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ISRN Neuroscience

Ralf Landwehr, Andreas Volpert, Ahmad Jowaed
Pointwise transinformation (PTI) provides a quantitative nonlinear approach to spatiotemporal synchronization patterns of the rhythms of coupled cortical oscillators. We applied PTI to the waking and sleep EEGs of 21 healthy sleepers; we calculated the mean levels and distances of synchronized episodes and estimated the dominant frequency shift from unsynchronized to synchronized EEG segments by spectral analysis. Recurrent EEG synchronization appeared and ceased abruptly in the anterior, central, and temporal derivations; in the posterior derivations it appeared more fluctuating...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
Akira Yasumura, Masumi Inagaki, Kazuo Hiraki
Objective. This study examined the relationship between neural activity and executive function (EF) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In addition, an oral reading span test (RST) was used to explore this association. Methods. Fifteen adults participated in the study. We used the RST and simple reading as the two tasks. Results. The RST score and cortical hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus were significantly correlated. Conclusion. Based on the oral RST performance assessment and NIRS examination, the present findings suggest a relationship between EF and cortical activation...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
Amjed S Al-Fahoum, Ausilah A Al-Fraihat
Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
Shraddha Mainali, Mervat Wahba, Lucas Elijovich
Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
A I Peter, M B Ekong, K Davies, O O Azu, R B Bassey, L O Ugwu, I U Umoh
Introduction. Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor antiretroviral agent used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. This study was to investigate the effects of coadministration of neurovite and lamivudine on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Twenty Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups. Group A animals were the control treated with distilled water. Groups B, C, and D animals were treated, respectively, with therapeutic dose of lamivudine (4...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
Sekar Sathiya, Murugan Ganesh, Periyathambi Kalaivani, Vijayan Ranju, Srinivasan Janani, Bakthavachalam Pramila, Chidambaram Saravana Babu
Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11)...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
En-Ju D Lin, C Wymond Symes, Andrea Townsend-Nicholson, Matthias Klugmann, Claudia B Klugmann, Klaus Lehnert, Dahna Fong, Deborah Young, Matthew J During
We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of inducing a humoral response with autoantibodies to the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor using a genetic approach. In this study, we generated three recombinant proteins to different functional domains of the NMDA receptor, which is implicated in mediating brain tolerance, specifically NR1[21-375], NR1[313-619], NR1[654-800], and an intracellular scaffolding protein, Homer1a, with a similar anatomical expression pattern. All peptides showed similar antigenicity and antibody titers following systemic vaccination, and all animals thrived...
2014: ISRN Neuroscience
Leonard K Kaczmarek
The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of non-selective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons...
April 18, 2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Andrej Vranic
Objective. Information about possible prognostic factors of the survival of patients with atypical and malignant meningiomas (AMM) is sparse. The aim of our study was to evaluate prognostic significance of apoptotic marker caspase-3 and apoptotic inhibitor survivin in a series of primary AMM. Methods. 86 AMM (76 atypical and 10 malignant) were analyzed. Caspase-3 and survivin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. The correlation between caspase-3, survivin, and other possible factors of meningioma recurrence was evaluated...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Ann-Louise Bergström, Karina Fog, Thomas Nikolaj Sager, Anne Techau Bruun, Kenneth Thirstrup
The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central transcription factor involved in the cellular and molecular adaptation to hypoxia and low glucose supply. The level of HIF-1 is to a large degree regulated by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (HPHs) belonging to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. In the present study, we compared competitive and noncompetitive HPH-inhibitor compounds in two different cell types (SH-SY5Y and PC12). Although the competitive HPH-inhibitor compounds were found to be pharmacologically more potent than the non-competitive compounds at inhibiting HPH2 and HPH1, this was not translated into the cellular effects of the compounds, where the non-competitive inhibitors were actually more potent than the competitive in stabilizing and translocatingHIF1 α to the nucleus (quantified with Cellomics ArrayScan technology)...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Luciana Karen Calábria, Alice Vieira da Costa, Renato José da Silva Oliveira, Simone Ramos Deconte, Rafael Nascimento, Washington João de Carvalho, Vanessa Neves de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Arcaro Filho, Luciana Rezende Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Foued Salmen Espindola
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, which may lead to brain tissue damage due to oxidative stress and also contributes to neuronal death and changes in synaptic transmission. This study evaluated the effect of oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants supplementation on myosins expression levels in the brains of chronic diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, and myosins-IIB and -Va expressions at transcriptional and translational levels were examined after 90 days induction...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
E G Hasankhani, F Omidi-Kashani
Introduction. Radicular low back pain is one of the most common medical problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and electrodiagnosis in lower extremity radicular pain in relation to history and clinical findings. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we studied 165 sciatalgic subjects. A comprehensive history and physical examinations were taken from the subjects and recorded, and then MRI scanning and electrodiagnostic (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography) tests were performed...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Luca Bonfanti
During the last two decades basic research in neuroscience has remarkably expanded due to the discovery of neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The existence of such unexpected plasticity triggered hopes for alternative approaches to brain repair, yet deeper investigation showed that constitutive mammalian neurogenesis is restricted to two small "neurogenic sites" hosting NSCs as remnants of embryonic germinal layers and subserving homeostatic roles in specific neural systems...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Denisa Salihović, Dževdet Smajlović, Omer Ć Ibrahimagić
The aim of this study was to determine whether volume and localization of intracerebral hematoma affects the six-month prognosis of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients and Methods. The study included 75 patients with ICH of both sex and all age groups. ICH, based on CT scan findings, was divided in the following groups: lobar, subcortical, infratentorial, intraventricular haemorrhage and multiple hematomas. Volume of intracerebral hematoma was calculated according to formula V = 0.5 × a × b × c...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Negar Noorizadeh, Kamran Kazemi, Reinhard Grebe, Mohammad Sadegh Helfroush, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Fabrice Wallois
It is well established that the two hemispheres of the human brain exhibit a certain degree of asymmetry. Postmortem studies of developing brains of pre- and postpartum infants have shown that already in this early stage of development Heschl gyrus, planum temporale and superior temporal sulcus (STS) exhibit pronounced asymmetry. Advances in acquisition and computational evaluation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images provide enhanced tools for noninvasive studies of brain asymmetry in newborns. Until now most atlases used for image processing contain themselves asymmetry and may thus introduce and/or increase asymmetry already contained in the original data of brain structural or functional images...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Giorgio A Ascoli
This paper aims to frame certain fundamental aspects of the human mind (content and meaning of mental states) and foundational elements of brain computation (spatial and temporal patterns of neural activity) so as to enable at least in principle their integration within one and the same quantitative representation. Through the history of science, similar approaches have been instrumental to bridge other seemingly mysterious scientific phenomena, such as thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, optics and electromagnetism, or chemistry and quantum physics, among several other examples...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Amrutha Chilumuri, Nathaniel G N Milton
Recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin (KP) and kissorphin (KSO) peptides have neuroprotective actions against the Alzheimer's amyloid- β (A β ) peptide. Overexpression of the human KiSS-1 gene that codes for KP and KSO peptides in SH-SY5Y neurons has also been shown to inhibit A β neurotoxicity. The in vivo actions of KP include activation of neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems. The present study used antagonists of KP, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), opioids, oxytocin, estrogen, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors plus inhibitors of catalase, cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and the mitogen activated protein kinase cascade to characterize the KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against A β cell model...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Anthony Moretti, Alma Ramirez, Richard Mink
Background. The mechanisms involving the initiation of apoptosis after brain hypoxia-ischemia through caspase activation are not fully defined. Oxygen free radicals may be an important mediator of caspase initiation with reactive oxygen species generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) being one potential source. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of XO in apoptosis after global cerebral injury. Methods. Immature rabbits were subjected to 8 minutes hypoxia and 8 minutes ischemia and then 4 hours of reperfusion...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Hai-Peng Yang, Liwei Wang, Liqun Han, Stephani C Wang
Oxytocin (OXT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide composed of nine amino acids. The functions of OXT cover a variety of social and nonsocial activity/behaviors. Therapeutic effects of OXT on aberrant social behaviors are attracting more attention, such as social memory, attachment, sexual behavior, maternal behavior, aggression, pair bonding, and trust. The nonsocial behaviors/functions of brain OXT have also received renewed attention, which covers brain development, reproduction, sex, endocrine, immune regulation, learning and memory, pain perception, energy balance, and almost all the functions of peripheral organ systems...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
Hans J Markowitsch
Relations between memory and the self are framed from a number of perspectives-developmental aspects, forms of memory, interrelations between memory and the brain, and interactions between the environment and memory. The self is seen as dividable into more rudimentary and more advanced aspects. Special emphasis is laid on memory systems and within them on episodic autobiographical memory which is seen as a pure human form of memory that is dependent on a proper ontogenetic development and shaped by the social environment, including culture...
2013: ISRN Neuroscience
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