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Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health

Morihiko Oya, Yutaka Tadano, Yasuhiro Takihata, Wakana Murakami, Shigenori Fujii, Kenji Tamai, Yuji Morimoto, Fumitaka Ikomi, Tetsuji Tokunaga
We aimed to determine whether the composition of the fecal microbiota changes under hyperbaric conditions. In this study, we collected fecal samples from 6 healthy divers at three points during deep diving training (before, 2.1 MPa, end). The frequency of Clostridium cluster XVIII tended to be increased after compression. The frequencies of Clostridium cluster IV and subcluster XIVa were inversely correlated with that of Bacteroides . The compositional changes in the fecal microbiota exhibited interindividual variability...
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takahiko Nagamine, Yoshinobu Matsumoto, Masaru Nakamura
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is greater in elderly orthopedic patients. We conducted a retrospective case-control study by selecting elderly patients who underwent proximal femoral fracture surgery to investigate the effect of probiotics on CDI prevention. Cases were diagnosed with CDI by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for C. difficile toxins using frozen stool specimens. The primary method of exposure was receipt of combination probiotics such as Streptococcus faecalis , Bacillus mesentericus , and Clostridium butyricum ...
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Shino Yamasaki-Yashiki, Yuki Miyoshi, Tomoya Nakayama, Jun Kunisawa, Yoshio Katakura
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A in the mucus of the intestinal tract plays an important role in preventing the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and regulating the composition of the gut microbiota. Several strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to promote intestinal IgA production. Bacteria are also known to naturally release spherical membrane vesicles (MVs) that are involved in various biological functions such as quorum sensing, pathogenesis, and host immunomodulation. However, the production of MVs by LAB and their effects on host immunity remain poorly understood...
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Masanori Horie, Hiroaki Sato, Atsumi Tada, Sayaka Nakamura, Sakiko Sugino, Yosuke Tabei, Miyuki Katoh, Takahito Toyotome
Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum group strains isolated from two kinds of Japanese post-fermented teas, Ishizuchi-kurocha and Awa-bancha, were compared. Although lactic acid bacteria isolated from the fermented teas were identified as L. plantarum via homology comparison of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, classification of L. plantarum based on ribosomal proteins showed that the strains isolated from Ishizuchi-kurocha and Awa-bancha were different. According to classification by the ribosomal protein typing, Ishizuchi-kurocha-derived strains belong to the same group as L...
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
İzzet Ulker, Hilal Yildiran
Obesity is a disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence all over the world in recent years. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity, and the effect of microbiota on obesity is becoming increasingly clear. Obesity treatment has various treatment modalities such as behavior modification, medical nutrition therapy, physical activity enhancement, and surgical intervention. When other treatment methods are not successful, bariatric surgery is usually resorted to as the treatment method...
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Mustafa Ata Aydin, Esra Piril Agirbas, Suleyman Aydin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takuou Takimoto, Misaki Hatanaka, Tomohiro Hoshino, Tsuyoshi Takara, Ko Tanaka, Atsushi Shimizu, Hiroto Morita, Teppei Nakamura
Gut microbiota influence the host immune system and are associated with various diseases. In recent years, postmenopausal bone loss has been suggested to be related to gut microbiota. In the present study, we investigated the treatment effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (C-3102) on bone mineral density (BMD) and its influence on gut microbiota in healthy postmenopausal Japanese women. Seventy-six healthy postmenopausal Japanese women were treated with a placebo or C-3102 spore-containing tablets for 24 weeks...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Hiroshi Makino
The gastrointestinal tract is believed to be colonized rapidly with bacteria immediately from birth. The source of these intestinal microbes is an ongoing topic of interest because increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the initial intestinal bacterial colonization strongly affects health. In particular, the source of bifidobacteria has received marked attention because these bacteria are suggested to play a crucial role in protecting against susceptibility to diverse diseases later in life. However, the source of these microbes has remained unclear...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Suna Aydin, Kader Ugur, Suleyman Aydin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Junichi Minami, Noriyuki Iwabuchi, Miyuki Tanaka, Koji Yamauchi, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Fumiaki Abe, Naoki Sakane
Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between the gut microbiota and the development of obesity, indicating the potential of probiotics as a therapeutic approach. Bifidobacterium breve B-3 has been shown to exert anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of the consumption of B. breve B-3 by healthy pre-obese (25 ≤ BMI < 30) adults were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (trial registration: UMIN-CTR No...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Yuhi Saito, Toshihiro Mihara, Mamoru Oki, Takehisa Kumagai
Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 ( L . casei 327) was isolated from brown rice. A preliminary study showed that intake of 50 mg of heat-killed L . casei 327 is effective in improving defecation. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial to investigate the effect of intake of heat-killed L . casei 327 (25 mg: approximately 5 × 1010 bacteria) on defecation in healthy volunteers with relatively low defecation frequencies. We selected 104 healthy Japanese adults with relatively low defecation frequencies (approximately 3-5 times a week) by screening and pretrial tests...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takamitsu Tsukahara, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Gustavo A Romero-Pèrez, Makoto Ohwaki, Takaharu Yanagisawa, Tatsuhiko Kan
It is well known that dietary lactic acid bacteria (LAB) stimulate cell-mediated immunity such as natural killer (NK) activity in mice. Here, we aimed to assay the immunomodulatory effects of a cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain KH-2 (CPEF). We further evaluated the possibility of antitumour activity caused by CPEF administration, because NK cells actively participate in the prevention of tumour formation. NK cell activity and gene expression of IFN-γ and Perforin 1, which were induced most likely by a synergetic action of their cytotoxic activity, were higher in splenocytes of CPEF-administered mice than they were in control mice...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Takahiko Nagamine, Yumiko Ido, Masaru Nakamura, Takehiko Okamura
Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk due to underweight compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4G -β-D-galactosylsucrose on body weight in underweight schizophrenia inpatients. The study population consisted of 5 male and 11 female subjects aged 63.0 ± 10.9 years. The subjects had ingested 3.0 g/day 4G -β-D-galactosylsucrose for 6 months. BMI increased significantly, from 20.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2 to 22.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2 , and this was accompanied by a significant increase in Bifidobacterium in the fecal microbiota, which increased from 16...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Agnieszka Polit, Huiying Yang, Daniel Amund
Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic bacteria to pathogens poses a safety concern. Orally administered probiotics are exposed to stressful conditions during gastrointestinal transit. In this study, filter mating experiments were performed to investigate the potential role of exposure of Bifidobacterium isolates to acid and bile stress on the transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet (W), to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299. No E. faecalis transconjugants were obtained after mating with either stressed or unstressed Bifidobacterium , thereby suggesting that tet (W) could not be transferred as a result of exposure to gastrointestinal stresses...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Masaki Serata, Emi Yasuda, Tomoyuki Sako
The Lactobacillus casei / paracasei group accumulates a high level of manganese, which works to scavenge superoxide anions produced during aerobic growth. The genome of L. casei strain Shirota, however, also codes the gene for superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodA , which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. We anticipated that the SOD and/or manganese may contribute to the aerobic growth of L. casei Shirota and tried to clarify how L. casei Shirota can eliminate the toxicity of superoxide anion...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kengo Kawasaki, Koutarou Muroyama, Shinji Murosaki
Physiological symptoms of mood disturbances, such as fatigue or anxiety, are closely related to inflammation in the central nervous system or the whole body. Curcuma longa is widely used as a dietary spice and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. To investigate the effect of a water extract of C. longa (WEC) on emotional states, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted with healthy participants. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to receive five tablets containing 150 mg WEC and 0...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yuta Komano, Guanying Wang, Yasuji Kawachi, Kazuko Sunaga, Reiko Yamamoto, Ryoji Takata, Mika Miyake, Takaaki Yanai
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes dry skin and functional disruption of the skin barrier. AD is often accompanied by allergic inflammation. AD patient suffer from heavy itching, and their quality of life is severely affected. Some pharmaceuticals for AD have some side effects such as skin atrophy. So it is necessary to develop mild solutions such as food ingredients without side effects. There are various causes of AD. It is especially induced by immunological imbalances such as IFN-γ reduction...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Eiichiro Naito, Yasuto Yoshida, Satoru Kunihiro, Kumiko Makino, Kohei Kasahara, Yuu Kounoshi, Masanori Aida, Ryotaro Hoshi, Osamu Watanabe, Tomoki Igarashi, Kouji Miyazaki, Hideki Ito
An obesity-related prediabetic state is characterised by metabolic abnormalities such as post-glucose load hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia and consequently increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on metabolic abnormalities in obese prediabetic subjects in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Herein, 100 obese subjects (body mass index ≥25), who had moderate post-load hyperglycaemia (1-hr post-load plasma glucose (PG) levels ≥180 mg/dl during the oral glucose tolerance test), consumed LcS-fermented milk or placebo milk daily for 8 weeks...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Kentaro Nakamura, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Akina Sasayama, Taketo Yamaji
It has been demonstrated that an immune-modulating enteral formula enriched with whey peptides and fermented milk (IMF) had anti-inflammatory effects in some experimental models when it was administered before the induction of inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the IMF administration after the onset of systemic inflammation and investigated whether the IMF could improve the remote organ injuries in an acute pancreatitis (AP) model. Mice were fasted for 12 hours and then fed a choline-deficient and ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE diet) for 24 hours to induce pancreatitis...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Ipputa Tada, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Akihito Endo, Masanori Tohno, Masanori Arita
Being an autochthonous species in humans, Lactobacillus gasseri is widely used as a probiotic for fermented products. We thoroughly compared the gene contents of 75 L. gasseri genomes and identified two intraspecific groups by the average nucleotide identity (ANI) threshold of 94%. Group I, with 48 strains, possessed 53 group-specific genes including the gassericin T cluster (9 genes) and N -acyl homoserine lactone lactonase. Group II, with 27 strains, including the type strain ATCC 33323, possessed group-specific genes with plasmid- or phage-related annotations...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
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