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Stem Cell Reports

Mattia Francesco Maria Gerli, Louise Anne Moyle, Sara Benedetti, Giulia Ferrari, Ekin Ucuncu, Martina Ragazzi, Chrystalla Constantinou, Irene Louca, Hiroshi Sakai, Pierpaolo Ala, Paolo De Coppi, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Giulio Cossu, Francesco Saverio Tedesco
Satellite cells are responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration. Upon activation, they proliferate as transient amplifying myoblasts, most of which fuse into regenerating myofibers. Despite their remarkable differentiation potential, these cells have limited migration capacity, which curtails clinical use for widespread forms of muscular dystrophy. Conversely, skeletal muscle perivascular cells have less myogenic potential but better migration capacity than satellite cells. Here we show that modulation of Notch and PDGF pathways, involved in developmental specification of pericytes, induces perivascular cell features in adult mouse and human satellite cell-derived myoblasts...
February 4, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Yang Lin, Michihiro Kobayashi, Nathalia Azevedo Portilho, Akansha Mishra, Hongyu Gao, Yunlong Liu, Pamela Wenzel, Brian Davis, Mervin C Yoder, Momoko Yoshimoto
It is generally considered that mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into blood cells in vitro recapitulates yolk sac (YS) hematopoiesis. As such, similar to YS-derived B-progenitors, we demonstrate here that ESC-derived B-progenitors differentiate into B-1 and marginal zone B cells, but not B-2 cells in immunodeficient mice after transplantation. ESC-derived B-1 cells were maintained in the recipients for more than 6 months, secreting natural IgM antibodies in vivo. Gene expression profiling displayed a close relationship between ESC- and YS-derived B-1 progenitors...
January 24, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Tannaz Faal, Duc T T Phan, Hayk Davtyan, Vanessa M Scarfone, Erika Varady, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Christopher C W Hughes, Matthew A Inlay
In the CNS, perivascular cells ("pericytes") associate with endothelial cells to mediate the formation of tight junctions essential to the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB protects the CNS by regulating the flow of nutrients and toxins into and out of the brain. BBB dysfunction has been implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the role of pericytes in BBB dysfunction in AD is not well understood. In the developing embryo, CNS pericytes originate from two sources: mesoderm and neural crest...
January 23, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Rujia Liao, Youchao Chen, Li Cheng, Lishi Fan, Han Chen, Yushan Wan, Yi You, Yanrong Zheng, Lei Jiang, Zhong Chen, Xiangnan Zhang, Weiwei Hu
The neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is limited, largely due to a deficiency in neurogenesis. The present study explores the effects of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonism on TBI and mechanisms related to neurogenesis. H3R antagonism or H3R gene knockout alleviated neurological injury in the late phase of TBI, and also promoted neuroblast differentiation to enhance neurogenesis through activation of the histaminergic system. Histamine H1 receptor, but not H2 receptor, in neural stem cells is shown to be essential for this promotion by using Hrh1fl/fl ;NestinCreERT2 and Hrh2fl/fl ;NestinCreERT2 mice...
January 22, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Jiu-Chao Yin, Lei Zhang, Ning-Xin Ma, Yue Wang, Grace Lee, Xiao-Yi Hou, Zhuo-Fan Lei, Feng-Yu Zhang, Feng-Ping Dong, Gang-Yi Wu, Gong Chen
We have previously developed a cocktail of nine small molecules to convert human fetal astrocytes into neurons, but a nine-molecule recipe is difficult for clinical applications. Here, we identify a chemical formula with only three to four small molecules for astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. We demonstrate that modulation of three to four signaling pathways among Notch, glycogen synthase kinase 3, transforming growth factor β, and bone morphogenetic protein pathways is sufficient to change an astrocyte into a neuron...
January 22, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Koji Nishihara, Takahiro Shiga, Eri Nakamura, Tomohiko Akiyama, Takashi Sasaki, Sadafumi Suzuki, Minoru S H Ko, Norihiro Tada, Hideyuki Okano, Wado Akamatsu
Although pluripotent stem cells can generate various types of differentiated cells, it is unclear why lineage-committed stem/progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells are decelerated and why the differentiation-resistant propensity of embryonic stem cell (ESC)/induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells is predominant compared with the in vivo equivalents derived from embryonic/adult tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that iPSCs reprogrammed and maintained with three chemical inhibitors of the fibroblast growth factor 4-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and GSK3β (3i) could be differentiated into all three germ layers more efficiently than the iPSCs reprogrammed without the 3i chemicals, even though they were maintained with 3i chemicals once they were reprogrammed...
January 21, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Harleen K Athwal, George Murphy, Ellis Tibbs, Ashley Cornett, Emily Hill, Kenji Yeoh, Elsa Berenstein, Matthew P Hoffman, Isabelle M A Lombaert
Understanding how epithelial progenitors within exocrine glands establish specific cell lineages and form complex functional secretory units is vital for organ regeneration. Here we identify the transcription factor Sox10 as essential for both the maintenance and differentiation of epithelial KIT+ FGFR2b+ progenitors into secretory units, containing acinar, myoepithelial, and intercalated duct cells. The KIT/FGFR2b-Sox10 axis marks the earliest multi-potent and tissue-specific progenitors of exocrine glands...
January 17, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Meritxell Carrió, Helena Mazuelas, Yvonne Richaud-Patin, Bernat Gel, Ernest Terribas, Imma Rosas, Senda Jimenez-Delgado, Josep Biayna, Leen Vendredy, Ignacio Blanco, Elisabeth Castellanos, Conxi Lázaro, Ángel Raya, Eduard Serra
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor predisposition genetic disease caused by mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) are benign Schwann cell (SC) tumors of the peripheral nerve sheath that develop through NF1 inactivation and can progress toward a malignant soft tissue sarcoma. There is a lack of non-perishable model systems to investigate PNF development. We reprogrammed PNF-derived NF1(-/-) cells, descendants from the tumor originating cell. These NF1(-/-)-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) captured the genomic status of PNFs and were able to differentiate toward neural crest stem cells and further to SCs...
January 17, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Xin Hu, Shangyao Qin, Xiao Huang, Yimin Yuan, Zijian Tan, Yakun Gu, Xueyan Cheng, Dan Wang, Xiao-Feng Lian, Cheng He, Zhida Su
The adult CNS has poor ability to replace degenerated neurons following injury or disease. Recently, direct reprogramming of astrocytes into induced neurons has been proposed as an innovative strategy toward CNS repair. As a cell population that shows high diversity on physiological properties and functions depending on their spatiotemporal distribution, however, whether the astrocyte heterogeneity affect neuronal reprogramming is not clear. Here, we show that astrocytes derived from cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord exhibit biological heterogeneity and possess distinct susceptibility to transcription factor-induced neuronal reprogramming...
January 14, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Jara Obermann, Felicia Wagner, Anita Kociaj, Alessandro Zambusi, Jovica Ninkovic, Stefanie M Hauck, Prisca Chapouton
In adult stem cell populations, recruitment into division is parsimonious and most cells maintain a quiescent state. How individual cells decide to enter the cell cycle and how they coordinate their activity remains an essential problem to be resolved. It is thus important to develop methods to elucidate the mechanisms of cell communication and recruitment into the cell cycle. We made use of the advantageous architecture of the adult zebrafish telencephalon to isolate the surface proteins of an intact neural stem cell (NSC) population...
January 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Simona Gribaudo, Philippe Tixador, Luc Bousset, Alexis Fenyi, Patricia Lino, Ronald Melki, Jean-Michel Peyrin, Anselme L Perrier
Reappraisal of neuropathological studies suggests that pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD) spread progressively along predictable neuronal pathways in the human brain through unknown mechanisms. Although there is much evidence supporting the prion-like propagation and amplification of α-synuclein (α-Syn) in vitro and in rodent models, whether this scenario occurs in the human brain remains to be substantiated. Here we reconstructed in microfluidic devices corticocortical neuronal networks using human induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a healthy donor...
January 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Matthew Waas, Ranjuna Weerasekera, Erin M Kropp, Marisol Romero-Tejeda, Ellen N Poon, Kenneth R Boheler, Paul W Burridge, Rebekah L Gundry
Several protocols now support efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) but these still indicate line-to-line variability. As the number of studies implementing this technology expands, accurate assessment of cell identity is paramount to well-defined studies that can be replicated among laboratories. While flow cytometry is apt for routine assessment, a standardized protocol for assessing cardiomyocyte identity has not yet been established. Therefore, the current study leveraged targeted mass spectrometry to confirm the presence of troponin proteins in day 25 hPSC-CMs and systematically evaluated multiple anti-troponin antibodies and sample preparation protocols for their suitability in assessing cardiomyocyte identity...
January 8, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Angelique di Domenico, Giulia Carola, Carles Calatayud, Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Juan Pablo Muñoz, Yvonne Richaud-Patin, Irene Fernandez-Carasa, Marta Gut, Armida Faella, Janani Parameswaran, Jordi Soriano, Isidro Ferrer, Eduardo Tolosa, Antonio Zorzano, Ana Maria Cuervo, Angel Raya, Antonella Consiglio
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the degeneration of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons (vmDAns) and the accumulation of toxic α-synuclein. A non-cell-autonomous contribution, in particular of astrocytes, during PD pathogenesis has been suggested by observational studies, but remains to be experimentally tested. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes and neurons from familial mutant LRRK2 G2019S PD patients and healthy individuals. Upon co-culture on top of PD astrocytes, control vmDAns displayed morphological signs of neurodegeneration and abnormal, astrocyte-derived α-synuclein accumulation...
January 6, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Hui Jin, Yu-Ting Zhang, Yang Yang, Lan-Yu Wen, Jun-Hua Wang, Hao-Yu Xu, Bi-Qin Lai, Bo Feng, Ming-Tian Che, Xue-Cheng Qiu, Zhi-Ling Li, Lai-Jian Wang, Jing-Wen Ruan, Bin Jiang, Xiang Zeng, Qing-Wen Deng, Ge Li, Ying Ding, Yuan-Shan Zeng
The hostile environment of an injured spinal cord makes it challenging to achieve higher viability in a grafted tissue-engineered neural network used to reconstruct the spinal cord circuit. Here, we investigate whether cell survival and synaptic transmission within an NT-3 and TRKC gene-overexpressing neural stem cell-derived neural network scaffold (NN) transplanted into transected spinal cord could be promoted by electroacupuncture (EA) through improving the microenvironment. Our results showed that EA facilitated the cell survival, neuronal differentiation, and synapse formation of a transplanted NN...
January 4, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
Leonardo Velazco-Cruz, Jiwon Song, Kristina G Maxwell, Madeleine M Goedegebuure, Punn Augsornworawat, Nathaniel J Hogrebe, Jeffrey R Millman
Recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation protocols have generated insulin-producing cells resembling pancreatic β cells. While these stem cell-derived β (SC-β) cells are capable of undergoing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin secretion per cell remains low compared with islets and cells lack dynamic insulin release. Herein, we report a differentiation strategy focused on modulating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, controlling cellular cluster size, and using an enriched serum-free media to generate SC-β cells that express β cell markers and undergo GSIS with first- and second-phase dynamic insulin secretion...
December 31, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Andrew R Field, Frank M J Jacobs, Ian T Fiddes, Alex P R Phillips, Andrea M Reyes-Ortiz, Erin LaMontagne, Lila Whitehead, Vincent Meng, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Mari Olsen, Max Hauessler, Sol Katzman, Sofie R Salama, David Haussler
The cerebral cortex has expanded in size and complexity in primates, yet the molecular innovations that enabled primate-specific brain attributes remain obscure. We generated cerebral cortex organoids from human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus pluripotent stem cells and sequenced their transcriptomes at weekly time points for comparative analysis. We used transcript structure and expression conservation to discover gene regulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Of 2,975 human, multi-exonic lncRNAs, 2,472 were structurally conserved in at least one other species and 920 were conserved in all...
December 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Kirstin B VanderWall, Ridhima Vij, Sarah K Ohlemacher, Akshayalakshmi Sridhar, Clarisse M Fligor, Elyse M Feder, Michael C Edler, Anthony J Baucum, Theodore R Cummins, Jason S Meyer
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form the connection between the eye and the brain, with this connectivity disrupted in numerous blinding disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to derive RGCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs); however, these cells exhibited some characteristics that indicated a limited state of maturation. Among the many factors known to influence RGC development in the retina, astrocytes are known to play a significant role in their functional maturation. Thus, efforts of the current study examined the functional maturation of hPSC-derived RGCs, including the ability of astrocytes to modulate this developmental timeline...
December 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Harunobu Kagawa, Ren Shimamoto, Shin-Il Kim, Fabian Oceguera-Yanez, Takuya Yamamoto, Timm Schroeder, Knut Woltjen
During somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), fibroblasts undergo dynamic molecular changes, including a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and gain of pluripotency; processes that are influenced by Yamanaka factor stoichiometry. For example, in early reprogramming, high KLF4 levels are correlated with the induction of functionally undefined, transiently expressed MET genes. Here, we identified the cell-surface protein TROP2 as a marker for cells with transient MET induction in the high-KLF4 condition...
December 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Juan Song, Adrian Janiszewski, Natalie De Geest, Lotte Vanheer, Irene Talon, Mouna El Bakkali, Taeho Oh, Vincent Pasque
Reprogramming female mouse somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) leads to X-chromosome reactivation. The extent to which increased X-chromosome dosage (X-dosage) in female iPSCs compared with male iPSCs leads to differences in the properties of iPSCs is still unclear. We show that chromatin accessibility in mouse iPSCs is modulated by X-dosage. Specific sets of transcriptional regulator motifs are enriched in chromatin with increased accessibility in XX or XY iPSCs. The transcriptome, growth and pluripotency exit are also modulated by X-dosage in iPSCs...
December 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Meghan M Capeling, Michael Czerwinski, Sha Huang, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Angeline Wu, Melinda S Nagy, Benjamin Juliar, Nambirajan Sundaram, Yang Song, Woojin M Han, Shuichi Takayama, Eben Alsberg, Andres J Garcia, Michael Helmrath, Andrew J Putnam, Jason R Spence
Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent a powerful system to study human development and are promising candidates for clinical translation as drug-screening tools or engineered tissue. Experimental control and clinical use of HIOs is limited by growth in expensive and poorly defined tumor-cell-derived extracellular matrices, prompting investigation of synthetic ECM-mimetics for HIO culture. Since HIOs possess an inner epithelium and outer mesenchyme, we hypothesized that adhesive cues provided by the matrix may be dispensable for HIO culture...
December 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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