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ISRN Ophthalmology

Moug Al-Bakri, Ase Krogh Rasmussen, Carsten Thomsen, Peter Bjerre Toft
Purpose. We wanted to investigate the relative significance of fat and muscle enlargement in the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods. Preoperative coronal CT scans of 13 patients with and without DON who subsequently underwent orbital decompression were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients imaged for unilateral orbital fractures served as controls. Results. The retrobulbar muscle volume was 2.1 ± 0.5 cm(3) (mean ± SD) in controls, 4.3 ± 1.5 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 4...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Muhammad Khan, Ketan Agarwal, Mohamed Loutfi, Ahmed Kamal
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Yanwen Fang, Yi Lu, Aizhu Miao, Yi Luo
Objective. To evaluate the postoperative visual quality of cataract patients with extreme myopia after implantation of aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. Thirty-three eyes were enrolled in this prospectivestudy. Eighteen eyes with an axial length longer than 28 mm were included in the extreme myopia group, and the other 15 eyes were included in the nonextreme myopia group. Phacoemulsification and aspheric IOL implantation were performed. Six months after cataract surgery, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, and wavefront aberrations were measured, and subjective visual quality was assessed...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Li-Quan Zhao, Huang Zhu, Liang-Mao Li
This systematic review was to compare the clinical outcomes between laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Primary parameters included mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), MRSE within ±0.50 diopters, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) ≥20/20, and loss of ≥1 line of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary parameters included flap complications and corneal haze. Twelve clinical controlled trials were identified and used for comparing LASEK (780 eyes) to LASIK (915 eyes)...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Alireza Ghahari, John D Enderle
A neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain is presented to drive a muscle fiber oculomotor plant during horizontal monkey saccades. Neural circuitry, including omnipause neuron, premotor excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons, long lead burst neuron, tonic neuron, interneuron, abducens nucleus, and oculomotor nucleus, is developed to examine saccade dynamics. The time-optimal control strategy by realization of agonist and antagonist controller models is investigated. In consequence, each agonist muscle fiber is stimulated by an agonist neuron, while an antagonist muscle fiber is unstimulated by a pause and step from the antagonist neuron...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Aaron Wagner, Andy Chen, Taylor Cook, David Faber, Kirk Winward, William Sause
Purpose. To evaluate our community-based institutional experience with plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanomas with a focus on local control rates, factors impacting disease progression, and dosimetric parameters impacting treatment toxicity. Methods and Materials. Our institution was retrospectively reviewed from 1996 to 2011; all patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma were included. Follow-up data were collected regarding local control, distant metastases, and side effects from treatment...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Gökhan Pekel, Neşe Alagöz, Evre Pekel, Cengiz Alagöz, Omer Faruk Yılmaz
Purpose. Our aim was to compare contrast sensitivity values of the dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods. Ninety eyes of 45 healthy middle-aged subjects (30 males and 15 females) were included in this study. Patients were aged between 40 and 60 years, having uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/25 or better (Snellen chart). Ocular dominance was determined by hole-in-the-card test. Functional acuity contrast testing (F.A.C.T.) was measured using the Optec 6500 vision testing system (Stereo Optical Co...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Nery Garcia-Porta, Paulo Fernandes, Antonio Queiros, Jose Salgado-Borges, Manuel Parafita-Mato, Jose Manuel González-Méijome
Several refractive and therapeutic treatments as well as several ocular or systemic diseases might induce changes in the mechanical resistance of the cornea. Furthermore, intraocular pressure measurement, one of the most used clinical tools, is also highly dependent on this characteristic. Corneal biomechanical properties can be measured now in the clinical setting with different instruments. In the present work, we review the potential role of the biomechanical properties of the cornea in different fields of ophthalmology and visual science in light of the definitions of the fundamental properties of matter and the results obtained from the different instruments available...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Karine D Bojikian, Daniel B Moore, Philip P Chen, Mark A Slabaugh
Background. Optic disk hemorrhage is known to be a risk factor for glaucoma progression. Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification results in large intraocular pressure fluctuations. We aim to investigate whether phacoemulsification is associated with optic disc hemorrhage in patients with glaucoma. Methods. This is a retrospective review of consecutive university clinic based glaucoma patients undergoing phacoemulsification alone, with at least 3 visits in the year before and at least 5 visits in the year following phacoemulsification...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Andre Grixti, Evangelia Papavasileiou, Dominic Cortis, Balakrishna Vineeth Kumar, Som Prasad
Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Adedayo O Adio, Rosemary O Ugwu, Chidi G Nwokocha, Augusta U Eneh
Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Akio Miyakoshi, Hironori Ozaki, Mitsuya Otsuka, Atsushi Hayashi
Purpose. To examine the graft-host interface during Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) surgery with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Patients and Methods. Eight patients who underwent a DSAEK were included. A handheld OCT was used intraoperatively to examine the presence of interface fluid between the host cornea and the graft. Results. In 3 patients, no interface fluid was detected between the host cornea and the graft after the graft was attached by air injection...
2014: ISRN Ophthalmology
Tulin Aras Ogreden, Zeynep Alkin, Abdullah Ozkaya, Halil Ibrahim Demirkale, Irfan Perente, Cengiz Aras
Purpose. To evaluate visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and central retinal thickness (CRT) after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) injection for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. In this prospective study, a total of 21 eyes of 21 patients were included. VA, CS, and CRT were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after a single IVT injection. Results. Mean age was 64.57 ± 8.34 years. The mean baseline VA (LogMAR) increased from 1.11 ± 0...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Asaki Matsui, Hiroshi Toshida, Rio Honda, Takahiko Seto, Toshihiko Ohta, Akira Murakami
Purpose. To evaluate morphologic changes of the macula, we observed eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) involving the macular region by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subjects and Methods. We studied 26 eyes with RRD before and after surgery, assessing visual acuity, the height of retinal detachment at the fovea (HRD), and morphologic changes of the macular region. The interval between the onset and surgery was also determined. We examined the external limiting membrane (ELM) after surgery and the continuity of the inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS junction) of the photoreceptor layer...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Masabumi Kubo, Tomoki Sakuraba, Ryuichi Wada
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the clinicopathological features of dacryolithiasis and prevalence of associated infection in Japanese patients. Materials and Methods. Out of 13,471 outclinic patients from 2006 to 2011, 268 patients were scheduled to be performed dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) due to dacryocystitis with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Actually 266 patients underwent dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and two patients were cured by only ophthalmic examination. Dacryoliths were found in 17 cases (6...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Jing Wang, Paul Harasymowycz
Aims. To describe the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab (SCB) injection in the combined cataract and glaucoma filtering surgery (GFS). Methods. Retrospective comparative case series. Thirty eyes of twenty-eight patients who had GFS followed by SCB injection as part of post-operative management were included (Group SCB). The types of GFS included trabeculectomy and non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) with mitomycin-C. Outcome measures included the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Justin T Wilkinson, Amanda B Richards, Dongseok Choi, Joseph E Robertson, Christina J Flaxel
Background. Primary pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is often performed by vitreoretinal fellows. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of retinal breaks and detachments (RD) after fellow-performed PPV. Methods. We reviewed 119 consecutive cases of standard 3-port primary PPVs on 115 patients at a teaching institution from 2003 to 2006. In all cases, the primary surgeon was a vitreoretinal fellow. Patients with previous RD were excluded. Cases were reviewed for postoperative retinal detachments, and all patients were followed for up to 1 year...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Joanna M Tarr, Kirti Kaul, Mohit Chopra, Eva M Kohner, Rakesh Chibber
Diabetes is now regarded as an epidemic, with the population of patients expected to rise to 380 million by 2025. Tragically, this will lead to approximately 4 million people around the world losing their sight from diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in patients aged 20 to 74 years. The risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is closely associated with the type and duration of diabetes, blood glucose, blood pressure, and possibly lipids. Although landmark cross-sectional studies have confirmed the strong relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, the underlying mechanism of how hyperglycaemia causes retinal microvascular damage remains unclear...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Carmina Franz G Quito, Archimedes Lee D Agahan, Raymond P Evangelista
Purpose. To evaluate the long-term efficacy, accuracy, stability, and safety of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using a 213 nm wavelength solid-state laser. Methods. This prospective noncomparative case series consisted of 34 eyes of 17 patients which underwent hyperopic LASIK using a 213 nm solid-state laser (Pulzar Z1, CustomVis) at an outpatient refractive surgery center in Manila, Philippines. The preoperative and postoperative examinations included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), subjective manifest refraction, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), cycloplegic refraction, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and keratometry (K)...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
Flore De Bats, Benjamin Wolff, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse, Isabelle Meunier, Philippe Denis, Laurent Kodjikian
Purpose. To report an association between reticular pseudodrusen, located above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Early Onset Drusen (EOD) as described using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Eight patients (16 eyes) with EOD were examined. EOD were classified into three entities called Large Colloid Drusen (LCD), Malattia Leventinese (ML), and Cuticular Drusen (CD). Best-corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and SD-OCT were performed in all study patients...
2013: ISRN Ophthalmology
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