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Open Access Journal of Urology

Jaclyn C Milose, Christopher P Filson, Alon Z Weizer, Khaled S Hafez, Jeffrey S Montgomery
Testis cancer is one of the few solid organ malignancies for which reliable serum tumor markers are available to help guide disease management. Human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase play crucial roles in diagnosis, staging, prognosis, monitoring treatment response, and surveillance of seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Herein we discuss the clinical applications of germ cell tumor markers, the limitations of these markers in the management of this disease, and additional serum molecules that have been identified with potential roles as novel germ cell tumor markers...
December 30, 2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Emily L Whitcomb, Leslee L Subak
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. METHODS: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized...
August 1, 2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil Haraway
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used...
June 17, 2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Maxine Sun, Firas Abdollah, Jan Schmitges, Claudio Jeldres, Shahrokh F Shariat, Paul Perrotte, Pierre I Karakiewicz
The efficacy of sequential everolimus, an orally administered inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was proven in a placebo-controlled phase III study, where median progression-free survival was 4.9 vs 1.9 months for placebo (hazard ratio: 0.33, P < 0.001). Placebo crossovers (80%) contaminated overall survival data. Adverse event discontinuation rate was of only 10% and health-adjusted quality-of-life was sustained. These data represent the first placebo-controlled evidence of efficacy for a sequentially used targeted agent...
April 26, 2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Peter K Sand, Scott A Macdiarmid, Heather Thomas, Kim E Caramelli, Gary Hoel
BACKGROUND: In a recent placebo-controlled Phase III study, oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) significantly improved urinary continence in patients with overactive bladder. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of incontinence severity on OTG-mediated improvement in continence was evaluated. METHODS: Change from baseline in the number of incontinence episodes was evaluated in patients with two to three incontinence episodes/day (moderate incontinence) and those with more than three incontinence episodes/day (severe incontinence)...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Louis C Remynse, Patrick J Sweeney, Kevin A Brewton, Jay M Lonsway
Infectious complications related to prostate ultrasound and biopsy have increased in the past decade with the emergence of increasing fluoroquinolone bacterial resistance. We investigated the addition of intravenous (iv) piperacillin/tazobactam immediately prior to prostate ultrasound and biopsy with standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to determine if it would decrease the incidence of serious infectious complications after prostate ultrasound and biopsy. Group 1 patients were a historic control of 197 patients who underwent prostate ultrasound and biopsy with standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Ofn Ozoemena, Jo Ezugworie, Au Mbah, Ea Esom, Bo Ayogu, Fe Ejezie
BACKGROUND: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%-70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. METHODS: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Janet Colli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Mohammad Kazem Moslemi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Hossein Shahrokh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the risks and benefits of Mathieu repair of hypospadias with or without circumcision in consecutive operated cases. METHODS: Eighty-six children with midshaft or distal hypospadias were randomly divided into two groups and underwent circumcision (Group A) or preputial reconstruction (Group B) during hypospadias repair. Postoperative complications, outcomes, and parental satisfaction were assessed for circumcised and uncircumcised patients...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Abhishek A Solanki, Stanley L Liauw
Brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy are effective and commonly used treatment modalities in men with localized prostate cancer. In this review, we explore the role of radiation therapy in the curative management of prostate cancer, including the use of conformal therapeutic techniques to allow for the escalation of radiation doses to tumor, along with the use of combined radiation and hormonal therapy to enhance disease outcomes in men with aggressive disease. We also review the possible anticancer role of HMG-CoA reductase inhibiting agents (statins) in men with prostate cancer...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Steven A Kaplan, Claus G Roehrborn, Lawrence A Hill, Weining Volinn
OBJECTIVE: The uroselective α-blocker silodosin significantly improved International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in two 12-week, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled Phase III studies in men aged ≥ 50 years with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and maintained symptom improvement during a 9-month open-label (OL) extension. This post-hoc analysis evaluated the effects of estimated prostate volume (EPV) on silodosin-mediated symptom improvement. METHODS: Patients were stratified by EPV (<30 mL or ≥ 30 mL) calculated from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations using a published algorithm...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Mohammad Kazem Moslemi, Mehdi Abedinzadeh, Mohammad Aghaali
BACKGROUND: Circumcision can be performed for a variety of techniques, including conventional dissection surgery or a Plastibell device, and has religious, ritual, or medical roots. In countries like Iran, circumcision is done purely on religious grounds. In this study, we outline 390 cases in our practice and describe the epidemiology, indications, surgical technique used, and the early complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the charts for 390 circumcision cases were analyzed for the period March 2005 to August 2010...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Fable Zustovich, Giuseppe Lombardi, Davide Pastorelli, Patrizia Farina, Massimo Dal Bianco, Luca De Zorzi, Maurizia Dalla Palma, Ornella Nicoletto, Vittorina Zagonel
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy worldwide with approximately 95,000 new cases per year and ranks as the sixth cause of cancer deaths. Until recently, the slightly active and very toxic cytokines were available for patients with advanced RCC. Advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology of renal cancer. The introduction of targeted agents has led to promising possibilities for treating these highly vascularized tumors. Angiogenesis inhibition is likely to represent the main potential therapeutic target...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Athanasios G Papatsoris, Islam Junaid, Alexandra Zachou, Stefanos Kachrilas, Faruquz Zaman, Junaid Masood, Noor Buchholz
Bladder outflow obstruction is a very common age-related clinical entity due to a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the prostate. Surgical treatment under general or regional anesthesia is not suitable for high-risk elderly patients who seek minimally invasive management. Unfortunately, for patients who are not fit for transurethral and/or laser prostatectomy, few treatment options remain, other than long-term catheterization and insertion (under local anesthesia) of a prostatic stent. In this review, we present developments in the use of prostatic stents...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeel
Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a slight survival benefit while being associated with potentially significant side effects. However, the recent approval of sipuleucel-T has given patients with advanced disease an additional treatment option that has demonstrated benefit without the side effects associated with chemotherapy...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Vincent R Lucente, David R Staskin, Elise De
Overactive bladder (OAB) is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Wellman W Cheung, Dorota Borawski, Ovadia Abulafia, Miriam T Vincent, Miriam Harel, Martin H Bluth
BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB) represents a disorder with overall increasing prevalence in the American population. However, gender-specific characteristics of OAB and how it relates to the general practitioner are not well described. We sought to determine the distribution and characteristics of OAB in women in a primary care setting. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to patients visiting a family medicine outpatient center. The modified questionnaire included eight questions on evidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, OAB-validated 8-question screener [OAB-V8]), two questions on stress urinary incontinence, and one question on incomplete emptying...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Karan Wadhwa, Raj Singh, Lemke Z Solomon
A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of macroscopic hematuria. While an ultrasound of the bladder revealed a posterior bladder mass, subsequent flexible cystoscopy demonstrated only an area of irregular urothelium. Initial general anesthetic cytoscopy and biopsy revealed conventional G2/3 T1 TCC. Histology of a further formal resection of this irregular area revealed carcinoma-in-situ and population of atypical cells with enlarged nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and varying quantities of cytoplasm showing plasma cell features...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Marty Hinz, Alvin Stein, Thomas Uncini
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of statistical analysis of spot baseline urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine assays in correlation with spot baseline urinary serotonin and dopamine findings previously published by the authors. Our research indicates a need for physicians and decision-makers to understand the lack of validity of this type of spot baseline monoamine testing when using it in the decision-making process for neurotransmitter deficiency disorders...
2011: Open Access Journal of Urology
Nina Chi, Jodi K Maranchie, Leonard J Appleman, Walter J Storkus
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a significant health concern that frequently presents as metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Current first-line therapeutics for the advanced-stage RCC include antiangiogenic drugs that have yielded high rates of objective clinical response; however, these tend to be transient in nature, with many patients becoming refractory to chronic treatment with these agents. Adjuvant immunotherapies remain viable candidates to sustain disease-free and overall patient survival...
August 4, 2010: Open Access Journal of Urology
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