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Toxicological Research

Gi Ho Lee, Sun Woo Jin, Se Jong Kim, Thi Hoa Pham, Jae Ho Choi, Hye Gwang Jeong
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most common industrial brominated flame retardant, acts as a cytotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxicant, causing inflammation and tumors. However, the mechanism of TBBPA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in human breast cancer cells is not clear. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, treatment with TBBPA significantly induced the expression and promoter activity of MMP-9. Transient transfection with MMP-9 mutation promoter constructs verified that NF-κB and AP-1 response elements are responsible for the effects of TBBPA...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Dong-Yung Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Se-Ran Yang, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Myung-Bok Wie
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as both useful tools and potentially toxic materials in various industrial and medicinal fields. Previously, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs that are neurotoxic to human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are mediated by lipoxygenase (LOX), not cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, we examined whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are different from neuroblastoma cells, might exhibit COX-2- and/or LOX-dependent cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Mohamed Mohammed Hashem, Yasmina Mohammed Abd-Elhakim, Khaled Abo-El-Sooud, Mona M E Eleiwa
Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malformations in rat fetuses following daily oral administration of TAZ to pregnant Wistar rats at the 6th-15th day of gestation. TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced 6.0 and 7.1% fetal resorptions, as well as 10.0 and 10.5% fetal mortality, respectively. Fetal body weight and length were significantly lower in the groups treated with TAZ at 0...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Muhammed Majeed, Sankaran Natarajan, Anjali Pandey, Sarang Bani, Lakshmi Mundkur
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a major metabolite of curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa . THC has various benefits and overcomes the bioavailability issue of curcumin. To establish it as a pharmacologically active molecule, its safety profile has to be determined. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the preclinical safety profile of THC in a 90-day subchronic and reproductive/developmental toxicity study in Wistar rats. THC at oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered daily for 90 days...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Ricardo Silva-Carvalho, João P Silva, Pedro Ferreirinha, Alexandre F Leitão, Fábia K Andrade, Rui M Gil da Costa, Cecília Cristelo, Morsyleide F Rosa, Manuel Vilanova, F Miguel Gama
In view of the growing industrial use of Bacterial cellulose (BC), and taking into account that it might become airborne and be inhaled after industrial processing, assessing its potential pulmonary toxic effects assumes high relevance. In this work, the murine model was used to assess the effects of exposure to respirable BC nanofibrils (nBC), obtained by disintegration of BC produced by Komagataeibacter hansenii . Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMΦ) were treated with different doses of nBC (0.02 and 0...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Hye Jin Cha, Yun Jeong Song, Da Eun Lee, Young-Hoon Kim, Jisoon Shin, Choon-Gon Jang, Soo Kyung Suh, Sung Jin Kim, Jaesuk Yun
A major predictor of the efficacy of natural or synthetic cannabinoids is their binding affinity to the cannabinoid type I receptor (CB1 ) in the central nervous system, as the main psychological effects of cannabinoids are achieved via binding to this receptor. Conventionally, receptor binding assays have been performed using isotopes, which are inconvenient owing to the effects of radioactivity. In the present study, the binding affinities of five cannabinoids for purified CB1 were measured using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique as a putative non-isotopic receptor binding assay...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Kewin Gombeau, Ricardo Bezerra de Oliveira, Sandra Layse Ferreira Sarrazin, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud
The extracts of Plathymenia reticulata and Connarus favosus are widely used in the folk medicine. The potential protective effects of these extracts have been evaluated against cadmium in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and against mercurial contamination in zebrafish Danio rerio . In yeast, both extracts efficiently protected the Δ ycf1 mutant strain exposed to cadmium chloride restoring the growth, the expression of stress-response genes and decreasing the level of oxidative stress. In zebrafish, the supplementation of methylmercury-contaminated diet with both plant extracts similarly protected fish through the suppression of the methylmercury-induced lipid peroxidation, decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity, and restoring the expression levels of stress-response genes...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Rahmat Adetutu Adisa, Naimat Kolawole, Lateef A Sulaimon, Bathlomew Brai, Abraham Ijaola
Numerous ethnomedicinal uses have been attributed to different parts of Annona senegalensis (ASE), including its uses as food and food additives. The present study investigated toxicological and antioxidant effects of 28 days administration of ethanol extracts of ASE stem bark to Wistar strain albino rats. Acute toxicity test was done to determine lethal dose in Wistar rats while sub-acute toxicity test was conducted on rats divided into four groups (A - control, B - 50 mg/kg, C - 100 mg/kg, D - 150 mg/kg, respectively and treated for 28 days...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Shahrzad Bozchelou, Mohammad Delirrad
One of the major challenges in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for drug dependence is the physiological side effects on endocrine hormones. Because of the key role of the thyroid gland in the normal functioning of the human body and brain, this study examined the effect of MMT on thyroid function. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) were evaluated in normal and user treated with MMT who were referred to the Province Clinical & Pathology Center of Urmia, Iran. The study was conducted for three months using the Case Series method...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Oluwadara Pelumi Omotayo, Abiodun Olusola Omotayo, Mulunda Mwanza, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
Mycotoxin contamination is a global phenomenon and causes a wide array of negative effects and other complications. This study focused on commonly found mycotoxins in Africa and the possible means of prevention or reduction of their contaminating effects. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of mold and fungi; they are generally toxic to living organisms. Hundreds of mycotoxins have been identified thus far, with some, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, and patulin, considered agro-economically important...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Jae Sam Hwang, Kun-Koo Park
[This corrects the article on p. 151 in vol. 34, PMID: 29686777.].
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Jong-Eun Park, Jung-Eun Seo, Jee-Yeon Lee, Hoonjeong Kwon
[This corrects the article on p. 279 in vol. 31, PMID: 26483887.].
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Kyu-Tae Kang, Jennifer C Sullivan, Jennifer S Pollock
Many studies reported reduced antioxidant capacity in the vasculature under hypertensive conditions. However, little is known about the effects of antihypertensive treatments on the regulation of vascular antioxidant enzymes. Thus, we hypothesized that antihypertensive treatments prevent the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activity and expression in the small vessels of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats (ANG). We observed the small mesenteric arteries and small renal vessels of normotensive rats (NORM), ANG, and ANG treated with a triple antihypertensive therapy of reserpine, hydrochlorothiazide, and hydralazine (ANG + TTx)...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Juyoung Park, Handule Lee, Kwangsik Park
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) has been used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (CMIT) for cosmetic products such as shampoo, body lotion, and skin care products. The mixture of CMIT/MIT has been found to cause allergic contact dermatitis and is thus no longer permitted for use as a preservative in leave-on cosmetics. However, MIT itself was approved as a stand-alone preservative at a maximum concentration of 100 ppm as the toxicity was derived from CMIT rather than MIT. However, in many countries, allergic skin irritation caused by MIT remains a social concern...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Yong-Soon Kim, Yong-Hyun Chung, Dong-Seok Seo, Hyun-Sung Choi, Cheol-Hong Lim
Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) are among the most widely used nanomaterials; however, relatively little information about their risk identification and assessment is available. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of Al2 O3 NPs following repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to Al2 O3 NPs for 28 days (5 days/week) at doses of 0, 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/m3 using a nose-only inhalation system. During the experimental period, we evaluated the clinical signs, body weight change, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology findings...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Eun Mi Koh, Eun Kyeong Lee, Chi Hun Song, Jeongah Song, Hae Young Chung, Chang Hoon Chae, Kyung Jin Jung
Ferulate is a phenolic compound abundant in wheat germ and bran and has been investigated for its beneficial activities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of ferulate against the oxidative stress-induced imbalance of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), and serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), in connection with our previous finding that oxidative stress-induced imbalance of PTKs and PTPs is linked with proinflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Dennis S Arokoyo, Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Stefan S Du Plessis, Novel N Chegou, Yapo G Aboua
The mechanism of the previously reported antidiabetic effect of Basella alba is unknown. This study investigated the role of B. alba aqueous leaf extract in the modulation of inflammatory cytokines and islet morphology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats, between 8 and 10 weeks old, were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) and administered the following treatments: Healthy control (H-c) and Diabetic control (D-c) animals received normal saline 0.5 mL/100 g body weight daily, while Healthy Treatment (H-Ba) and Diabetic Treatment (D-Ba) rats received the plant extract 200 mg/kg body weight daily...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Jinia Sinha Roy, Debmita Chatterjee, Nandana Das, Ashok K Giri
Arsenic is one of the most toxic environmental toxicants. More than 150 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic through ground water contamination. It is an exclusive human carcinogen. Although the hallmarks of arsenic toxicity are skin lesions and skin cancers, arsenic can also induce cancers in the lung, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, and other internal organs. Arsenic is a non-mutagenic compound but can induce significant cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei formation in human systems...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Xiaoqing Guo, Nan Mei
The methods of applied genetic toxicology are changing from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative risk assessment. Recently, quantitative analysis with point of departure (PoD) metrics and benchmark dose (BMD) modeling have been applied to in vitro genotoxicity data. Two software packages are commonly used for BMD analysis. In previous studies, we performed quantitative dose-response analysis by using the PROAST software to quantitatively evaluate the mutagenicity of four piperidine nitroxides with various substituent groups on the 4-position of the piperidine ring and six cigarette whole smoke solutions (WSSs) prepared by bubbling machine-generated whole smoke...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
Shingo Fujii, Asako Isogawa, Robert P Fuchs
Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemical and physical agents that damage their genome by forming DNA lesions. These lesions interfere with the normal functions of DNA such as transcription and replication, and need to be either repaired or tolerated. DNA lesions are accurately removed via various repair pathways. In contrast, tolerance mechanisms do not remove lesions but only allow replication to proceed despite the presence of unrepaired lesions. Cells possess two major tolerance strategies, namely translesion synthesis (TLS), which is an error-prone strategy and an accurate strategy based on homologous recombination (homology-dependent gap repair [HDGR])...
October 2018: Toxicological Research
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