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International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife

Irma Razanske, Olav Rosef, Jana Radzijevskaja, Maksim Bratchikov, Loreta Griciuviene, Algimantas Paulauskas
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are causative agents of tick-borne infections that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. To assess the role of cervids in the maintenance of zoonotic pathogens in Norway, we investigated the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in free-ranging roe deer and red deer. Initial screening of spleen samples of 104 animals by multiplex real-time PCR targeting the major surface protein ( msp 2) gene and 18S rRNA revealed the presence of A...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Jovana Sadlova, Barbora Vojtkova, Katerina Hrncirova, Tereza Lestinova, Tatiana Spitzova, Tomas Becvar, Jan Votypka, Paul Bates, Petr Volf
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is a typical zoonosis circulating in rodents. In Sub-Saharan Africa the reservoirs remain to be identified, although L. major has been detected in several rodent species including members of the genera Arvicanthis and Mastomys . However, differentiation of true reservoir hosts from incidental hosts requires in-depth studies both in the field and in the laboratory, with the best method for testing the infectiousness of hosts to biting vectors being xenodiagnosis...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Susana Carolina Martins Ferreira, Francesca Torelli, Sandra Klein, Robert Fyumagwa, William B Karesh, Heribert Hofer, Frank Seeber, Marion L East
Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous intracellular protozoan parasite. Mammals and birds are intermediate hosts and felid species are definitive hosts. In most human altered habitats the domestic cat is the predominant definitive host. Current knowledge of T. gondii infection in African ecosystems is limited. This study aimed to assess exposure to T. gondii in wild carnivores in the Serengeti ecosystem in East Africa. Carnivores can be infected by the consumption of tissue cysts when feeding on infected animals and by incidental ingestion of oocysts from environmental contamination...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Laura Casalins, Mora Ibáñez Molina, Mariana Wainer Gullo, Norma Brugni, Gala Ortiz, Valeria Ojeda
We describe pathological aspects of an infection caused by parasitic nematodes in skeletal muscles of a Magellanic woodpecker ( Campephilus magellanicus ), providing the first description of any disease findings in this species. A weakened female with locomotory dysfunction was rescued near Bariloche city (Argentine Patagonia), which soon died. At the necropsy, unexpected masses of tissue were located at three joints (legs and tail). A dissection of these masses exposed numerous nematodes in the musculature surrounding the joints that were identified as Hamatospiculum flagellispiculosum (Nematoda: Diplotriaenidae), a species that was not previously found in Piciformes (woodpeckers, toucans, and allies) of the Neotropical Region...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Jesús S Hernández-Orts, Simona Georgieva, Dennis N Landete, Tomáš Scholz
Two species of heterophyid trematodes were found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster), from Patagonia, Argentina. Ascocotyle ( Ascocotyle ) patagoniensis Hernández-Orts et al. (2012) is re-described based on new, properly fixed specimens (original material from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens Shaw, was from frozen hosts). Metacercariae of this species are reported and described for the first time from the heart of the silversides, Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes) and O...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Justin R Eastwood, Lee Peacock, Michelle L Hall, Michael Roast, Stephen A Murphy, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Anne Peters
Malarial and other haemosporidian parasites are widespread; however, their temporal dynamics are ill-understood. Longitudinal sampling of a threatened riparian bird revealed a consistently very low prevalence over 13 years (∼5%) despite infections persisting and prevalence increasing with age. In contrast, three key species within this tropical community were highly infected (∼20-75% prevalence) and these differences were stable. Although we found novel lineages and phylogenetic structure at the local level, there was little geographic structuring within Australasia...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Ji-Li Zhang, Hong-Fei Si, Xu-Zheng Zhou, Xiao-Fei Shang, Bing Li, Ji-Yu Zhang
Fasciola hepatica is a common parasite of grazing livestock in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, but its prevalence has not been studied. While triclabendazole is commonly used to treat F. hepatica infection in China, oxyclozanide has never been used. This study investigated the prevalence of F. hepatica infections in buffaloes in the Guangxi and evaluated the efficacy of oxyclozanide and triclabendazole as treatments. In the prevalence study, a total of 767 individual faecal samples were obtained from 58 farms in Guangxi to detect the prevalence of F...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Juliana H S Barros, Luciana Lima, Armando O Schubach, Marta M G Teixeira
Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed the growing diversity of bat trypanosomes. Here, 14 isolates from blood samples of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (Phyllostomidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, were cultivated, and morphologically and molecularly characterized. All isolates represent a novel species named Trypanosoma madeirae n. sp. positioned in the Neobat lineage of the clade T. cruzi. The Neobat lineage also comprises closely related trypanosomes of clades Neotropic 1, 2 and 3 from diverse phyllostomid species...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Javier Millán, Alejandro Travaini, Aitor Cevidanes, Irene Sacristán, Alejandro Rodríguez
We collected blood and/or ectoparasites from 49 South American grey foxes ( Lycalopex griseus ) and two Andean foxes ( L. culpaeus ) caught in two National Parks of southern Argentine Patagonia (Bosques Petrificados, BPNP; and Monte León, MLNP) where dogs are nearly absent (density < 0.01 dog/km2 ). Common ectoparasites were the flea Pulex irritans (88% prevalence) and the tick Amblyomma tigrinum (29%). Conventional PCR and sequencing of 49 blood samples, 299 fleas analysed in 78 pools, and 21 ticks revealed the presence of DNA of the following canine vector-borne pathogens: in grey foxes, Rickettsia sp...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Xiuping Zhang, Yang Liu, Christopher M Whipps, Qingxiang Guo, Zemao Gu
Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 is a species rich genus of Myxosporea, sharing many morphological similarities with species of Myxobolus but the former possesses a single polar capsule, and the latter has two. Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, this single distinguishing feature is not monophyletic, and members of Thelohanellus are intermixed with Myxobolus species, calling into question the validity of genus Thelohanellus . The occurrence of two polar capsules in a small proportion of Thelohanellus spores as observed in this study suggests that these species have the capacity to express this Myxobolus -like trait, clouding the distinction of these two genera further...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Kendall R Blanchard, Aravindan Kalyanasundaram, Cassandra Henry, Matthew Z Brym, James G Surles, Ronald J Kendall
The northern bobwhite quail ( Colinus virginianus ) is a popular gamebird in the Rolling Plains Ecoregion of West Texas. However, there has been a population decline in this area over recent decades. Consistent reports indicate a high prevalence of the eyeworm ( Oxyspirura petrowi ) and caecal worm ( Aulonocephalus pennula ), which may be of major influence on the bobwhite population. While research has suggested pathological consequences and genetic relatedness to other pathologically significant parasites, little is known about the influence of climate on these parasites...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Eliana C Guillemi, M Marcela Orozco, Hernán D Argibay, Marisa D Farber
Vector-borne pathogens are responsible for serious emerging diseases and have been widely described in wildlife. Ehrlichia chaffeensis causes the zoonotic "monocytic ehrlichiosis" in humans, is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma americanum and its reservoir host is the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in North America. Little is known about the native reservoir and the tick vectors involved in the transmission cycle in South America. We report here the detection of E. chaffeensis in a study on marsh deer ( Blastocerus dichotomus ) mortality in Argentina, in different time periods between 2007 and 2016...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Mamohale E Chaisi, Samuel T Osinubi, Desire L Dalton, Essa Suleman
Avian haemosporidian infections are widespread and can result in the decline of wild bird populations or in some cases contribute to extinction of species. We determined the prevalence and genetic diversity of avian haemosporidia in 93 samples from 22 landbird species from South Africa (N = 76) and West Africa (N = 17), of which six are intra-African migrants and one is a Palearctic migrant. The samples were analysed for the presence of avian haemosporidian DNA using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and nested PCR assays targeting specific mitochondrial genes of these parasites...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Ravinder N M Sehgal
Over the past 10 years, much research has been done and remarkable discoveries have been made in various fields of research regarding wildlife malaria parasites (Plasmodium, Plasmodiidae) and related haemosporidians, the agents of infections, which affect all major groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular studies show that these blood parasites cause more harm to wildlife than formerly believed, calling for new fundamental and applied research on this subject. The 4th International Conference on Malaria and Related Haemosporidian Parasites of Wildlife highlighted the recent accomplishments of many research groups throughout the world at the Beijing Normal University, with additional hosts being the Beijing Zoo and the China Ornithological Society...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Liesbeth Frias, Hideo Hasegawa, Danica J Stark, Milena Salgado Lynn, Senthilvel Kss Nathan, Tock H Chua, Benoit Goossens, Munehiro Okamoto, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Lemuricola (Protenterobius) nycticebi is the only pinworm species known to infect strepsirrhine primates outside Africa, and the only pinworm species yet described in slow lorises. Here, we provided a detailed morphological comparison of female and male worms, and a first description of fourth-stage larvae collected from free-living slow lorises ( Nycticebus menagensis ) in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we also reconstructed the species' phylogenetic relationship with other pinworms infecting primates...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Peter H Holz, Linda F Lumsden, Alistair R Legione, Jasmin Hufschmid
While bats are often viewed as carriers of infectious disease agents, little research has been conducted on the effects these pathogens may have on the bat populations themselves. The southern bent-winged bat ( Miniopterus orianae bassanii ) is a critically endangered subspecies endemic to south-eastern Australia. Population numbers of this bat have declined over the past 50 years, but the reasons for this are unclear. As part of a larger study to determine if disease could be a contributing factor to this decline, southern bent-winged bats from several locations in Victoria and South Australia were captured and examined for the presence of the blood parasite, Polychromophilus melanipherus , and haemoplasmas ( Mycoplasma sp...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Na Li, Adekunle B Ayinmode, Hongwei Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Few data are available on the distribution and human infective potential of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in bats. In this preliminary study, we collected 109 fecal specimens during April-July 2011 from a colony of straw-colored fruit bats ( Eidolon helvum ) in an urban park (Agodi Gardens) of Ibadan, Nigeria, and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and E. bieneusi using PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, triosephosphate isomerase gene, and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, respectively...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Gereon Schares, Charles Jutras, Andrea Bärwald, Walter Basso, Aline Maksimov, Susann Schares, Mareen Tuschy, Franz J Conraths, Vincent Brodeur
In the present study, we report the first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia tarandi from North America and the second of B. tarandi at all. The parasite was isolated directly from the skin of a Canadian woodland caribou from the migratory ecotype. The animal belonged to the Leaf River Herd, in Northern Quebec, Canada. The isolate was designated Bt-CA-Quebec1. Sequencing of the 3'-end of the 18S rRNA gene, the complete sequence of the ITS1 and the 5'-end of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Bt-CA-Quebec1 revealed only minor differences to rDNA gene fragments of B...
April 2019: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Maria A Santa, Sonya A Pastran, Claudia Klein, Padraig Duignan, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Thomas Romig, Alessandro Massolo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2018.03.001.].
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Lauren E Camp, Marc R Radke, Danny M Shihabi, Christopher Pagan, Guangyou Yang, Steven A Nadler
Nucleotide sequences representing nine genes and five presumptive genetic loci were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among seven Baylisascaris species, including one species with no previously available molecular data. These genes were used to test the species status of B. procyonis and B. columnaris using a coalescent approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined analysis of sequence data strongly supported monophyly of the genus and separated the species into two main clades. Clade 1 included B...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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