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Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy

Sumadee De Silva, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Eric Hamilton Karunanayake
Cancer is a socioeconomical burden in any nation. Out of that, breast cancer is identified as the most common malignancy worldwide among women irrespective of age. As women are an important segment in a community, the weakening of their strength toward the development of a nation is a critical problem in each nation. In this review, it was aimed to discuss the characteristics of cancer genome, cancer genetics, and cancer epigenetics in general and then focus on discussing both genetic and nongenetic factors responsible for the predisposition of breast cancer in humans...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Nehad M Ayoub, Kamal M Al-Shami, Rami J Yaghan
Cancer immunotherapy has evolved dramatically with improved understanding of immune microenvironment and immunosurveillance. The immunogenicity of breast cancer is rather heterogeneous. Specific subtypes of breast cancer such as estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, human EGF receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have shown evidence of immunogenicity based on tumor-immune interactions. Several preclinical and clinical studies have explored the potential for immunotherapy to improve the clinical outcomes for different subtypes of breast cancer...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Kritiya Butthongkomvong, Nilubol Raunroadroong, Sirikul Sorrarichingchai, Isaraporn Sangsaikae, Vichien Srimuninnimit, Henrik Harling, Stig Larsen
Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of BP-C1 vs equal-looking placebo in metastatic breast cancer. Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center study with a semicross-over design was performed. Sixteen patients received daily intramuscular injection of 0.035 mg/kg bodyweight of BP-C1 and 15 patients received equal-looking placebo for 32 days. After 32 days, the placebo patients crossed to BP-C1 with the last observation in the placebo period as baseline...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Silvia Antolín, Benigno Acea, Luis Albaina, Ángel Concha, Paz Santiago, Tomás García-Caballero, Joaquín J Mosquera, José Ramón Varela, Rafaela Soler, Lourdes Calvo
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, cardiotoxicity profile and long-term benefits of neoadjuvant therapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: A total of 142 patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2016 were included in the study. The treatment consisted of a sequential regimen of taxanes and anthracyclines plus trastuzumab. The clinical and pathological responses were evaluated and correlated with clinical and biological factors...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Mikiyas Amare Getu, Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Awet Fitiwi Gebrekiristos
Background: Breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, very low-cost, non-invasive early detection method used to detect breast cancer at early stage. It should be done for all women older than 20 years. The aim of this study was to assess BSE practice and associated factors among female undergraduate students in Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Departments were selected from College of Business and Economics by using lottery method...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
L A Koehler, T C Haddad, D W Hunter, T M Tuttle
Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a common condition occurring in up to 86% of patients following breast cancer surgery with ipsilateral lymphadenectomy of one or more nodes. AWS presents as a single cord or multiple thin cords in the subcutaneous tissues of the ipsilateral axilla. The cords may extend variable distances "down" the ipsilateral arm and/or chest wall. The cords frequently result in painful shoulder abduction and limited shoulder range of motion. AWS most frequently becomes symptomatic between 2 and 8 weeks postoperatively but can also develop and recur months to years after surgery...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Odalys Torres-Luquis, Krystal Madden, N'sanh Mr N'dri, Richard Berg, Olufunmilayo F Olopade, Wilfred Ngwa, Dafalla Abuidris, Suresh Mittal, Beverly Lyn-Cook, Sulma I Mohammed
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more prevalent in African and African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women. African and AA women diagnosed with TNBC experience high frequencies of metastases and less favorable outcomes. Emerging evidence indicates that this disparity may in fact be the result of the uniquely aggressive biology of African and AA disease. Purpose: To understand the reasons for TNBC in AA aggressive biology, we designed the present study to examine the proteomic profiles of TNBC and luminal A (LA) breast cancer within and across patients' racial demographic groups in order to identify proteins or molecular pathways altered in TNBC that offer some explanation for its aggressiveness and potential targets for treatment...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Nathan I Cherny, Shani Paluch-Shimon, Yael Berner-Wygoda
Advanced breast cancer is characterized by many physical manifestations with the potential to undermine the quality of life (most related to the cancer and some to treatments), as well as substantial impact on psychosocial well-being. Patients with advanced breast cancer and their families have complex needs that have to be addressed in order to minimize severe distress and deterioration in the quality of life of patients and their family members. This task requires the full engagement of an interdisciplinary approach to palliative care with strong emphasis on the assessment of needs and anticipated needs, patient expectations, skilled therapeutics, and commitment to continuity of care...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Wamidh H Talib, Sonia A Al-Hadid, Mai B Wild Ali, Intisar Hadi Al-Yasari, Mohammed R Abd Ali
p53 is a tumor suppressor gene involved in various cellular mechanisms including DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. More than 50% of human cancers have a mutated nonfunctional p53. Breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths among females. p53 mutations in BC are associated with low survival rates and more resistance to the conventional therapies. Thus, targeting p53 activity was suggested as an important strategy in cancer therapy. During the past decades, cancer research was focused on the development of monotargeted anticancer therapies...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Yueyao Du, Tingting Yan, Liheng Zhou, Wenjin Yin, Jinsong Lu
Background: Germline genetic polymorphisms in certain genes are associated with the response to anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC). This translational study aims to evaluate the potential role of rs1042713 in the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ( ADRB2 ) gene in predicting pathological complete responses (pCRs) to taxane- and platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Materials and methods: The distribution frequencies of rs1042713 were genotyped in LABC patients who received taxane- and platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Farahnaz Sadoughi, Zahra Kazemy, Farahnaz Hamedan, Leila Owji, Meysam Rahmanikatigari, Tahere Talebi Azadboni
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women around the world. Despite enormous medical progress, breast cancer has still remained the second leading cause of death worldwide; thus, its early diagnosis has a significant impact on reducing mortality. However, it is often difficult to diagnose breast abnormalities. Different tools such as mammography, ultrasound, and thermography have been developed to screen breast cancer. In this way, the computer helps radiologists identify chest abnormalities more efficiently using image processing and artificial intelligence (AI) tools...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Yuko Tsunoda, Akiko Sasaki, Naomi Sakamoto, Kou Teraoka, Rie Nakagawa, Yoshitomo Koshida, Eisuke Fukuma
Background: Identification of the proteins that are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) status is a first step in selecting drugs against hormone-dependent breast cancer. Recently, the proteins associated with ER status were reported using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and microRNA (miRNA) profiling of breast cancer subtype was demonstrated using real-time-PCR. Methods: We present herein two cases with differential protein expression and miRNA profiling in ER-positive and -negative breast cancer...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Silvia Mihaela Ilie, Xenia Elena Bacinschi, Inga Botnariuc, Rodica Maricela Anghel
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor prognosis, even in its early stages. In the absence of postoperative targeted treatments, intensive adjuvant chemotherapy regimens are proposed. For those favorable histologies, such as apocrine and adenoid cystic carcinoma, which frequently belong to TNBC, aggressive treatments are unnecessary. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 631 cases of breast cancer, primary operated curatively, and followed up at our institution for at least 36 months to identify the bio-markers assessable by immunohistochemistry, to be proposed as prognostic score for tailoring adjuvant treatment to TNBC patients...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Ghada El-Sagheer, Mariana Gayyed, Asmaa Ahmad, Aliaa Abd El-Fattah, Manar Mohamed
Objective: Chemerin was reported to regulate adipogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. But, its relation to cancer remains controversial. In breast cancer, chemerin expression has only been studied in serum, however, its expression in tissue, to our knowledge, has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate chemerin expression in breast cancer tissue in comparison to the adjacent normal tissue, and to assess its relationship to disease prognosis. Methods: We examined chemerin expression in tissue with immunohistochemistry and analyzed the association of chemerin expression with the patients' clinical and pathological characteristics to determine its role as a predictor of the disease and its relation to disease prognosis...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Carlo Lozano, Claudio Córdova, Ivanny Marchant, Rodrigo Zúñiga, Paola Ochova, Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes, Wilfredo Alejandro González-Arriagada, Belén Rodriguez, Pablo Olivero
Background: Breast cancer is a malignant disease that represents an important public health burden. The description of new molecular markers can be important to diagnosis, classification, and treatment. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) polymodal channel is expressed in different neoplastic tissues and cell lines of breast cancer and associated with the regulation of tumor growth, tumor neurogenesis, cancer pain, and malignant progression of cancer. In primary and metastatic breast cancer tumors, TRPV1 is expressed during neoplastic transformation, invasive behavior, and resistance to cytotoxic therapy...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Anwar E Ahmed, Alhanouf N Albalawi, Eiman T Qureshey, Aisha T Qureshey, Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh
Background: Although psychological symptoms and oral health status are associated with health management and outcomes among cancer patients, their association has not been assessed in Saudi Arabia. We aimed to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with their oral health status, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. Methods: A self-reported study included 375 adult cancer patients who received outpatient healthcare services in the Oncology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 1 and August 31, 2017...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Cinzia Digesù, Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Martina Pieri, Alice Zamagni, Andrea Farioli, Milly Buwenge, Gabriella Ferrandina, Alessio G Morganti
Aim: To compare late toxicity after postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) and standard fractionated RT in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. Methods: This retrospective study included 447 patients (Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy [MARA-1]: 317 patients, and control group [CG]: 130 patients). In the CG, the whole breast received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (fx) using 3D-radiotherapy, plus a sequential electron boost (10 Gy in 4 fx) to tumor bed...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Yesenia L Franco, Tanaya R Vaidya, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Breast cancer (BC) is a highly prevalent disease, accounting for the second highest number of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. The anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX), isolated from Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius , is a potent chemotherapeutic drug that is successfully used to treat various forms of liquid and solid tumors and is currently approved to treat BC. DOX exerts its effects by intercalation into DNA and inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, causing damage to DNA and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in the activation of caspases, which ultimately leads to apoptosis...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Parth S Shah, Shiva Murarka, Anupam Joshi, Bhavna Mehta, Vipal Parmar, Nidhi Shah, Khushbu Patel, Jacob Sands
Introduction: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification is present in almost 15%-20% of breast cancer tumors, making it an important parameter for testing. The present study was designed to evaluate a chip-based digital PCR (dPCR) system for assessing HER2 amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma tissue and to compare this system with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Materials and methods: A total of 84 breast carcinoma tissue samples were analyzed by IHC, FISH, and chip-based dPCR in a blinded manner...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Turki M Alanzi, Alanoud Alobrah, Reem Alhumaidi, Shahad Aloraifi
Purpose: The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the SnapChat social networking mobile application in increasing the awareness of breast cancer among the Saudi female students in the Dammam region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: An intervention study was carried out with 200 participants divided among 2 groups: a control group and an intervention group. The control group did not receive any awareness materials, and the intervention group received awareness about breast cancer through SnapChat using videos, texts, and pictures...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
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