Katalin Arki, Christian Degen, Philipp Gruber, Luca Cioccari
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have profound acute and chronic effects, leading to permanent disabilities and diminished quality of life. Pseudobulbar palsy and its infrequent subtype, Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome (FCMS), represent rare complications of TBI, manifesting as deficits in craniofacial motor function and automatic-voluntary dissociation. We present a case of a 58-year-old male who developed FCMS following severe TBI from a cycling accident. Initial imaging revealed extensive brain injury with subsequent development of FCMS characterised by bilateral cranial nerve dysfunction, notably facio-pharyngo-glosso-masticatory diplegia with preserved automatic motor function...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Aminah Hussan, Ifrah Hasan, Reem El-Hayani, Moustafa Shebl Zahra
Sodium valproate overdose leads to CNS depression, cerebral oedema, and severe metabolic acidosis in cases of severe toxicity. Extracorporeal removal, specifically through intermittent haemodialysis, is recommended, though not always tolerated by or accessible to haemodynamically unstable patients in intensive care units. We present a case of a male in his mid-twenties presenting following a massive, intentional overdose of 13 g of sodium valproate over 7 hours, with an initial valproate blood concentration of 975  μ g/ml (normal 50-100  μ g/ml)...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Farhad Najmeddin, Elham Pourheidar, Atabak Najafi, Reza Bahman, Ehsan Yousefi-Mazhin, Hossein Karballaei-Mirzahosseini, Rezvan Hassanpour
Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent bacterial toxin, botulinum toxin A (BTXA), which has various therapeutic and cosmetic indications. Intragastric BTXA injection is a new obesity treatment method that was argued to be safe due to the inactivation of BTXA through the liver or metabolization within the gastric wall. However, a 36-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to developing botulism as a result of an intragastric injection of BTXA. The diplopia, headaches, ptosis, decreased muscle force, and respiratory distress two days after injection were her first chief complaints, and also, she experienced significant dysphagia, hoarse voice, thick tongue, constipation, hyposmia, and hypogeusia after two weeks...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Hamid Khederlou, Vanoushe Azimi Pirsaraei
INTRODUCTION: Trazodone is a serotonin receptor antagonist and reuptake inhibitor commonly used to treat major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, and sleep disorders. It is considered safe for the heart due to minimal anticholinergic effects. Prolonged QT intervals can cause polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, known as torsades de pointe (TdP). We present a case of a 67-year-old female with a history of MDD who developed trazodone-induced TdP. Case Presentation . The patient was referred to a tertiary hospital with a ten-hour history of nausea and vomiting...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
James Ainsworth, Adrian Ionescu
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common condition with an estimated prevalence of 1-3%, in which there is systolic displacement of a morphologically redundant mitral valve towards the left atrium. Mitral annular disjunction (MAD) is a separation of the MV attachment with the left ventricle, with hypermobility of the leaflets, and with systolic "curling" of the basal LV (left ventricle) myocardium. It is frequently associated with MVP and may confer an increased arrhythmic risk...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Martina Cuccarelli, Lorenzo Schiavoni, Felice Eugenio Agrò, Giuseppe Pascarella, Fabio Costa, Rita Cataldo, Massimiliano Carassiti, Alessia Mattei
Introduction . Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is nowadays widely used with notable results on the overall survival as reported in the ELSO registry near to 55% at 90 days. This is the reason why ECMO teams force the use of this extreme technique to several populations, even though there is still a lack of data about its use on hematological patients. Case Report . A 39-year-old woman without a history of previous diseases, but a new diagnosis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for worsening hypoxia and respiratory acidosis, presenting an ARDS with PaO2 /FiO2 < 100 in spontaneous breathing treated with noninvasive ventilation via full-face mask...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Noah Yoo, Sarun Thomas, Michael Bender, Xian Jie Cindy Cheng
Ketamine, initially developed as an anesthetic, has shown versatility in medical applications, including pain management, treatment-resistant depression, and sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU). While generally well-tolerated, long-term use at high doses raises concerns about potential toxicities, particularly in the liver. We present a case of a 27-year-old female with a complex medical history who received ketamine infusion for ICU sedation and experienced a sudden rise in liver function tests (LFTs), indicating possible ketamine-induced liver injury (KILI)...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Elise André, Florian Lemaitre, Marie-Clémence Verdier, Vincent Haufroid, João Pinto Pereira, Philippe Hantson
A 56-year-old woman was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) two days after an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) when she presented acute respiratory distress due to the relapse of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following that, she received two intravenous doses of 100 mg remdesivir. Subsequently, the patient developed multiple instances of diarrhea, progressing to oliguria and acute kidney injury, necessitating continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Despite the absence of signs of hypoxemia or cardiocirculatory failure requiring vasopressor intervention, a progressive lactic acidosis emerged...
2024: Case Reports in Critical Care
Christina Rubio, Jared Miller, Tomasz Zrodlowski, Susanti Ie
The differential diagnosis for febrile asplenic patients must always include opportunistic infections. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is one such infection. In this report, we discuss the case of a 73-year-old woman with a medical history significant for splenectomy for splenic sarcoma with prophylactic vaccination for pneumococcus who presented with rigors, emesis, and abdominal pain. Initial vital signs were 39.6°C (103.3°F), 166/70 mmHg, 92 bpm, and 95% SpO2 on room air. A physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Mayyas M Msheik, Amro F Khalili, Mustapha A Nahle, Chakib M Ayoub, Yara M Al Ghabour, Hachem Y Abdul-Kader, Marwan S Rizk
A percutaneous tracheostomy is a common surgical procedure done in intensive care. Several different techniques have been described. Recently, the addition of bronchoscopy or ultrasound has been advocated to decrease the risks and complications associated with the procedure; however, both aids used alone, bronchoscopy or ultrasound, have some drawbacks and pitfalls. In this manuscript, we describe a new technique implementing a new technology, Microendoscopy coupled with ultrasound to perform percutaneous dilation tracheostomy MUGPT...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Dania El Hallak, Mae Al Habbal, Wael Hassan Zorkot
Brucellosis often presents with common and nonspecific symptoms such as fever, malaise, and arthralgia but can also involve primary organs. Intra-abdominal involvement is rare. We report a case of hepatobiliary brucellosis presenting as a refractory hepatobiliary infection in a healthy young adult with no underlying rheumatologic disease or history of exposure to risk factors. Detection of Brucella in the blood led to a shift in the patient's management and consequently her recovery.
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Huong Tu Lam, Thang Dinh Nguyen, Phat Tan Ho, Ai Van Nguyen, Tuan Huynh Nhat Nguyen, Phuoc Van Le, Thong Duy Vo
Pseudoaneurysm rupture in patients with pancreatitis is a rare but fatal etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient who presented simultaneously with two pseudoaneurysms, a potential cause of severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Angiography was successfully performed with coil embolization of the target arteries and both pseudoaneurysmal sacs. The patient was discharged 9 days after admission without further events within a 3-month follow-up period...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Brittany Bolt, Farid Muakkassa, Lindsay Bruening, Cameron Marcus, Brittany Cunningham, Erin Pawlak, Richard Gandee, Christopher Newey
Death by neurologic criteria (DNC) or brain death is a clinical diagnosis. It is often complicated by variations in policies as well as confounders on examination. We discuss here the case of a 27-year-old male who had a cardiac arrest following toxic gaseous exposure. He ultimately progressed to brain death but was identified as having cardiac oscillations during clinical assessments that complicated the diagnosis. We discuss the case as well as the maneuvers used to clarify that the "triggered breaths" on the ventilator were indeed cardiac oscillations...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Anthony M Lim, Jonathan R Ghazaleh, Robert M Cacdac, Julia K Oberndorf, Marrey Ruby L Quizon, Justin M Thomas
Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an elusive entity with sequelae that may be confused with sepsis. We discuss a 45-year-old man with decompensated liver cirrhosis with sepsis treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Further work-up initially supported sepsis-HLH overlap syndrome (SHLHOS) and corticosteroids were added. Ongoing refractory hypotension ensued, and the patient passed within 31 hours of presentation. Based on the patient's overwhelming immune activation and clinical course likely unsalvageable by cytotoxic immunosuppressive agents, the patient was diagnosed with sepsis with acute end organ dysfunction...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Ikemsinachi C Nzenwa, Margaret Berquist, Toby J Brenner, Aida Ansari, Hamid D Al-Fadhl, Michael Aboukhaled, Shivani S Patel, Ethan E Peck, Mahmoud D Al-Fadhl, Anthony V Thomas, Nuha Zackariya, Mark M Walsh, Jose A Bufill
Type B lactic acidosis is an uncommon medical emergency in which acid production overwhelms hepatic clearance. This specific etiology of lactic acidosis occurs without organ hypoperfusion and has been most commonly described in patients with hematologic malignancies but also in patients with solid tumors. The mechanism by which cancer cells switch their glucose metabolism toward increasingly anaerobic glycolytic phenotypes has been described as the "Warburg effect." Without treating the underlying malignancy, the prognosis for patients diagnosed with malignancy-related type B lactic acidosis is extremely poor...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Kei Yanagisawa, Akiko Kameyama, Hiroshi Miyama, Koutarou Mori, Masao Hattori, Hiroshi Imamura, Kenichi Nitta
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, an extranodal large B-cell lymphoma, is a rare hematological malignancy with only a few reports of lung involvement. We report a case of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and interstitial lung disease diagnosed via random skin biopsies. A 54-year-old woman presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea. Computed tomography imaging revealed findings concerning interstitial lung disease. The patient's respiratory status worsened despite the treatment with antibiotics and steroids...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Nishant Allena, Nismat Javed, SriKaran Bojja, Arundhati Dileep, Maryam Soliman
Emphysematous cystitis is defined by the presence of air within the bladder wall or lumen in imaging studies with increased incidence in elderly women and diabetics. It is a result of gas-forming organisms like Klebsiella and E. coli but can be caused by fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus as well with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. In this article, we present a case of a 77-year-old female with diabetes mellitus who presented to the hospital with a chief complaint of left lower quadrant abdominal pain...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Jiayun Ying, Xiaodi Cai, Guoping Lu, Weiming Chen
Sepsis is a critical condition affecting patients worldwide. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome in sepsis contributes to organ dysfunction and mortality. The oXiris is a recently developed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) hemofilter indicated for the adsorption of cytokines from the bloodstream. In our study, in a septic child, CRRT with three filters, including the oXiris hemofilter, resulted in a downregulation of inflammatory biomarkers and a reduction of vasopressors. Herein, we described the first report of such usage in septic children...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
Mohamed Y Ahmed, Jane B Taylor, Rajesh K Aneja, Qian Wang, John V Williams
Diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients are extremely challenging. These patients can have atypical clinical courses, and there is a paucity of data regarding clinical features, diagnostic findings, and the safety and efficacy of available therapeutic agents used to treat COVID-19 in these patients. In this case series, we report atypical COVID-19 presentations in 4 immunocompromised pediatric patients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 a few weeks earlier...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
I A Sanoja
A 66-year-old female with a history of radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation presented with hematemesis and fever. A CT chest revealed an atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) and a CT head showed bilateral septic emboli. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus sanguinis . She underwent primary repair of the atrial defect on cardiopulmonary bypass where a large atrial vegetation was retrieved, followed by a right thoracotomy with the closure of the esophageal defect the next day. She was discharged to a rehabilitation facility after 18 days of hospital stay with a 6 weeks antibiotics plan...
2023: Case Reports in Critical Care
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