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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

Haitao Shen, Na Wu, Gayani Nanayakkara, Hangfei Fu, Qian Yang, William Y Yang, Angus Li, Yu Sun, Charles Drummer Iv, Candice Johnson, Ying Shao, Luqiao Wang, Keman Xu, Wenhui Hu, Marion Chan, Vincent Tam, Eric T Choi, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
We took an experimental database mining analysis to determine the expression of 28 co-signaling receptors in 32 human tissues in physiological/pathological conditions. We made the following significant findings: 1) co-signaling receptors are differentially expressed in tissues; 2) heart, trachea, kidney, mammary gland and muscle express co-signaling receptors that mediate CD4+ T cell functions such as priming, differentiation, effector, and memory; 3) urinary tumor, germ cell tumor, leukemia and chondrosarcoma express high levels of co-signaling receptors for T cell activation; 4) expression of inflammasome components are correlated with the expression of co-signaling receptors; 5) CD40, SLAM, CD80 are differentially expressed in leukocytes from patients with trauma, bacterial infections, polarized macrophages and in activated endothelial cells; 6) forward and reverse signaling of 50% co-inhibition receptors are upregulated in endothelial cells during inflammation; and 7) STAT1 deficiency in T cells upregulates MHC class II and co-stimulation receptors...
November 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Junli Han, Hongyan Tian, Ya Liu, Fenling Fan
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a syndrome caused by restricted blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which results in a poor patient prognosis. The serotonin (5-HT), TRPC1 (Transient receptor potencial channel 1), TRPC6 (Transient receptor potencial channel 6), calcineurin A, and NFATc3 (an isoform of nuclear factor of activated T-cells family) are involved in cell proliferation and hypertrophy and the crosstalk between these molecules may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Peng Sun, Yan Liu, Qun Wang, Baichao Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, therapies against CRC have not been completely effective. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has shown anti-tumorigenic properties in certain cancers, but its role in CRC remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of AS-IV in CRC and explored its underlying mechanism. The results showed that AS-IV dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells and suppressed tumor growth in CRC xenograft mouse models...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Hong Mei Zhao, Zhi Wei Gao, Shou Xiang Xie, Xiang Han, Qing Song Sun
The molecular mechanism of how airway inflammation develops is not fully understood. Withaferin A (WA) is a natural phytochemical isolated from the plant Withania somnifera . It is a well-investigated bioactive compound that possesses a variety of health-promoting effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the effect of WA on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in mice was investigated. The results indicated that pre-treatment with WA inhibited OVA-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Monica Salerno, Ines Villano, Daniela Nicolosi, Lucia Longhitano, Carla Loreto, Annarita Lovino, Francesco Sessa, Anna Nunzia Polito, Vincenzo Monda, Sergio Chieffi, Antonietta Messina, Marcellino Monda, Christian Zammit, Domenico Tafuri, Giovanni Messina, Marco Carotenuto
Modafinil (Mo) is increasingly being used as an enhancement drug rather than for its therapeutic effects. The effects of this drug have been examined in attention deficit disorders, depression, mental fatigue, and in enhancing concentration. The drug possesses wakefulness-promoting properties which are mediated through the interaction of orexinergic system with the activated sympathetic nervous system. Mo exerts a synergistic effect on the orexin system, controls energy expenditure and strengthens the ability of the individual to exercise...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Yunqian Peng, Han-Sol Park, Lisa Ann Tang, Naftali Horwitz, Li Lin
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) interacts with multiple ligands and transmits inflammatory signals from damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and PAMPs) to cellular programs. RAGE shares ligands with another group of PRRs, i.e., Toll-like receptors. Such ligand-receptor promiscuity generates coordinated and complex signaling patterns that provide a basis for the development of multiple inflammaging diseases. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) functions as a RAGE decoy that scavenges DAMP/PAMP ligands and dampens inflammatory signals...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Lucas Tricoli, Suresh Niture, Uche Chimeh, Deepak Kumar
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer related death worldwide with a relatively poor survival rate. Aside from liver resection and subsequent transplant, the most effective and leading curative measure for HCC is the chemotherapeutic, sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor used for treatment of late stage HCC. However, the effects of sorafenib are short lived due to the liver's rapid acquisition of Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulatory molecules for almost every biochemical pathway in an organism...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Kareem N Washington, Zebalda D Bamji, Qingqi Yue, Inez V Reeves
In the United States, approximately 10% of newborn infants are exposed prenatally to alcohol and/or illicit substances. However, no studies have evaluated the compounding effects of multiple illicit substances exposure in utero as potential teratogen (s). The potential teratogenic effects of nicotine and illicit substances (e.g. cocaine, marijuana and heroin) have previously been studied but there has been no documentation of facial landmark dislocation (s). Our goal is to investigate whether morphometric analysis could differentiate facial landmark dislocations in neonates of African descent, when exposed to alcohol, nicotine and illicit substances, either singly or in combination...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Claudia Schoenichen, Christoph Bode, Daniel Duerschmied
Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) was discovered as a vasoconstrictor in 1937. Since its discovery, the involvement of serotonin in numerous physiological processes was described. It acts as an important neurotransmitter, regulates bowel movement, can be released as a tissue hormone and acts as a growth factor. Among the years, a link between serotonin and inflammation has been identified and further evidence suggests an important role of serotonergic components in immune responses. Peripheral serotonin is synthesized by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), which exists in two different isoforms: Tph2 being responsible for serotonin synthesis in neurons and Tph1 for generation of serotonin in peripheral organs...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Jeremy Lagrange, Philip Wenzel
The coagulation takes place in the hemostasis system and is a is hallmarked by a complex interplay of reactions between coagulation proteins. In the presence of a vascular breach, the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin leads to the formation of insoluble fibrin fibers that will stop bleeding and limit blood loss. Hemostasis is known to be disturbed in many diseases leading to hemorrhages or thrombosis. Despite the role of coagulation in hemostasis, recent evidences suggested that coagulation factors are involved in other (patho)physiological processes in the vasculature not necessarily marked by overt clotting, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Feiyan Fan, Jing Qi, Nan Liu, Zhen Wang, Wenshi Wang, Hui Liu, Xiaoshan Xu, Guangfeng Chen, Xin Wang, Hongwei Yang, Mark Johnson, Yanyang Tu, Tao Liu, Jianfang Fu
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and Chloride channel-3 (CLC-3) are critical for inflammatory response, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus neurons. However, the relationship between CLC-3 and TGF-beta/TGF-beta Receptor II (RII) pathway in diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is unknown. In this study, both diabetes rat model and diabetes cell model were employed to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The increased expressions of CLC-3 and TGF- beta RII with cognitive impairment were observed in diabetic rats...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Vishwa Mohini Khare, Vishesh Kumar Saxena, Alka Tomar, Angelique Nyinawabera, Kunwar Bahadur Singh, Charles R Ashby, Amit Kumar Tiwari
The present study determines the cytokine gene expression in chickens following RSV-A infection, using RT-qPCR. In susceptible chickens tumors progressed to  fulminating metastatic tumors while it regressed in  regressors  chickens and some resistant non-responder chickens did not respond to RSV-A infection and thus did not develop tumors at all. The in vivo expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines was determined at the primary site of infection, as well as in different organs of progressor, regressor and non-responder chicks at different time intervals...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Maria E Piroli, James O Blanchette, Ehsan Jabbarzadeh
Cell polarity, the asymmetric distribution of proteins, organelles, and cytoskeleton, plays an important role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Understanding the mechanisms that govern cell polarity is critical for creating strategies to treat developmental defects, accelerate tissue regeneration, and hinder cancer progression. This review focuses on the role of cell polarity in a number of physiological processes, including asymmetric division, cell migration, immune response mediated by T lymphocytes, and cancer progression and metastasis, and highlights microfabrication techniques to systematically parse the role of microenvironmental cues in the regulation of cell polarity...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Sibani Sarkar, Dipankar Chakraborty, Arijit Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti Ghosh
In cerebral tissues, due to continuous and high metabolic demand, energy is produced exclusively by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Obstruction of blood flow leads to cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and decreased cellular ATP production. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as by-product of OXPHOS alter many intracellular signaling pathways and result in damaged cellular components. Under such hypoxic conditions, a key factor known as hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is stabilized and activated and such activation induces expression of a defined set of target genes which are required for cell survival and angiogenesis...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
A Bakr M Rabie, Jeremy K Ho
Paeoniflorin (PF) is the active ingredient in Lipiburn, a fat loss supplement. PF is a component in Paeonia Lactiflora with multiple medicinal uses. Here, we studied the effect of Lipiburn on fat metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes exposed to Lipiburn exhibited significant increase in expression of beta-adrenergic receptors, HSL levels, and cAMP and exhibited increase in glycerol release. The data show that Lipiburn affects fat metabolism through the cAMP route by activating HSL which in turn breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Mainak Biswas, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Luca Saba, Damodar Reddy Edla, Harman S Suri, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, John R Laird, Rui Tato Marinhoe, Joao M Sanches, Andrew Nicolaides, Jasjit S Suri
Deep learning (DL) is affecting each and every sphere of public and private lives and becoming a tool for daily use. The power of DL lies in the fact that it tries to imitate the activities of neurons in the neocortex of human brain where the thought process takes place. Therefore, like the brain, it tries to learn and recognize patterns in the form of digital images. This power is built on the depth of many layers of computing neurons backed by high power processors and graphics processing units (GPUs) easily available today...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Lucas Tricoli, Suresh Niture, Uche Chimeh, Habtom Ressom, Deepak Kumar
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and has a relatively poor survival rate. Aside from liver transplantation, the most effective and leading curative measure for HCC is the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib, which is a multikinase inhibitor used for treating late-stage HCC. However, the effects of sorafenib are short-lived because of rapid acquisition of multi-drug resistance (MDR) by tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial regulatory molecules for almost every biochemical pathway in humans...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Divya Rawat, Saurabh Kumar Chhonker, Rayees Ahmad Naik, Aditi Mehrotra, Surendra Kumar Trigun, Raj Kumar Koiri
Global metabolism of cancers exhibits a peculiar phenotype that is lactate acidosis (high lactate with acidic pH) in tumor microenvironment. Why tumor microenvironment becomes so responsive towards lactate is still not clear. In this review we have discussed lactate generation and recycling either exogenously, directly or indirectly by cancer cells via some transporters. Tumor cells in hypoxia use glucose rapidly and produce lactate while cells which have profuse oxygen supply take up lactate and use it for energy production which is referred as lactate shuttling between tumor cells...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Kim Leigh Lategan, Chavon Rene Walters, Edmund John Pool
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly found in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of AgNPs on the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and human whole blood cell cultures (WBCs). Effects of AgNPs on RAW cells were assessed in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Effects of AgNPs on WBCs were monitored under basal conditions and in the presence of either LPS or phytohaemmagglutinin (PHA). AgNPs were cytotoxic to WBCs at 250 μg/ml. Under basal conditions, RAW cells ≥ 62...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
M Walid Qoronfleh, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Sana T Alharahsheh, Yahya Mohamed Al-Farsi, Samir Al-Adawi
In this review, we provide a Gulf region-centric view on autism with special focus on Qatar and Oman, including a review of seminal Qatari/Omani work from the literature. In addition, we offer a summary from the World Innovation Summit for Health and World Innovation Summit for Education autism reports as well as outline some of the main challenges, best practices and a path forward for the Gulf region from a healthcare perspective. Finally, we highlight the role of public outreach and awareness to lay the groundwork for enlightened policy for intervention and resource allocation to care for autistic individuals...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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