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Journal of Extracellular Vesicles

Alice Gualerzi, Sander Alexander Antonius Kooijmans, Stefania Niada, Silvia Picciolini, Anna Teresa Brini, Giovanni Camussi, Marzia Bedoni
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from a variety of stem cell sources are believed to harbour regenerative capacity, which may be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Because of EV interaction with other soluble secreted factors, EV activity may depend on the employed purification method, which limits cross-study comparisons and therapeutic development. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a quick and easy method to assess EV purity and composition, giving in-depth biochemical overview on EV preparation. Hereby, we show how this method can be used to characterise EVs isolated from human liver stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells by means of conventional ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) protocols...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Tonje Bjørnetrø, Kathrine Røe Redalen, Sebastian Meltzer, Nirujah Sivarajah Thusyanthan, Rampradeep Samiappan, Caroline Jegerschöld, Karianne Risberg Handeland, Anne Hansen Ree
Tumour hypoxia contributes to poor treatment outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) as potential biomarkers of tumour hypoxia and adverse prognosis have not been fully explored. We examined EV miRNAs from hypoxic colorectal cancer cell lines as template for relevant miRNAs in LARC patients participating in a prospective biomarker study (NCT01816607). Five cell lines were cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (0.2% O2 ) for 24 h, and exosomes were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Tamás Visnovitz, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Barbara W Sódar, Judith Mihály, Péter Lőrincz, Krisztina V Vukman, Eszter Ágnes Tóth, Anna Koncz, Inna Székács, Robert Horváth, Zoltán Varga, Edit I Buzás
The field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is an exponentially growing segment of biomedical sciences. However, the problems of normalisation and quantification of EV samples have not been completely solved. Currently, EV samples are standardised on the basis of their protein content sometimes combined with determination of the particle number. However, even this combined approach may result in inaccuracy and overestimation of the EV concentration. Lipid bilayers are indispensable components of EVs. Therefore, a lipid-based quantification, in combination with the determination of particle count and/or protein content, appears to be a straightforward and logical approach for the EV field...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Helena Rodriguez-Caro, Rebecca Dragovic, Mengni Shen, Eszter Dombi, Ginny Mounce, Kate Field, Jamie Meadows, Karen Turner, Daniel Lunn, Tim Child, Jennifer Helen Southcombe, Ingrid Granne
Extracellular vesicles are highly abundant in seminal fluids and have a known role enhancing sperm function. Clinical pregnancy rates after IVF treatment are improved after female exposure to seminal fluid. Seminal fluid extracellular vesicles (SF-EVs) are candidate enhancers, however, whether SF-EVs interact with cells from the endometrium and modulate the implantation processes is unknown. Here, we investigated whether SF-EVs interact with endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and enhance decidualisation, a requisite for implantation...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Ji Suk Choi, Woo Lee Cho, Yeo Jin Choi, Jae Dong Kim, Hyun-A Park, Su Yeon Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Dong-Gyu Jo, Yong Woo Cho
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes imbalance between dermal matrix synthesis and degradation through aberrant upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which leads to overall skin photoaging. We investigated the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) on photo-damaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). EVs were isolated from conditioned media of HASCs with tangential flow filtration and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), western blotting, micro RNA (miRNA) arrays, cytokine arrays and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Sebastian Sjöqvist, Taichi Ishikawa, Daisuke Shimura, Yoshiyuki Kasai, Aya Imafuku, Sophia Bou-Ghannam, Takanori Iwata, Nobuo Kanai
The oral mucosa exhibits unique regenerative properties, sometimes referred to as foetal-like wound healing. Researchers from our institute have used sheets of oral mucosa epithelial cells (OMECs) for regenerative medicine applications including cornea replacement and oesophageal epithelial regeneration for stricture prevention. Here, we have isolated exosomes from clinical-grade production of OMEC sheets from healthy human donors ( n  = 8), aiming to evaluate the clinical potential of the exosomes to stimulate epithelial regeneration and to improve understanding of the mode-of-action of the cells...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Anna Kotrbová, Karel Štěpka, Martin Maška, Jakub Jozef Pálenik, Ladislav Ilkovics, Dobromila Klemová, Marek Kravec, František Hubatka, Zankruti Dave, Aleš Hampl, Vítězslav Bryja, Pavel Matula, Vendula Pospíchalová
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) function as important conveyers of information between cells and thus can be exploited as drug delivery systems or disease biomarkers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) remains the gold standard method for visualisation of EVs, however the analysis of individual EVs in TEM images is time-consuming if performed manually. Therefore, we present here a software tool for computer-assisted evaluation of EVs in TEM images. TEM ExosomeAnalyzer detects EVs based on their shape and edge contrast criteria and subsequently analyses their size and roundness...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Kaloyan Takov, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Interest in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) as functional carriers of proteins and nucleic acids is growing continuously. There are large numbers of sEVs in the blood, but lack of standardised methods for sEV isolation greatly limits our ability to study them. In this report, we use rat plasma to systematically compare two commonly used techniques for isolation of sEVs: ultracentrifugation (UC-sEVs) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-sEVs). SEC-sEVs had higher particle number, protein content, particle/protein ratios and sEV marker signal than UC-sEVs...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
L G Rikkert, R Nieuwland, L W M M Terstappen, F A W Coumans
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has nanometre resolution and can be used to distinguish single extracellular vesicles (EVs) from non-EV particles. TEM images of EVs are a result of operator image selection. To which extent operator image selection reflects the overall sample quality, and to which extent the images are comparable and reproducible, is unclear. In a first attempt to improve the comparability and reproducibility of TEM to visualise EVs, we compared operator image selection to images taken at predefined locations from the same grids, using four EV TEM preparation protocols, a single EV-containing sample and a single TEM instrument...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Jenni Karttunen, Mette Heiskanen, Vicente Navarro-Ferrandis, Shalini Das Gupta, Anssi Lipponen, Noora Puhakka, Kirsi Rilla, Arto Koistinen, Asla Pitkänen
The microRNA (miRNA) cargo contained in plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) offers a relatively little explored source of biomarkers for brain diseases that can be obtained noninvasively. Methods to isolate EVs from plasma, however, are still being developed. For EV isolation, it is important to ensure the removal of vesicle-free miRNAs, which account for approximately two-thirds of plasma miRNAs. Membrane particle precipitation-based EV isolation is an appealing method because of the simple protocol and high yield...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Tom A P Driedonks, Maarten K Nijen Twilhaar, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen
Foetal calf serum (FCS) is a common supplement of cell culture medium and a known source of contaminating extracellular vesicles (EV) containing RNA. Because of a high degree of sequence similarity among homologous non-coding RNAs of mammalian species, residual FCS-RNA in culture medium may interfere in the analysis of EV-RNA released by cultured cells. Recently, doubts have been raised as to whether commonly used protocols for depletion of FCS-EV efficiently remove FCS-RNA. Moreover, technical details in FCS-EV depletion protocols are known to vary between labs, which may lead to inter-study differences in contaminating FCS-RNA levels...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Begoña Pérez-Cabezas, Nuno Santarém, Pedro Cecílio, Cátia Silva, Ricardo Silvestre, José A M Catita, Anabela Cordeiro da Silva
The use of secretion pathways for effector molecule delivery by microorganisms is a trademark of pathogenesis. Leishmania extracellular vesicles (EVs) were shown to have significant immunomodulatory potential. Still, they will act in conjunction with other released parasite-derived products that might modify the EVs effects. Notwithstanding, the immunomodulatory properties of these non-vesicular components and their influence in the infectious process remains unknown. To address this, we explored both in vitro and in vivo the immunomodulatory potential of promastigotes extracellular material (EXO), obtained as a whole or separated in two different fractions: EVs or vesicle depleted EXO (VDE)...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Clotilde Théry, Kenneth W Witwer, Elena Aikawa, Maria Jose Alcaraz, Johnathon D Anderson, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Anna Antoniou, Tanina Arab, Fabienne Archer, Georgia K Atkin-Smith, D Craig Ayre, Jean-Marie Bach, Daniel Bachurski, Hossein Baharvand, Leonora Balaj, Shawn Baldacchino, Natalie N Bauer, Amy A Baxter, Mary Bebawy, Carla Beckham, Apolonija Bedina Zavec, Abderrahim Benmoussa, Anna C Berardi, Paolo Bergese, Ewa Bielska, Cherie Blenkiron, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Eric Boilard, Wilfrid Boireau, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Steffi Bosch, Chantal M Boulanger, Xandra Breakefield, Andrew M Breglio, Meadhbh Á Brennan, David R Brigstock, Alain Brisson, Marike Ld Broekman, Jacqueline F Bromberg, Paulina Bryl-Górecka, Shilpa Buch, Amy H Buck, Dylan Burger, Sara Busatto, Dominik Buschmann, Benedetta Bussolati, Edit I Buzás, James Bryan Byrd, Giovanni Camussi, David Rf Carter, Sarah Caruso, Lawrence W Chamley, Yu-Ting Chang, Chihchen Chen, Shuai Chen, Lesley Cheng, Andrew R Chin, Aled Clayton, Stefano P Clerici, Alex Cocks, Emanuele Cocucci, Robert J Coffey, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Yvonne Couch, Frank Aw Coumans, Beth Coyle, Rossella Crescitelli, Miria Ferreira Criado, Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Saumya Das, Amrita Datta Chaudhuri, Paola de Candia, Eliezer F De Santana, Olivier De Wever, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tanguy Demaret, Sarah Deville, Andrew Devitt, Bert Dhondt, Dolores Di Vizio, Lothar C Dieterich, Vincenza Dolo, Ana Paula Dominguez Rubio, Massimo Dominici, Mauricio R Dourado, Tom Ap Driedonks, Filipe V Duarte, Heather M Duncan, Ramon M Eichenberger, Karin Ekström, Samir El Andaloussi, Celine Elie-Caille, Uta Erdbrügger, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Farah Fatima, Jason E Fish, Miguel Flores-Bellver, András Försönits, Annie Frelet-Barrand, Fabia Fricke, Gregor Fuhrmann, Susanne Gabrielsson, Ana Gámez-Valero, Chris Gardiner, Kathrin Gärtner, Raphael Gaudin, Yong Song Gho, Bernd Giebel, Caroline Gilbert, Mario Gimona, Ilaria Giusti, Deborah Ci Goberdhan, André Görgens, Sharon M Gorski, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Alice Gualerzi, Gopal N Gupta, Dakota Gustafson, Aase Handberg, Reka A Haraszti, Paul Harrison, Hargita Hegyesi, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Fred H Hochberg, Karl F Hoffmann, Beth Holder, Harry Holthofer, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Guoku Hu, Yiyao Huang, Veronica Huber, Stuart Hunt, Ahmed Gamal-Eldin Ibrahim, Tsuneya Ikezu, Jameel M Inal, Mustafa Isin, Alena Ivanova, Hannah K Jackson, Soren Jacobsen, Steven M Jay, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Guido Jenster, Lanzhou Jiang, Suzanne M Johnson, Jennifer C Jones, Ambrose Jong, Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman, Stephanie Jung, Raghu Kalluri, Shin-Ichi Kano, Sukhbir Kaur, Yumi Kawamura, Evan T Keller, Delaram Khamari, Elena Khomyakova, Anastasia Khvorova, Peter Kierulf, Kwang Pyo Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Mikael Klingeborn, David J Klinke, Miroslaw Kornek, Maja M Kosanović, Árpád Ferenc Kovács, Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers, Susanne Krasemann, Mirja Krause, Igor V Kurochkin, Gina D Kusuma, Sören Kuypers, Saara Laitinen, Scott M Langevin, Lucia R Languino, Joanne Lannigan, Cecilia Lässer, Louise C Laurent, Gregory Lavieu, Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, Soazig Le Lay, Myung-Shin Lee, Yi Xin Fiona Lee, Debora S Lemos, Metka Lenassi, Aleksandra Leszczynska, Isaac Ts Li, Ke Liao, Sten F Libregts, Erzsebet Ligeti, Rebecca Lim, Sai Kiang Lim, Aija Linē, Karen Linnemannstöns, Alicia Llorente, Catherine A Lombard, Magdalena J Lorenowicz, Ákos M Lörincz, Jan Lötvall, Jason Lovett, Michelle C Lowry, Xavier Loyer, Quan Lu, Barbara Lukomska, Taral R Lunavat, Sybren Ln Maas, Harmeet Malhi, Antonio Marcilla, Jacopo Mariani, Javier Mariscal, Elena S Martens-Uzunova, Lorena Martin-Jaular, M Carmen Martinez, Vilma Regina Martins, Mathilde Mathieu, Suresh Mathivanan, Marco Maugeri, Lynda K McGinnis, Mark J McVey, David G Meckes, Katie L Meehan, Inge Mertens, Valentina R Minciacchi, Andreas Möller, Malene Møller Jørgensen, Aizea Morales-Kastresana, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Maurizio Muraca, Luca Musante, Veronika Mussack, Dillon C Muth, Kathryn H Myburgh, Tanbir Najrana, Muhammad Nawaz, Irina Nazarenko, Peter Nejsum, Christian Neri, Tommaso Neri, Rienk Nieuwland, Leonardo Nimrichter, John P Nolan, Esther Nm Nolte-'t Hoen, Nicole Noren Hooten, Lorraine O'Driscoll, Tina O'Grady, Ana O'Loghlen, Takahiro Ochiya, Martin Olivier, Alberto Ortiz, Luis A Ortiz, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Ole Østergaard, Matias Ostrowski, Jaesung Park, D Michiel Pegtel, Hector Peinado, Francesca Perut, Michael W Pfaffl, Donald G Phinney, Bartijn Ch Pieters, Ryan C Pink, David S Pisetsky, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Iva Polakovicova, Ivan Kh Poon, Bonita H Powell, Ilaria Prada, Lynn Pulliam, Peter Quesenberry, Annalisa Radeghieri, Robert L Raffai, Stefania Raimondo, Janusz Rak, Marcel I Ramirez, Graça Raposo, Morsi S Rayyan, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Franz L Ricklefs, Paul D Robbins, David D Roberts, Silvia C Rodrigues, Eva Rohde, Sophie Rome, Kasper Ma Rouschop, Aurelia Rughetti, Ashley E Russell, Paula Saá, Susmita Sahoo, Edison Salas-Huenuleo, Catherine Sánchez, Julie A Saugstad, Meike J Saul, Raymond M Schiffelers, Raphael Schneider, Tine Hiorth Schøyen, Aaron Scott, Eriomina Shahaj, Shivani Sharma, Olga Shatnyeva, Faezeh Shekari, Ganesh Vilas Shelke, Ashok K Shetty, Kiyotaka Shiba, Pia R-M Siljander, Andreia M Silva, Agata Skowronek, Orman L Snyder, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Barbara W Sódar, Carolina Soekmadji, Javier Sotillo, Philip D Stahl, Willem Stoorvogel, Shannon L Stott, Erwin F Strasser, Simon Swift, Hidetoshi Tahara, Muneesh Tewari, Kate Timms, Swasti Tiwari, Rochelle Tixeira, Mercedes Tkach, Wei Seong Toh, Richard Tomasini, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Juan Pablo Tosar, Vasilis Toxavidis, Lorena Urbanelli, Pieter Vader, Bas Wm van Balkom, Susanne G van der Grein, Jan Van Deun, Martijn Jc van Herwijnen, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Guillaume van Niel, Martin E van Royen, Andre J van Wijnen, M Helena Vasconcelos, Ivan J Vechetti, Tiago D Veit, Laura J Vella, Émilie Velot, Frederik J Verweij, Beate Vestad, Jose L Viñas, Tamás Visnovitz, Krisztina V Vukman, Jessica Wahlgren, Dionysios C Watson, Marca Hm Wauben, Alissa Weaver, Jason P Webber, Viktoria Weber, Ann M Wehman, Daniel J Weiss, Joshua A Welsh, Sebastian Wendt, Asa M Wheelock, Zoltán Wiener, Leonie Witte, Joy Wolfram, Angeliki Xagorari, Patricia Xander, Jing Xu, Xiaomei Yan, María Yáñez-Mó, Hang Yin, Yuana Yuana, Valentina Zappulli, Jana Zarubova, Vytautas Žėkas, Jian-Ye Zhang, Zezhou Zhao, Lei Zheng, Alexander R Zheutlin, Antje M Zickler, Pascale Zimmermann, Angela M Zivkovic, Davide Zocco, Ewa K Zuba-Surma
The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Rienk Nieuwland, Juan Manuel Falcon-Perez, Carolina Soekmadji, Eric Boilard, Dave Carter, Edit I Buzas
The past decade has witnessed an exponential development in the field of extracellular vesicles. Sporadic observations have reached a critical level and the scientific community increasingly recognizes the potential biomedical significance of these subcellular structures present in all body fluids as significant components of the cellular secretome. The Educational Committee of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles prepared two posters ("Basic aspects of extracellular vesicles" and "Clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles") to provide essential pieces of information on extracellular vesicles at glance for anyone not familiar with the field...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Ryan P McNamara, Carolina P Caro-Vegas, Lindsey M Costantini, Justin T Landis, Jack D Griffith, Blossom A Damania, Dirk P Dittmer
Isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cell culture supernatant or plasma can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Common measures to quantify relative success are: concentration of the EVs, purity from non-EVs associated protein, size homogeneity and functionality of the final product. Here, we present an industrial-scale workflow for isolating highly pure and functional EVs using cross-flow based filtration coupled with high-molecular weight Capto Core size exclusion. Through this combination, EVs loss is kept to a minimum...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Carolina Soekmadji, Andrew F Hill, Marca H Wauben, Edit I Buzás, Dolores Di Vizio, Chris Gardiner, Jan Lötvall, Susmita Sahoo, Kenneth W Witwer
The discovery that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer functional extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) between cells opened new avenues into the study of EVs in health and disease. Growing interest in EV RNAs and other forms of exRNA has given rise to research programmes including but not limited to the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium (ERCC) of the US National Institutes of Health. In 2017, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) administered a survey focusing on EVs and exRNA to canvass-related views and perceived needs of the EV research community...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Anna-Kristin Ludwig, Kyra De Miroschedji, Thorsten R Doeppner, Verena Börger, Johannes Ruesing, Vera Rebmann, Stephan Durst, Sören Jansen, Michel Bremer, Elmar Behrmann, Bernhard B Singer, Holger Jastrow, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann, Fouzi El Magraoui, Helmut E Meyer, Dirk M Hermann, Bertram Opalka, Stefan Raunser, Matthias Epple, Peter A Horn, Bernd Giebel
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) provide a complex means of intercellular signalling between cells at local and distant sites, both within and between different organs. According to their cell-type specific signatures, EVs can function as a novel class of biomarkers for a variety of diseases, and can be used as drug-delivery vehicles. Furthermore, EVs from certain cell types exert beneficial effects in regenerative medicine and for immune modulation. Several techniques are available to harvest EVs from various body fluids or cell culture supernatants...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Jennifer Phan, Priyadarsini Kumar, Dake Hao, Kewa Gao, Diana Farmer, Aijun Wang
Through traditional medicine, there were diseases and disorders that previously remained untreated or were simply thought to be incurable. Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), there has been a flurry of research to develop MSC-based therapy for diseases and disorders. It is now well-known that MSCs do not typically engraft after transplantation and exhibit their therapeutic effect via a paracrine mechanism. In addition to secretory proteins, MSCs also produce extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound nanovesicles containing proteins, DNA and RNA...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Helen Dawn
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can be found in almost all body fluids, consist of a lipid bilayer enclosing proteins and nucleic acids from their cells of origin. EVs can transport their cargo to target cells and have therefore emerged as key players in intercellular communication. Their potential as either diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic drug delivery systems (DDSs) has generated considerable interest in recent years. However, conventional methods used to study EVs still have significant limitations including the time-consuming and low throughput techniques required, while at the same time the demand for better research tools is getting stronger and stronger...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Ryan M Allen, Shilin Zhao, Marisol A Ramirez Solano, Wanying Zhu, Danielle L Michell, Yuhuan Wang, Yu Shyr, Praveen Sethupathy, MacRae F Linton, Gregory A Graf, Quanhu Sheng, Kasey C Vickers
To comprehensively study extracellular small RNAs (sRNA) by sequencing (sRNA-seq), we developed a novel pipeline to overcome current limitations in analysis entitled, "Tools for Integrative Genome analysis of Extracellular sRNAs (TIGER)". To demonstrate the power of this tool, sRNA-seq was performed on mouse lipoproteins, bile, urine and livers. A key advance for the TIGER pipeline is the ability to analyse both host and non-host sRNAs at genomic, parent RNA and individual fragment levels. TIGER was able to identify approximately 60% of sRNAs on lipoproteins and >85% of sRNAs in liver, bile and urine, a significant advance compared to existing software...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
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