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Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR

Aurysia Hii, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Tambri Housen, Salanieta Saketa, Mohana Priya Kunasekaran, Feroza Sulaiman, Nk Semara Yanti, Chandini Raina MacIntyre
Objective: To understand the global outbreak surveillance needs of stakeholders involved in epidemic response in selected countries and areas in the Asia-Pacific region to inform development of an epidemic observatory, Epi-watch. Methods: We designed an online, semi-structured stakeholder questionnaire to collect information on global outbreak surveillance sources and limitations from participants who use epidemic intelligence and outbreak alert services in their work in government and nongovernment organizations in the Asia-Pacific region...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Matthew M Griffith, Yuichiro Yahata, Fujiko Irie, Hajime Kamiya, Aika Watanabe, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tamano Matsui, Nobuhiko Okabe, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Kazunori Oishi
Outbreaks of infectious diseases can occur after natural disasters as vital services are disrupted and populations move into evacuation centres. National notifiable disease surveillance may be inadequate in these situations because of resource-consuming disease confirmation or system interruptions. Although syndromic surveillance has been used as an alternative in post-disaster situations, no systematic evaluations of it have been published. We evaluated the ad hoc paper-based syndromic surveillance system implemented in evacuation centres in Ibaraki prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
K Snow, R Yadav, J Denholm, S Sawyer, S Graham
The Philippines, a country with a young population, is currently experiencing an intense and persistent tuberculosis epidemic. We analysed patient-based national surveillance data to investigate the epidemiology of reported tuberculosis among children (aged 0-9 years), adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and young adults (aged 20-24 years) to better understand the burden of disease and treatment outcomes in these age groups. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess age-related patterns in notifications and treatment outcomes...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Niño Rebato, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia Sucaldito, Flor D'Lynn Gallardo, Julius Erving Ballera, Irma Asuncion, Kenneth Hartigan-Go
Introduction: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is common in tropical and subtropical waters. On 13 November 2015, eight Filipino seafarers from a cargo ship sailing in the Caribbean Sea experienced a range of symptoms after consuming a barracuda. Upon their return to the Philippines, an investigation was conducted to describe the cases. Methods: A case-series was conducted. A CFP case was defined as a previously well individual on the ship who developed at least one gastrointestinal symptom and at least one neurologic manifestation after eating barracuda on 13 November 2015...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Johnette Peñas, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia Sucaldito, Denisse Lou Manalili, Herdie Hizon, Rio Magpantay
Objective: On 2 October 2015, the Event-Based Surveillance and Response Unit of the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines received a report of foodborne illness cases in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. A team from DOH was sent to conduct an investigation to identify the implicated source and determine risk factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done. A suspect case was defined as a previously well individual in Compound A, Santa Cruz who developed abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, diarrhoea or vomiting on either 1 or 2 October 2015...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Johnette A Peñas, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia L Sucaldito, Julius Erving D Ballera, Herdie L Hizon, Rio L Magpantay, Vicente Y Belizario, Kenneth Hartigan-Go
Introduction: In July 2015, the Philippines conducted a school-based mass drug administration using albendazole for soil-transmitted helminths infection. Reports of adverse events were subsequently made through the event-based surveillance system, mostly from the Zamboanga Peninsula on the island of Mindanao. A team from the Epidemiology Bureau investigated the reports of adverse events following mass drug administration (AEFMDA). Methods: Five schools were identified for the investigation which comprised an unmatched case-control study, key informant interviews and laboratory examinations...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Kazuki Shimizu, Ryo Kinoshita, Keita Yoshii, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Sungmok Jung, Hyojung Lee, Hiroshi Nishiura
Objective: To investigate a measles outbreak that spread to Japan and China, Taiwan, China during March-May 2018, exploring the characteristics of the super-spreading event. Methods: A contact investigation of the index case and reconstruction of the epidemiological dynamics of measles transmission were conducted. Employing a mathematical model, the effective reproduction number was estimated for each generation of cases. Results and discussion: A single index case gave rise to a total of 38 secondary cases, 33 in Japan and five in China, Taiwan, China...
July 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Vu Quoc Dat, Bui Duc Duong, Do Thi Nhan, Nguyen Huu Hai, Nguyen Thi Lan Anh, Huynh Hoang Khanh Thu, Tran Ton, Luong Que Anh, Nguyen Tuan Nghia, Nguyen Vu Thuong, Khuu Van Nghia, Tran Thi Minh Tam, Tran Phuc Hau, Nguyen Duy Phuc, Vu Xuan Thinh, Nguyen Tran Hien, Truong Thi Xuan Lien, Silvia Bertagnolio, Nguyen Thi Thuy Van, Masaya Kato
Objective: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the prevalence of viral load (VL) suppression and emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 36 months or longer in Viet Nam using a nationally representative sampling method. Methods: The survey was conducted between May and August 2014 using a two-stage cluster design. Sixteen ART clinics were selected using probability proportional to proxy size sampling, and patients receiving ART for at least 36 months were consecutively enrolled...
July 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Bounthanom Sengkeopraseuth, Bouaphanh Khamphaphongphane, Phengta Vongphrachanh, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Sisouveth Norasingh, Chansay Pathammvong, Manilay Phengxay, Phanmanisone Philakong, Siddhartha Sankar Datta
Introduction: In recent years, the incidence of measles has declined in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. However, an outbreak was reported in August 2014 in Houaphanh province, which was the biggest outbreak in the country since 2008. We describe the characteristics of this outbreak and outline critical interventions for the Lao People's Democratic Republic to achieve measles elimination. Methods: Fever and rash cases in the Khouan and Samtai districts with an onset date from 1 September to 25 October 2014 were investigated...
July 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Masako Tasaka, Tamae Shimamura, Mami Iwata, Takahiro Toyozawa, Masaki Ota
In May 2012, a teacher of a nursing school with about 300 staff members and students in Japan was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), leading to an investigation involving nearly 300 contacts. We describe the contacts' closeness to the index TB patient and the likelihood of TB infection and disease. A case of TB was defined as an individual with positive bacteriological tests or by a physician diagnosis of TB. A latent TB infection (LTBI) case was defined as an individual who had a positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)...
July 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Matthew M Griffith, Ariuntuya Ochirpurev, Takuya Yamagishi, Shingo Nishiki, Baigalmaa Jantsansengee, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Matthew M Griffith, Munehisa Fukusumi, Yusuke Kobayashi, Yusuke Matsui, Shingo Nishiki, Reiko Shimbashi, Saeko Morino, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
Introduction: In 2019 and 2020, Japan will host two international sporting events estimated to draw a combined 22 million visitors. Mass gatherings like these ones increase the risk of spread of infectious disease outbreaks and international transmission. Pre-travel advice reduces that risk. Methods: To assist ministries of health and related organizations in developing pre-travel advice, we summarized national surveillance data in Japan (2000-2016, to the extent available) for rubella, invasive pneumococcal disease, measles, non-A and non-E viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, tetanus, typhoid fever, invasive meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, influenza, varicella, mumps and pertussis by calculating descriptive statistics of reported cases and reviewing trends...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Cassia Lindsay, James Flint, Kim Lilly, Kirsty Hope, Qinning Wang, Peter Howard, Vitali Sintchenko, David N Durrheim
Introduction: Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka is an infrequent cause of salmonellosis in New South Wales (NSW) with an average of 17 cases reported annually. This study examined the added value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating a non-point source outbreak of Salmonella ser. Mbandaka with limited geographical spread. Methods: In February 2016, an increase in Salmonella ser. Mbandaka was noted in New South Wales, and an investigation was initiated...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Paul Aia, Lungten Wangchuk, Fukushi Morishita, Jacob Kisomb, Robin Yasi, Margaret Kal, Tauhid Islam
Papua New Guinea has strengthened its surveillance system for tuberculosis (TB) under the National TB Program. This paper provides an overview of TB surveillance data at the national and subnational levels from 2008 to 2016. TB case notification has consistently increased since 2008 with 6184 cases (93 per 100 000 population) in 2008 to 28 598 (359 per 100 000 population) in 2014 and has stabilized since 2014 with 28 244 cases (333 per 100 000 population) in 2016. The population-screening rate for TB rose from 0...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Julie Collins, Viema Biaukula, Daniel Faktaufon, James Flint, Sam Fullman, Katri Jalava, Jimaima Kailawadoko, Angela Merianos, Eric Nilles, Katrina Roper, Meru Sheel, Mike Kama
Introduction: Influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In response to a cluster of SARI cases and deaths in pregnant women, with two deceased cases testing positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, an investigation was initiated to determine whether there was an increase of paediatric SARI cases admitted to divisional hospital intensive care units in Fiji in may 2016 compared to May 2013-2015. Methods: Retrospective case finding was conducted at the paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Fiji's three divisional hospitals...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Dong T Nguyen, Hung T Do, Huy X Le, Nghia T Le, Mai Q Vien, Trieu B Nguyen, Lan T Phan, Thuong V Nguyen, Quang C Luong, Hung C Phan, Hai T Diep, Quang D Pham, Thinh V Nguyen, Loan Kt Huynh, Dung Ct Nguyen, Hang Tt Pham, Khanh Kh Ly, Huong Nlt Tran, Phu D Tran, Tan Q Dang, Hung Pham, Long N Vu, Anthony Mounts, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Leisha D Nolen
The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official positions of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Tebuka Toatu, Paul White, Damian Hoy, Dennie Iniakwala, Onofre Edwin A Merrilles, Sameer Vali Gopalani
Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women who board foreign fishing vessels for sex work in Kiribati. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect data on behavioural risk factors for STIs and knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV and STIs during 2007. Urine and blood samples were collected to test for HIV and select STIs. Descriptive statistics were performed for sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics, and χ2 tests were used to assess associations between potential key determinants and the presence of genital Chlamydia infection...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Eliaser Johnson, Sameer V Gopalani, Eliashib Edward, Charles Loney, Alize Mercier, Tebuka Toatu, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Damian Hoy
Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Jugderjav Badrakh, Setsen Zayasaikhan, Davaalkham Jagdagsuren, Erdenetungalag Enkhbat, Narantuya Jadambaa, Sergelen Munkhbaatar, Melanie Taylor, Jane Rowley, Guy Mahiané, Eline Korenromp
Objective: To estimate Mongolia's prevalence and incidence trends of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women and men 15-49 years old to inform control of STIs and HIV, a national health sector priority. Methods: We applied the Spectrum-STI estimation model, fitting data from two national population surveys (2001 and 2008) and from routine gonorrhoea screening of pregnant women in antenatal care (1997 to 2016) adjusted for diagnostic test performance, male/female differences and missing high-risk populations...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Akihiro Ohkado, Seiya Kato
Foreign-born persons are considered one of the high-risk populations for tuberculosis (TB), and numerous studies have discussed the potential role of pre-entry TB screening for immigrants. However, rates of TB disease among immigrants can remain high several years after entry. In Japan, approximately 50% of TB among foreign-born persons occurs among those who have entered Japan more than five years before being diagnosed, i.e. non-recent immigrants. However, little attention has been paid so far to the issue of TB control among the non-recent immigrants...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
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