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Tissue Barriers

Andrei Ivanov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Chaoling Dong, Eroboghene E Ubogu
The human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) formed by endoneurial microvascular endothelial cells, serves to maintain the internal microenvironment in peripheral nerves required for normal axonal signal transduction to and from the central nervous system. The mechanisms of human BNB formation in health and disease are not fully elucidated. Prior work established a sufficient role for glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in enhancing human BNB biophysical properties following serum withdrawal in vitro via RET-tyrosine kinase-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling...
December 7, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Honglei Chen, Rong Lu, Yong-Guo Zhang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to various inflammatory diseases in lungs, including pneumonia, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms by which vitamin D and vitamin D receptor reduce inflammation in lung diseases remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the expression and cell-specific distribution of tight and adherens junctions in the lungs of vitamin D receptor-deficient (VDR-/- ) mice. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein levels of claudin-2, claudin-4 and claudin-12 were significantly decreased in the lungs of VDR-/- mice...
November 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Ashfaqul Alam, Andrew Neish
The mammalian intestine harbors a highly complex and abundant ensemble of bacteria that flourish in a nutrient-rich environment while profoundly influencing many aspects of host biology. The intestine coevolved with its resident microbes in a manner where the mucosa developed a barrier function to segregate the resident microbes from the rest of the body, and yet paradoxically, allowing integration of microbial signals for the host benefit. In this review, we provided a comprehensive overview of why the gut microbiota is key to the efficient development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier...
November 7, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Ekaterina Vasileva, Sandra Citi
The cytoskeleton is crucially important for the assembly of cell-cell junctions and the homeostatic regulation of their functions. Junctional proteins act, in turn, as anchors for cytoskeletal filaments, and as regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and signalling proteins. The cross-talk between junctions and the cytoskeleton is critical for the morphogenesis and physiology of epithelial and other tissues, but is not completely understood. Microtubules are implicated in the delivery of junctional proteins to cell-cell contact sites, in the differentiation and spatial organization of the cytoplasm, and in the stabilization of the barrier and adhesive functions of junctions...
November 5, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Bobak Parang, Joshua J Thompson, Christopher S Williams
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) is a tight-junction associated protein that was originally discovered from a cDNA screen of the developing heart. Research over the last decade has shown that not only is BVES is expressed in cardiac and skeletal tissue, but BVES is also is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium. Mice lacking BVES sustain worse intestinal injury and inflammation. Furthermore, BVES is suppressed in gastrointestinal cancers, and mouse modeling has shown that loss of BVES promotes tumor formation...
October 11, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Lisa Bierbaumer, Uwe Yacine Schwarze, Reinhard Gruber, Winfried Neuhaus
Understanding the function of oral mucosal epithelial barriers is essential for a plethora of research fields such as tumor biology, inflammation and infection diseases, microbiomics, pharmacology, drug delivery, dental and biomarker research. The barrier properties are comprised by a physical, a transport and a metabolic barrier, and all these barrier components play pivotal roles in the communication between saliva and blood. The sum of all epithelia of the oral cavity and salivary glands is defined as the blood-saliva barrier...
September 25, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Christina M Van Itallie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Laura González-González, Christian Hernández-Guzmán
Tight junctions (TJs) are sites of cell-cell adhesion, constituted by a cytoplasmic plaque of molecules linked to integral proteins that form a network of strands around epithelial and endothelial cells at the uppermost portion of the lateral membrane. TJs maintain plasma membrane polarity and form channels and barriers that regulate the transit of ions and molecules through the paracellular pathway. This structure that regulates traffic between the external milieu and the organism is affected in numerous pathological conditions and constitutes an important target for therapeutic intervention...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Emily I Bartle, Tejeshwar C Rao, Tara M Urner, Alexa L Mattheyses
Cell junctions are critical for cell adhesion and communication in epithelial tissues. It is evident that the cellular distribution, size, and architecture of cell junctions play a vital role in regulating function. These details of junction architecture have been challenging to elucidate in part due to the complexity and size of cell junctions. A major challenge in understanding these features is attaining high resolution spatial information with molecular specificity. Fluorescence microscopy allows localization of specific proteins to junctions, but with a resolution on the same scale as junction size, rendering internal protein organization unobtainable...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
MaryPeace McRae, Lindsay M LaFratta, Benjamin M Nguyen, Jason J Paris, Kurt F Hauser, Daniel E Conway
A principal function of endothelial cells is the formation of a barrier between the blood and tissues.  This barrier arises from the physical connections at cell-cell junctions, which includes cytoskeletal tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Methods that alter barrier function must therefore affect these cell-cell connections. The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents perhaps the most selective endothelial barrier, which arises from endothelial cell interactions with astrocytes and pericytes. Even in non-central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, barrier properties can be enhanced, mimicking the BBB, through induction of intercellular junctions, by either direct co-culture with astrocytes, supplementation with astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM) and/or pharmacologic enhancement of cAMP...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Camila Zanluca, Lucia de Noronha, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
In this review, we give an overview of aspects related to the congenital transmission of the Zika virus (ZIKV). Although we acknowledge that important advances in research on ZIKV pathogenesis have come from studies using animal models, particularly non-human primates, this review emphasizes studies using ex-vivo human cells and tissues as well as natural infections in pregnant women. The possible routes used by ZIKV to cross or breach the placental barrier and infect the fetal central nervous system are presented...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Pratap Karki, Konstantin G Birukov
Lipid mediators play a critical role in the development and resolution of vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by various pathologic interventions. The accumulation of excess lipids directly impairs endothelial cell (EC) barrier function that is known to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes as well as chronic inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Certain products of phospholipid oxidation (OxPL) such as fragmented phospholipids generated during oxidative and nitrosative stress show pro-inflammatory potential and cause endothelial barrier dysfunction...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Christina M Van Itallie, James M Anderson
Phosphorylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that can alter protein structure, localization, protein-protein interactions and stability. All of the identified tight junction transmembrane proteins can be multiply phosphorylated, but only in a few cases are the consequences of phosphorylation at specific sites well characterized. The goal of this review is to highlight some of the best understood examples of phosphorylation changes in the integral membrane tight junction proteins in the context of more general overview of the effects of phosphorylation throughout the proteome...
January 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Junichi Ikenouchi
Epithelial cells have characteristic membrane domains. Identification of membrane proteins playing an important role in these membrane domains has progressed and numerous studies have been performed on the functional analysis of these membrane proteins. On the other hand, the precise roles of membrane lipids in the organization of these membrane domains are largely unknown. Historically, the concept of lipid raft arose from the analysis of lipid composition of the apical membrane, and it can be said that epithelial cells are an optimal experimental model for elucidating the functions of lipids...
2018: Tissue Barriers
Mei-Jun Zhu, Xiaofei Sun, Min Du
Gut epithelium covers the inner layer of the gastrointestinal tract and provides a physical barrier to separate the host from its external environment, and its barrier function is critical for maintaining host health. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a master regulator of energy metabolism plays a critical role in epithelial barrier function. AMPK activation promotes epithelial differentiation and facilitates cell polarity establishment, both of which strengthen epithelial barrier. In addition, AMPK promotes the assembly of tight junctions and adherens junctions by direct phosphorylation of proteins composing apical junctions, junctional anchors, and cytoskeletons...
2018: Tissue Barriers
Chaoling Dong, E Scott Helton, Ping Zhou, Xuan Ouyang, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Alberto Pascual, José López-Barneo, Eroboghene E Ubogu
There is emerging evidence that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent inducer of restrictive barrier function in tight junction-forming microvascular endothelium and epithelium, including the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in vitro. We sought to determine the role of GDNF in restoring BNB function in vivo by evaluating sciatic nerve horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in tamoxifen-inducible GDNF conditional knockout (CKO) adult mice following non-transecting crush injury via electron microscopy, with appropriate wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HET) littermate controls...
2018: Tissue Barriers
Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Panisara Wattanaphichet, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Chatchai Muanprasat
Tight junctions play key roles in the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function and promotion of tight junction integrity is beneficial to lung health. G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 40 has been identified as a receptor of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate the function of GPR40 in regulating tight junction assembly in human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) using GW9508, a GPR40 agonist. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses showed that Calu-3 cells expressed both types of polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors including GPR40 and GPR120...
2018: Tissue Barriers
Sergio E Chiarella, Erik E Rabin, Lorena A Ostilla, Annette S Flozak, Cara J Gottardi
α-Catenins are actin-filament binding proteins and critical subunits of the cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesive complex. They are found in nominally-defined epithelial (E), neural (N), and testis (T) forms transcribed from three distinct genes. While most of α-catenin research has focused on the developmentally essential founding member, αE-catenin, this review discusses recent studies on αT-catenin (CTNNA3), a developmentally dispensable isoform that is emerging as relevant to cardiac, allergic and neurological diseases...
2018: Tissue Barriers
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