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Tropical Life Sciences Research

Malisa Ilyana Mohd Alias, Kamarul Hambali, Aainaa Amir, Norashikin Fauzi, Hizami Hassin, Sow Ai Yin
A survey was conducted to determine the diversity of fish in Pergau Lake, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia from 2 September to 18 October of 2016. Fish samples were collected at seven random sampling stations around the lake by using setting trap method. The collected samples were preserved in 10% formalin solution and delivered to the laboratory for further identification process. Fourteen species, namely as Hemibagrus nemurus , Hampala macrolepidota , Clarias batrachus , Channa striata , Cyprinus carpio , Poropuntius smedleyi , Pangasius sp...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tan Yoeng Leh, Christina Seok Yien Yong, Rosimah Nulit, Janna Ong Abdullah
Stevia rebaudiana , a perennial herb native to northeastern Paraguay, has gained immense attention globally over the recent decades due to the natural sweetness of its leaves. Like in most plants, this particular species contains high amount of secondary metabolites, thus rendering the isolation of high quality and quantity RNA extract for molecular applications rather challenging. An effective, high-yield and high-quality RNA isolation protocol for this economically important plant species was devised here based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction method, with an additional genomic DNA (gDNA) removal step...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Sandrasekaran Naresh, Balakrishnan Kunasundari, Ahmad Anas Nagoor Gunny, Yi Peng Teoh, Siew Hoong Shuit, Qi Hwa Ng, Peng Yong Hoo
This study reports the biodiversity of thermophilic cellulolytic bacterial strains that present in the north Malaysian mangrove ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at the four most northern state of Malaysia (Perak, Pulau Pinang, Kedah and Perlis). The samples obtained were first enriched in nutrient broth at 45°C and 55°C prior culturing in the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) agar medium. Repeated streaking was performed on the CMC agar to obtain a pure culture of each isolate prior subjecting it to hydrolysis capacity testing...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
A Muslim, Mitsuro Hyakumachi, Koji Kageyama, Suwandi Suwandi
Treatment with hypovirulent binucleate Rhizoctonia (HBNR) isolates induced systemic resistance against anthracnose infected by Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, as there were no direct interaction between HBNR and C. orbiculare . This is because of the different distances between HBNR and C. orbiculare , where the root was treated with HBNR isolate and C. orbiculare was challenged and inoculated in leaves or first true leaves were treated with HBNR isolate and C. orbiculare was challenged and inoculated in second true leaves...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nurul I Shullia, Rika Raffiudin, Berry Juliandi
Genes related to carbohydrate metabolism have evolved rapidly in eusocial bees, including honey bees. However, the characterisation of carbohydrate metabolism genes has not been reported in Apis andreniformis or Apis cerana indica . This study aimed to characterise phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) genes in these honey bee species and to analyse the evolution of the genus Apis using these genes. This study found the first data regarding A. andreniformis PFK and PK-like nucleotide sequences...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Orawan Daungfu, Somchit Youpensuk, Saisamorn Lumyong
Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is a disease affecting the yield and fruit quality of lime ( Citrus aurantiifolia ). This research investigated endophytic bacteria obtained from six healthy Citrus spp. to inhibit the pathogen and to control citrus canker on lime plants. Numbers of the endophytic bacteria isolated from C. aurantifolia , C. hystrix , C. maxima , C. nobilis , C. reticulata and C. sinensis were 28, 25, 29, 42, 12 and 34 isolates, respectively. The selected endophytic bacteria that were effective against X...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Yashwant Kumar, Kavaratty Raju Mani, Ajay Kumar Tahlan
A number of countries, including developed countries, still have typhoid fever as a major problem resulting in frequent outbreaks. The importance of controlling spread of typhoid fever is well known and necessitates periodic studies to delineate epidemiological relationships. Although phage typing remains to be the preferred conventional method for characterisation of typhoid bacilli, it is of limited use due to prevalence of few predominant phage types in the country like India. Therefore, an effort has been made to assess three molecular methods [Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) Profiling, Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)] for typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Noor Hazwani Bakaruddin, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid
This study examined the tunneling activity and the behaviour of two subterranean termites, Globitermes sulphurues and Coptotermes gestroi treated with four plant extracts, namely Pyllanthus niruri, Azadirachta indica, Leucaena leucocephala and Andrographis paniculata . All plants were extracted with three different solvents (methanol, hexane and water) and were diluted into three concentrations (500, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm). A group of 50 workers and 2 soldiers were tested and observed daily during the exposure in order to determine their survivorship and behaviour...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Norasmah Basari, Nurul Salsabila Mustafa, Nur Elya Nabila Yusrihan, Chin Wei Yean, Zainal Ibrahim
Ficus plants are commonly planted as ornamentals along roadsides in Malaysia. In 2010, Ficus plants in Kuala Terengganu were found to be attacked by a moth, identified as Trilocha varians . The larvae of this moth fed on Ficus leaves causing up to 100% defoliation. This study was conducted to determine the life cycle of T. varians under two different environmental temperatures and to control this pest using two different insecticides. Our findings showed that there were significant differences in the time taken for eggs to hatch and larval and pupation period between low and high environmental temperatures...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Eldrin Dlr Arguelles
Taxonomic study on the composition of epiphytic algae living on submerged leaf and root tissues of macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Loubach, found at Laguna de Bay, Philippines was conducted. In total, 21 algal taxa were identified: seven Cyanophyceae, six Euglenophyceae, five Chlorophyceae, two Trebouxiophyceae and one Klebsormidiophyceae. Of these taxa, the occurrence of two rare cyanobacteria, Pseudanabaena minima (G.S. An) Anagnostidis and Synechococcus nidulans (Pringsheim) Komárek are reported for the first time in the Philippines...
January 2019: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Ademola Monsur Hameed, Tawakalit Asiyanbi-H, Munirat Idris, Nurrulhidayah Fadzillah, Mohamed Elwathig S Mirghani
Gelatin is a very popular pharmaceutical and food ingredient and the most studied ingredient in Halal researches. Interest in source gelatin authentication is based on religious and cultural beliefs, food fraud prevention and health issues. Seven gelatin authentication methods that have been developed include: nucleic acid based, immunochemical, electrophoretic analysis, spectroscopic, mass-spectrometric, chromatographic-chemometric and chemisorption methods. These methods are time consuming, and require capital intensive equipment with huge running cost...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Latiffah Zakaria, Wan Nuraini Wan Aziz
Endophytic fungi are part of microbial community found in various types of plant tissues including the leave, and display a range of symbiotic interactions with the plant host. In this study, endophytic fungi isolated from banana leaves were identified using ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region) sequences of which 10 genera comprising 17 species were molecularly identified. Endophytic fungal species identified were Nigrospora oryzae , Nigrospora sphaerica , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum siamense , Fusarium equiseti , Fusarium chlamydosporum , Phoma sorghina , Pestalotiopsis oxyanthi, Pestalotiopsis theae, Pestalotiopsis eugeniae, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium purpurogenum, Bipolaris papendorfii, Bipolaris sp...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tan Suet May Amelia, Al-Ashraf Abdullah Amirul, Jasnizat Saidin, Kesaven Bhubalan
Marine sponges are acknowledged as bacterial hotspots in the oceanic biome. Aquatic bacteria are being investigated comprehensively for bioactive complexes and secondary metabolites. Cultivable bacteria associated with different species of sea sponges in South China Sea waters adjacent to Bidong Island, Terengganu were identified. Molecular identification was accomplished using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Fourteen bacterial species were identified and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed by constructing a neighbour-joining tree with Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis 6...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nurul Ashikin Hassim, Kamarul Hambali, Nor Shahirul Umirah Idris, Aainaa Amir, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Ai Yin Sow
Long-tailed macaque ( Macaca fascicularis ) has the potential to be a good biological indicator for toxic exposure because they have an almost similar physiology and behaviour to humans. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of lead (Pb) in hair samples of long-tailed macaques which were found in and out of the Kuala Selangor Nature Park (KSNP) area. The hypothesis is long-tailed macaques that live in the anthropogenic area (outside KSNP) may be exposed to high levels of lead compared to long-tailed macaques living in the forest area (inside KSNP)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Wan Ting Ling, Fui Chu Liew, Wei Yong Lim, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Fig, or Ficus carica , is a fruit tree from the Moraceae family and is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Fig plants are mainly propagated through grafting, air layering, and hardwood cutting whereby these methods were found to be less efficient. Plant tissue culture is efficient method to propagate plants, particularly to produce true-to-type platelets for mass multiplication. The aim of this study is to induce multiple shoot formation on Ficus carica cv. Japanese BTM 6 through identifying and optimising the concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Zeatin suited for shoot formation...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Jeremiah David Bala, Japareng Lalung, Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi, Kaizar Hossain, Norli Ismail
This study was aimed at identifying indigenous microorganisms from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and to ascertain the microbial load. Isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms was subjected to standard microbiological methods and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes for the microbial strains signifies that they were known as Micrococcus luteus 101PB, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 102PB, Bacillus cereus 103PB, Providencia vermicola 104PB, Klebsiella pneumoniae 105PB, Bacillus subtilis 106PB, Aspergillus fumigatus 107PF, Aspergillus nomius 108PF, Aspergillus niger 109PF and Meyerozyma guilliermondii 110PF...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Pei Ching Foo, Ze Hong Lee, Chee Keong Chin, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Solanum melongena L. commonly known as the eggplant or brinjal comes from the family of Solanaceae, sharing the same ancestor with the tomato and potato. It is an economically important crop worldwide, being well studied for its medicinal properties, nutritional values and its role as an alternative model plant. The eggplant fruit has been previously used for treatments of various diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, arthritis and diabetes as well as its nutritive properties that are beneficial to the human diet...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Annette Jaya-Ram, Farhana Fuad, Mohd Shafiq Zakeyuddin, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah
One of the oldest reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia, Bukit Merah Reservoir, is a place in which locals participate in fishing activities. Inland fisheries are important to individuals, society and the environment; whereby they generate a source of income and food security. It is essential to gauge the nutrition value of fish caught in this location as food source, especially in terms of fatty acid composition, to better demonstrate its potential towards the betterment of human health and general well-being...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Abdul-Lateef Molan, Mohamad Q Balasim, Nagham Y Al-Bayati
Aqueous extracts prepared from the powdered entire pomaces and their parts (seeds and peels) of two Iraqi grape cultivars (Shada and Des-Alanez) were evaluated for their ovicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal activities against housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus 1758) and compared them with chemical insecticide (Agita 10 WG; Austria). The highest insecticidal activity was shown by the aqueous extracts of powdered seeds followed by the entire pomace and then peels. The water extracts from the seeds, peels and pomaces were able to inhibit completely the hatching of the eggs at a concentration of 150 μg/ml while the Agita insecticide was able to inhibit the hatching process at a concentration of 50 μg/ml...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Arfah Nasution, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko
Habitat loss and hunting are major threats to the long-term survival of the viable orangutan population in Batang Toru. East Batang Toru Forest Block (EBTFB) is the most threatened area due to low forest cover and high encroachment. Based on a preliminary survey in 2008, Hopong forest which is located in EBTFB, had the highest orangutan density (0.7 ind/km2 ). However illegal logging and hunting of protected species were occuring in this unprotected forest. Since this location has been gazetted as unprotected forest from the first survey until this study was conducted, it is important to assess orangutans population trends...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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