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Journal of Equine Science

Atsushi Yamasaki, Takaya Omura, Daiki Murata, Minoru Kobayashi, Takafumi Sunaga, Kanichi Kusano, Yoshiharu Ueno, Tomohide Kuramoto, Seiji Hobo, Kazuhiro Misumi
Synovium-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SM-MSCs) from seven Thoroughbreds with naturally occurring intra-articular fracture proliferated to over ten million cells by the second passage. Using three experimental Thoroughbreds, columnar osteochondral defects were made arthroscopically at the bilateral distal radius. Five million allogenic SM-MSCs were implanted into the right defect, and another five million were injected into the right radio-carpal joint (implantation site). No SM-MSCs were implanted into the left defect or the same joint (control site)...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Hiroshi Bannai, Manabu Nemoto, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kokado, Takashi Kondo
In order to establish an efficient system for serological diagnosis of equine viral arteritis in Japan, we compared enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) provided by two manufacturers (Nisseiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, and VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA, U.S.A.) by testing a series of horse sera. The results revealed that 159 of 160 virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody-positive serum samples were positive in both the Nisseiken-ELISA and VMRD-ELISA. Of the VN-negative sera (n=157), 134 and 154 samples were negative in the Nisseiken-ELISA and VMRD-ELISA, respectively...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Kazutaka Yamada, Masanari Araki, Hirotaka Tokushige, Ryosuke Fujiki, Satoshi Sakai, Oki Tateno, Seigo Mashita, Kanichi Kusano
Equine scintigraphy has been legally permitted in Japan since 2009; however, it has not yet been a routine modality for horses. One reason is the legal regulations concerning the disposal of contaminated bedding. However, overseas, the bedding after scintigraphy can be disposed following radioactivity decay, but this is not allowed in Japan. Therefore, beddings are required to stored permanently in a controlled area, implying that large amounts of beddings such as straw would be kept untreated, which is quite unpractical...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Akane Senokuchi, Shingo Ishikawa, Teruaki Tozaki, Masaki Takasu, Hironaga Kakoi, Kazuhiro Misumi, Seiji Hobo
In order to promote conservation of the traditional Tokara horse in its remaining three breeding areas in Japan (Nakanoshima, Kaimondake, and Iriki), we genotyped 123 horses using 31 microsatellite markers and determined their genetic diversity. On average, the number of alleles (NA ), observed heterozygosity (HO ), expected heterozygosity (HE ), and inbreeding coefficient (FIS ) among all horses were 3.0, 0.424, 0.481, and 0.108, respectively. Compared with other endangered horse breeds, we found that, even though the size of the Tokara horse population has recently increased, the NA , HO , and HE of Tokara horses are still notably lower than those of other breeds...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Hadi Ghezelsoflou, Peiman Hamidi, Shahabodin Gharahveysi
The Iranian Turkoman horse is considered one of the major categories of Iranian native horses. The aim of this research was to study the genetic and nongenetic factors affecting body conformation traits in Iranian Turkoman horses. For this, measurements were performed on body conformation traits of 121 horses. To study the effect of nongenetic factors, the Lsmeans procedure was used. Variance components and heritability were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method (REML) and AI-REML convergence algorithm...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Natsuko Senju, Teruaki Tozaki, Hironaga Kakoi, Ryota Matsuyama, Kotono Nakamura, Masaki Takasu
The Miyako and Yonaguni horses are native horses in Okinawa. Here, we evaluated their genetic relationship using microsatellite data and Kiso horses, which have four subpopulations, as a reference population for evaluating this relationship. Microsatellite data from 35 Miyako, 78 Yonaguni, and 172 Kiso horses were evaluated using the STRUCTURE software for analyzing multilocus genotype data to investigate the population structures and their underlying relationship. The results of the STRUCTURE analysis were stable when ΔK was 2, suggesting that the Okinawan horses are different from the Kiso horses...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Motoi Nomura, Fumiaki Mizobe, Tomohiro Kato, Taisuke Kuroda, Shuntaro Urayama, Masanori Muranaka
Although severe blood coagulopathy in horses with acute colitis causes multiple organ failure, which may be fatal, few studies have focused on the correlation between the fluctuations of coagulation parameters and severity of colitis. In this study, we evaluated the fluctuations of coagulation parameters in 14 Thoroughbred racehorses with acute colitis for 5 days from the day of hospitalization and compared them between 5 survivors and 9 non-survivors. Noteworthy features in the non-survivors were that antithrombin activity and fibrin degradation products continuously decreased and increased, respectively, for 4 days or more and that thrombin-antithrombin complexes increased in the last 2 days before death...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yoshinori Kambayashi, Nao Tsuzuki, Hirotaka Tokushige, Kanichi Kusano
It is desirable to reduce surgery-induced oxidative stress (OS) because it can cause immune suppression and delayed wound healing. Propofol is known to have antioxidant potential and to reduce OS in humans, but there have been no studies of this issue in horses. This study was conducted to evaluate OS under three different propofol administration protocols in Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing arthroscopic surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia. Blood oxidative stress (bOS) and blood antioxidant power (bAP) were used as OS biomarkers...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Daniel T Kasper, Rex F Gandy
The 2016 Equibase data set of American Quarter Horse starts in North America was analyzed, with the purpose of ranking the sires of the racehorses. A speed z-score derived from the race times and distances was used as a racing performance measure. Mixed effects models were used on various subsets of the data based on race distance and sire offspring number. The sire categorical variable was considered as a random effect. Various statistical criteria were used to optimize the model. The constructed models were then varied in terms of the random and fixed effects included, and the conditional modes of the sire effects were extracted from these models...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Harutaka Murase, Akira Matsui, Yoshiro Endo, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada
The lying behavior of Thoroughbred foals on breeding farms was continuously measured using triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometers were attached on the side of the hind limb cannon and under the halter of six foals to record triaxial angle data every 10 sec for a period of 24 hr. Lying behavior was divided into sternal lying and lateral lying based on head angle. Sampling was performed for two consecutive days each week until weaning. Sampling periods were divided into two periods on the basis of pasturing time: daytime pasturing (period A: 7-hr pasturing period, 2-60 days of age) and overnight pasturing (period B: 19-hr pasturing period, 32-152 days of age)...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Kanaporn Poltep, Parichart Tesena, Yodying Yingchutrakul, Jane Taylor, Tuempong Wongtawan
Silent gastric ulceration occurs without evidence of clinical signs and is common in horses. There is currently no a simple and effective method to diagnose this disease. Proteomics can be used to identify serum biomarkers, but the most abundant serum protein, albumin, could conceal candidate biomarkers. Therefore, it is recommended to remove albumin before a proteomic study; however, there is no specific albumin depletion kit or standard protocol available for horse samples. The objectives of this study were to optimise a protocol to remove equine serum albumin and to use albumin-depleted serum to identify the protein biomarkers for silent gastric ulceration...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Laura Crotch-Harvey, Leigh-Anne Thomas, Hilary J Worgan, Jamie-Leigh Douglas, Diane E Gilby, Neil R McEwan
Anthelmintics are used as anti-worming agents. Although known to affect their target organisms, nothing has been published regarding their effect on other digestive tract organisms or on metabolites produced by them. The current work investigated effects of fenbendazole, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, on bacteria and ciliates in the equine digestive tract and on and their major metabolites. Animals receiving anthelmintic treatment had high faecal egg counts relative to controls. Analysis was performed over two weeks, with temporal differences detected in bacterial populations but with no other significant differences detected...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Riccardo Rinnovati, Barbara Bianchin Butina, Jessica Bianchi, Armando Foglia, Carlotta Lambertini, Sara Del Magno
Branchial remnant cysts are an uncommon cause of masses of the throatlatch area in horses. Two methods of treatment have been proposed in literature, both with complications. This manuscript proposes a method (marsupialization and sclerotherapy) for the treatment of a cyst in a 1.5-year-old Arabian filly. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonographic, radiographic and endoscopic examinations, revealing an anechoic fluid-filled structure and a well-defined capsule not in communication with other structures. After emptying the cyst, the skin was sutured circumferentially to the cyst wall; it was then flushed first with a solution of ethanol and povidone-iodine, then with sterile saline...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Hironaga Kakoi, Mio Kikuchi, Teruaki Tozaki, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Seiji Hobo, Masaki Takasu
The distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes in Japanese native horse populations was investigated to obtain genetic information on these populations. Here, 159 male/gelded horses from eight local populations were investigated, and three Y haplotypes (JHT-1, JHT-2, and JHT-3) were identified by analyzing five Y-linked loci. Five populations had only JHT-1, whereas two populations had only JHT-2. One population had JHT-1 and JHT-3. Based on the geographical distribution of these haplotypes and previously reported haplotypes for other Asian horses, JHT-1 is considered to be a major haplotype in ancestral native horses...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yuki Kimura, Motoki Sasaki, Kenichi Watanabe, Pramod Dhakal, Fumio Sato, Kazuyoshi Taya, Yasuo Nambo
Activin is secreted from equine uterine glands and plays important roles in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mares. This study aimed to localize activin receptors (ActRs) IA/B and IIA/B using immunohistochemistry in the uteroplacental tissues of seven pregnant Thoroughbred mares. At the time of tissue collection, the mares were at the following days of pregnancy: 88, 120, 161, 269, 290, 313, and 335 days. We fixed the uteroplacental tissues in 4% paraformaldehyde and obtained serial sections that were subsequently stained for analysis...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Karuppusamy Shanmugasundaram, Taruna Anand, Bidhan Chandra Bera, Mamta Tigga, Ramesh Dedar, Thachamvally Riyesh, Shashank Bardwaj, Nitin Virmani, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi, Rajkumar Singh
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a well-known Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing a plethora of diseases in different animals. Although its infection has been reported from pigs and dogs in India, no report of B. bronchiseptica from horses is described. We report for the first time, isolation, identification and characterization of strains of B. bronchiseptica from respiratory infection in horses from different states in India. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed resistance to penicillins, ceftazidime, and chloramphanicol...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
Polymorphisms in MSTN have previously been associated with equine performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify variants in MSTN intron 1 in 16 Brazilian Sport Horses selected for competition in eventing and their possible effects of selection on performance. Among the nine variants identified, eight had already been reported in previous studies or genomic databases, although they showed differences in frequencies when compared with other horse breeds. Moreover, a new mutation was identified in two horses, both in heterozygous form...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Shuntaro Urayama, Daisuke Arima, Fumiaki Mizobe, Yuta Shinzaki, Motoi Nomura, Yohei Minamijima, Kanichi Kusano
Although hyperglycemia at admission with colic has been reported to have a poor prognosis, there is no report specifically about acute colitis with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in horses. In this study, we measured blood glucose (Glu), insulin (Ins), and cortisol (Cor) levels in 17 Thoroughbred racehorses diagnosed as having acute colitis with SIRS, and examined the relationship between time-dependent changes in Glu, Ins, and Cor and prognosis. Glu levels were high in 3 horses at admission, but thereafter no horses had persistently high Glu levels...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yoko Nakamae, Akikazu Ishihara, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Naoki Sasaki, Kazutaka Yamada
Computed tomography (CT) was performed for an 18-year-old female pony with enterolithiasis in the prone and supine positions. CT images from the prone position revealed displacement of the large dorsal colon, which contained an enterolith to the ventral side of the abdomen, and those from the supine position revealed displacement to the dorsal side. A high-density material suggestive of a metallic foreign body was also observed in the enterolith core. An enterolith (422 g, 104 mm) was surgically removed from the large dorsal colon...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Yuki Kimura, Shingo Haneda, Takahiro Aoki, Hidefumi Furuoka, Wataru Miki, Natsuko Fukumoto, Motozumi Matsui, Yasuo Nambo
The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7-12 of pregnancy. The mares were divided into three groups: those pathologically diagnosed as placentitis (placentitis group, n=3); those who had abortion, premature birth, or fetal malformation (abnormal group, n=7); and those who had no abnormal findings (normal group, n=25). In the normal group, CTUP increased as pregnancy progressed from Months 7 (median, 7...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
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