing market size, and APCR made of fragrant rice (FR) has recently appeared on the market. The fragrance of FR is produced by a combination of odoriferous compounds, among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been identified as the most important contributor to overall aroma. This study describes the development of a method to quantify 2AP in FR-based APCR using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Yujie Xu, Jie Yang, Liang Du, Ka Li, Yong Zhou
Many studies have analyzed the relationship between cereal, whole, or refined grain and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and have yielded mixed results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize the available evidence on this topic. Databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies focusing on these associations from inception to October 2017. Summary odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using either a random- or fixed-effect model according to the between-studies heterogeneity...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Mahmoud A Sharaf-Eldin, Pravej Alam, Shereen F Elkholy
Saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) is an important spice and medicinal plant that is cultivated in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and North America. Its morphological and biochemical parameters, such as the changes in the floral parts (six tepals, three stamens, three stigmata), biomass, and chlorophyll content, are primarily affected by environmental conditions. A polymerase chain reaction-rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) approach was used to analyze the extent of the polymorphisms between C. sativus genotypes grown in the Saudi climate...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Yan H Li, Wei J Wang, Fan Zhang, Zhi Peng Shao, Liang Guo
The oxidized flavor could affect the sensory acceptability of consumers. In this study, the oxidized flavor compound (OFC) in different heated milk was analyzed using the solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The concentration of OFC increased with increasing the intensity of heat treatment. The concentrations of heptanal, nonanal, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone in the heated milk samples were in the range of 1.88-5.51, 1.03-3.26, 6.89-88.04, and 1.46-12.78 μg/kg, respectively...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Shannon Combest, Cynthia Warren
One-third of all food produced for human consumption is wasted producing landfill accumulation and greenhouse gas emissions. Brewers' Spent Grains (BSGs) are the leftover grains from beer production, and each year approximately 30 million tons of BSG is generated globally by the brewing industry. Reclaiming BSG as a potential human food source is an opportunity for reducing food waste in the food supply chain. Six focus groups were conducted using 37 college students to determine their consumption of whole grains, perceptions of whole grains versus refined grains, and interest in or barriers related to consuming and purchasing foods made with BSG...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Pao-Ying Lin, Sing-Chung Li, Hui-Pu Lin, Chun-Kuang Shih
Colorectal cancer is a common cancer strongly associated with diet. Certain probiotics and prebiotics possess an inhibitory activity against colorectal cancer, while synbiotics may be more effective in preventing this cancer than either prebiotics or probiotics alone. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered as a candidate prebiotics with anticancer potential. However, the effect of GBR combined with probiotics on colorectal cancer is not clear. The present study investigated the preventive effect of combination of GBR and Lactobacillus acidophilus , Bifidobacterium animalis subsp ...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Su Jin Yang, Pradeep Paudel, Srijan Shrestha, Su Hui Seong, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation of water and 70% ethanol extracts derived from yellow and red onion ( Allium cepa L.) peels against diabetes and diabetic complications. The total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) of each cultivar, measured to assess phytochemical characteristics, showed a direct correlation with the in vitro antioxidant effects. Among the two captives, the yellow onion peel extract showed higher antioxidant activity than red one. However, all extracts exhibited significant protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity (IC50 ; 0...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Camila Kümmel Duarte, Ana Luiza Teixeira Dos Santos, Claudia Kirst, Graziela da S Nunes, Karine de Franceschi, Mirela Jobim de Azevedo, Themis Zelmanovitz
Background: The influence of dietary fat on the body fat of patients with diabetes is not well established. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the association between percentage body fat (PBF) and dietary sources of fat from the usual diet of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Outpatients were submitted to PBF evaluation estimated by bioelectrical impedance. The patient's usual diet was assessed by a 3-day weighed diet record (WDR), and compliance was analyzed by comparing the protein intake estimated from the WDR and that from 24-hr urinary nitrogen output...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Cemal Orhan, Osman Kucuk, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, James R Komorowski, Kazim Sahin
Scope: To investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis) and chromium picolinate (CrPic) complex along with biotin to a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to rats on the insulin sensitivity and the anti-obesity properties. Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six groups. The rats were fed either (a): a standard diet (Control) or (b): a HFD or (c): a HFD with biotin (HFD+B) or (d): a combination of HFD and biotin along with CrPic (HFD + B + CrPic) or (e): a combination of HFD and biotin along with CrHis (HFD + B + CrHis) or (f): a combination of HFD and biotin along with CrHis and CrPic (HFD + B + CrHis + CrPic)...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Mahalaxmi Pradhananga
In an attempt to commercialize the traditional technology of fermenting soybean into natto on laboratory scale using three locally available soybean varieties, that is, white, black, and brown, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum combination of two factors, that is, the effect of steaming time (20-50 min) and fermentation time (12-48 hr). Thirteen samples from each variety were formulated which were packed in low-density polyethylene for LDPE using the isolated culture from the natto sample and incubated at 37°C, and the sensory data were analyzed by using Design Expert (RSM)...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Seon-Woo Oh, Soyoung Lee, Sooyun Park, Sanggu Lee, Seongkon Lee, Hyunsuk Cho, Youngsoo Chung, Soonki Park
This study was investigated to compare the natural variation of nutrients in rice variety by different environmental factors. Fifteen kinds of rices were used, which were cultivated in two locations for 2 years. All data were analyzed by the various statistical tools to identify the nutritional variations of nutrients. The results of variable importance in the prediction analysis were found to be consistent with the % variability. The nutrient compositions most affected by variety were fatty acids, and next were vitamins, proximate nutrients, minerals, and amino acids in order...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
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