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Ju Youn Kim, Alessia Deglincerti, Samie R Jaffrey
Local translation is critical for diverse aspects of neuronal function, including mediating responses of elongating axons to guidance cues and other signaling molecules. A major determinant of the protein synthetic capacity of axons and growth cones is the specific set of mRNAs that are trafficked to these sites. However, recently it has become clear that the axonal transcriptome can also be shaped by local RNA degradation mechanisms, such as nonsense-mediated decay. Here we show that Staufen1-mediated decay can also occur within axons and mediate degradation of specific axonal transcripts...
2017: Translation
Mainul Hoque, Ji Yeon Park, Yun-Juan Chang, Augusto D Luchessi, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Raghavendra Shamanna, Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel, Bart Holland, Tsafi Pe'ery, Bin Tian, Michael B Mathews
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) couples protein synthesis to mRNA turnover. It eliminates defective transcripts and controls the abundance of certain normal mRNAs. Our study establishes a connection between NMD and the translation factor eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) in human cells. eIF5A modulates the synthesis of groups of proteins (the eIF5A regulon), and undergoes a distinctive two-step post-translational modification (hypusination) catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase...
2017: Translation
Jun Li, Chi Zhang, Poyi Huang, Erkin Kuru, Eliot T C Forster-Benson, Taibo Li, George M Church
Reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis systems such as the Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE) system give high-throughput and controlled access to in vitro protein synthesis. Here we show that compared with the commercial S30 crude extract based RTS 100 E. coli HY system, the PURE system has less mRNA degradation and produces up to ∼6-fold full-length proteins. However the majority of polypeptides PURE produces are partially translated or inactive since the signal from firefly luciferase (Fluc) translated in PURE is only ∼2/3rd of that measured using the RTS 100 E...
2017: Translation
Bradley A Carlson, Nirupama Gupta, Mark H Pinkerton, Dolph L Hatfield, Paul R Copeland
The tRNA for the 21st proteinogenic amino acid, selenocysteine, exists in mammalian cells as 2 isoforms differing by a single 2'-O-methylribosyl moiety at position 34 (Um34). These isoforms contain either 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5 U) or 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2'-O-methyluridine (mcm5 Um) at position 34. The accumulation of the mcm5 Um isoform is tightly correlated with the expression of nonessential "stress response" selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1). The expression of essential selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), is not affected by changes in Sec-tRNA[Ser]Sec isoform accumulation...
2017: Translation
Alex M Tamburino, Ebru Kaymak, Shaleen Shrestha, Amy D Holdorf, Sean P Ryder, Albertha J M Walhout
Interactions between RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and mRNAs are critical to post-transcriptional gene regulation. Eukaryotic genomes encode thousands of mRNAs and hundreds of RBPs. However, in contrast to interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA, the interactome between RBPs and RNA has been explored for only a small number of proteins and RNAs. This is largely because the focus has been on using 'protein-centered' (RBP-to-RNA) interaction mapping methods that identify the RNAs with which an individual RBP interacts...
2017: Translation
Daniel R Gallie
The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants...
2017: Translation
Amy Wahba, Stacey L Lehman, Philip J Tofilon
Radiation-induced gene expression has long been hypothesized to protect against cell death. Defining this process would provide not only insight into the mechanisms mediating cell survival after radiation exposure, but also a novel source of targets for radiosensitization. However, whereas the radiation-induced gene expression profiles using total cellular mRNA have been generated for cell lines as well as normal tissues, with few exception, the changes in mRNA do not correlate with changes in the corresponding protein...
2017: Translation
Elizabeth Levins, Ching-Ying Tseng, Ryan M Patrick, Laura K Mayberry, Nicola Cole, Karen S Browning
The use of fluorescent proteins fused to other proteins has been very useful in revealing the location and function of many proteins. However, it is very important to show that the fusion of these reporter proteins does not impact the function of the protein of interest. Plants have 2 forms of the cap-binding protein that function in initiation of translation, eIF4E and a plant specific form, eIFiso4E. In an attempt to determine the cellular localization of eIFiso4E, fusions to GFP were made, but were found to not be competent to rescue the lethal phenotype of plants lacking eIF4E and eIFiso4E...
2016: Translation
Sarah Shaikho, Christine C Dobson, Thet Naing, Bahram Samanfar, Houman Moteshareie, Maryam Hajikarimloo, Ashkan Golshani, Martin Holcik
Mammalian 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone whose expression is selectively upregulated during stress, although the precise control mechanism of this increase is yet to be fully elucidated. We used polysome profiling to show that Hsp90α mRNA is selectively translated, while global translation is inhibited during heat stress. Furthermore, we have identified 2 ribosomal proteins, eL36 and eL42 that modulate Hsp90α expression under both normal and heat shock conditions. Importantly, we noted that expression of eL36 and eL42 is elevated in a panel of human rhabdomyosarcomas where it drives high expression of Hsp90 and modulates sensitivity of these cells to an Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG...
2016: Translation
Jingwen Song, Jean-Pierre Perreault, Ivan Topisirovic, Stéphane Richard
DNA guanine (G)-rich 4-stranded helical nucleic acid structures called G-quadruplexes (G4), have been extensively studied during the last decades. However, emerging evidence reveals that 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) as well as open reading frames (ORFs) contain putative RNA G-quadruplexes. These stable secondary structures play key roles in telomere homeostasis and RNA metabolism including pre-mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA targeting and translation. Interestingly, multiple RNA binding proteins such as nucleolin, FMRP, DHX36, and Aven were identified to bind RNA G-quadruplexes...
2016: Translation
Anton A Komar
Henri Grosjean and Eric Westhof recently presented an information-rich, alternative view of the genetic code, which takes into account current knowledge of the decoding process, including the complex nature of interactions between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA that take place during protein synthesis on the ribosome, and it also better reflects the evolution of the code. The new asymmetrical circular genetic code has a number of advantages over the traditional codon table and the previous circular diagrams (with a symmetrical/clockwise arrangement of the U, C, A, G bases)...
2016: Translation
Katherine L B Borden
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E plays important roles in controlling the composition of the proteome. Indeed, dysregulation of eIF4E is associated with poor prognosis cancers. The traditional view has been that eIF4E acts solely in translation. However, over the last ∼25 years, eIF4E was found in the nucleus where it acts in mRNA export and in the last ∼10 years, eIF4E was found in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) where it functions in mRNA sequestration and stability. The common biochemical thread for these activities is the ability of eIF4E to bind the 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end of mRNAs...
2016: Translation
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4161/21690731.2014.988538.].
January 2016: Translation
Namit Ranjan, Marina V Rodnina
tRNA is a central component of the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. In living cells, tRNAs undergo numerous post-transcriptional modifications. In particular, modifications at the anticodon loop play an important role in ensuring efficient protein synthesis, maintaining protein homeostasis, and helping cell adaptation and survival. Hypo-modification of the wobble position of the tRNA anticodon loop is of particular relevance for translation regulation and is implicated in various human diseases. In this review we summarize recent evidence of how methyl and thiol modifications in eukaryotic tRNA at position 34 affect cellular fitness and modulate regulatory circuits at normal conditions and under stress...
January 2016: Translation
Botao Liu, Shu-Bing Qian
The broad impact of translational regulation has emerged explosively in the last few years in part due to the technological advance in genome-wide interrogation of gene expression. During mRNA translation, the majority of actively translating ribosomes exist as polysomes in cells with multiple ribosomes loaded on a single transcript. The importance of the monosome, however, has been less appreciated in translational profiling analysis. Here we report that the monosome fraction isolated by sucrose sedimentation contains a large quantity of inactive ribosomes that do not engage on mRNAs to direct translation...
January 2016: Translation
Regina Cencic, Jerry Pelletier
Protein synthesis and its regulatory signaling pathways play essential roles in the initiation and maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Insight obtained over the last 3 decades on the mechanisms regulating translation in normal and transformed cells have revealed that perturbed control in cancer cells may offer an Achilles' heel for the development of novel anti-neoplastic agents. Several small molecule inhibitors have been identified and characterized that target translation initiation - more specifically, the rate-limiting step where ribosomes are recruited to mRNA templates...
January 2016: Translation
Simone Gallo, Nicola Manfrini
RACK1 is a ribosome-associated protein which functions as a receptor for activated PKCs. It also acts as a scaffold for many other proteins involved in diverse signaling pathways, e.g. Src, JNK, PDE4D and FAK signaling. With such a broad interactome, RACK1 has been suggested to function as a linker between cell signaling and the translation machinery. Accordingly, RACK1 modulates translation at different levels in several model organisms. For instance, it regulates ribosome stalling and mRNA quality control in yeasts and promotes translation efficiency downstream of specific cellular stimuli in mammals...
July 2015: Translation
Alicia M Bowen, Sharmishtha Musalgaonkar, Christine A Moomau, Suna P Gulay, Mary Mirvis, Jonathan D Dinman
Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes...
July 2015: Translation
Harland E Brandon, Jenna R Friedt, Graeme D Glaister, Suneet K Kharey, Dustin D Smith, Zak K Stinson, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Synthetic biology and the rational design of biological devices depend on the availability of standardized and interchangeable biological parts with diverse range of functions. Reliable access to different reading frames during translation has largely been overlooked as functionality for bioengineering applications. Here we report the construction and initial characterization of the first member of such a class of biological parts that conforms to the BioBrick Standard (RFC25), allowing its interchangeable use in biological devices...
July 2015: Translation
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4161/2169074X.2014.960242.].
January 2015: Translation
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