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Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases

Hung-Yuan Su, Shih-Wei Huang, Yan-Chiao Mao, Ming-Wen Liu, Kuo-Hsin Lee, Pei-Fang Lai, Ming-Jen Tsai
Background: There are 6 species of venomous snakes in Taiwan. Two of them, Deinagkistrodon acutus ( D. acutus ) and Daboia siamensis ( D. siamensis ), can cause significant coagulopathy. However, a significant proportion of patients with snakebites cannot identify the correct snake species after envenomation, which hampers the application of antivenom. Hence, the differential diagnosis between the two snakebites by clinical presentations is important. This study aims to compare their clinical and laboratory features for the purpose of differential diagnosis between the two snakebites...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Daniel Jestrzemski, Irina Kuzyakova
Background: The blunt-nosed viper Macrovipera lebetina (Linnaeus, 1758) is a medically important snake species in the Middle East. Its nominate subspecies Macrovipera l. lebetina is confined to Cyprus, where it is the only dangerously venomous snake species and heavily pursued. Despite the viper's large size, data on its body mass and sex-specific morphological differences are scarce. It is commonly believed that M. l. lebetina prefers freshwater proximity during summer. Hence, we aimed at investigating M...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Sajesh Puthenpurackal Krishnankutty, Megha Muraleedharan, Rajadurai Chinnasamy Perumal, Saju Michael, Jubina Benny, Bipin Balan, Pramod Kumar, Jishnu Manazhi, Bangaruswamy Dhinoth Kumar, Sam Santhosh, George Thomas, Ravi Gupta, Arun Zachariah
Background: The oral cavities of snakes are replete with various types of bacterial flora. Culture-dependent studies suggest that some of the bacterial species are responsible for secondary bacterial infection associated with snakebite. A complete profile of the ophidian oral bacterial community has been unreported until now. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the complete bacterial compositions in the oral cavity of some snakes from India. Methods: Total DNA was isolated from oral swabs collected from three wild snake species (Indian Cobra, King Cobra and Indian Python)...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Rogério Bodini Benati, Tássia Rafaela Costa, Maira da Costa Cacemiro, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Fabíola Attié de Castro, Sandra Mara Burin
Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a BCR-ABL1 + myeloproliferative neoplasm marked by increased myeloproliferation and presence of leukemic cells resistant to apoptosis. The current first-line therapy for CML is administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib mesylate, dasatinib or nilotinib. Although effective to treat CML, some patients have become resistant to this therapy, leading to disease progression and death. Thus, the discovery of new compounds to improve CML therapy is still challenging...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Marco Aurélio Sartim, Danilo Luccas Menaldo, Suely Vilela Sampaio
For the past 80 years, Crotoxin has become one of the most investigated isolated toxins from snake venoms, partially due to its major role as the main toxic component in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus . However, in the past decades, progressive studies have led researchers to shift their focus on Crotoxin, opening novel perspectives and applications as a therapeutic approach. Although this toxin acts on a wide variety of biological events, the modulation of immune responses is considered as one of its most relevant behaviors...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Ângela Alice Amadeu Megale, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, Alexandre Kazuo Kuniyoshi, Leo Kei Iwai, Denise V Tambourgi, Fernanda C V Portaro, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Background: Bitis arietans is a venomous snake found in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of Morocco and Saudi Arabia. The envenomation is characterized by local and systemic reactions including pain, blistering, edema and tissue damage, besides hemostatic and cardiovascular disturbances, which can cause death or permanent disabilities in its victims. However, the action mechanisms that provoke these effects remain poorly understood, especially the activities of purified venom components...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Tássia R Costa, Sante E I Carone, Luiz F F Tucci, Danilo L Menaldo, Nathalia G Rosa-Garzon, Hamilton Cabral, Suely V Sampaio
Background: L-amino acid oxidases isolated from snake venoms (SV-LAAOs) are enzymes that have great therapeutic potential and are currently being investigated as tools for developing new strategies to treat various diseases, including cancer and bacterial infections. The main objective of this study was to make a brief evaluation of the enzymatic stability of two Bothrops LAAOs, one isolated from Bothrops jararacussu (BjussuLAAO-II) and the other from Bothrops moojeni (BmooLAAO-I) venoms...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Manuela Berto Pucca, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: Our group has previously performed a proteomic study verifying that individual variations can occur among Crotalus durissus collilineatus venoms. These variations may lead to differences in venom toxicity and may result in lack of neutralization of some components by antivenom. In this way, this study aimed to evaluate the Brazilian anticrotalic serum capacity in recognizing twenty-two Crotalus durissus collilineatus venoms, as well as their fractions. Methods: The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was chosen to evaluate the efficacy of heterologous anticrotalic serum produced by Instituto Butantan (Brazil) in recognizing the twenty-two Crotalus durissus collilineatus venoms and the pool of them...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Priscila Yumi Tanaka Shibao, Camila Takeno Cologna, Romualdo Morandi-Filho, Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Patricia Tiemi Fujimura, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: Animal poisons and venoms are sources of biomolecules naturally selected. Rhinella schneideri toads are widespread in the whole Brazilian territory and they have poison glands and mucous gland. Recently, protein from toads' secretion has gaining attention. Frog skin is widely known to present great number of host defense peptides and we hypothesize toads present them as well. In this study, we used a RNA-seq analysis from R. schneideri skin and biochemical tests with the gland secretion to unravel its protein molecules...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Viviane Dos Santos Faiões, Lívia C R M da Frota, Edézio Ferreira Cunha-Junior, Julio C F Barcellos, Thayssa Da Silva, Chaquip Daher Netto, Silvia Amaral Gonçalves Da-Silva, Alcides J M da Silva, Paulo R R Costa, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos
Background: Despite the development of new therapies for leishmaniasis, among the 200 countries or territories reporting to the WHO, 87 were identified as endemic for Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and 75 as endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis. The identification of antileishmanial drug candidates is essential to fill the drug discovery pipeline for leishmaniasis. In the hit molecule LQB-118 selected, the first generation of pterocarpanquinones was effective and safe against experimental visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis via oral delivery...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Rafhaella C A Cedro, Danilo L Menaldo, Tássia R Costa, Karina F Zoccal, Marco A Sartim, Norival A Santos-Filho, Lúcia H Faccioli, Suely V Sampaio
Background: Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) have been reported to induce myotoxic, neurotoxic, hemolytic, edematogenic, cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. This work aimed at the isolation and functional characterization of a PLA2 isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, named BJ-PLA2 -I. Methods and Results: For its purification, three consecutive chromatographic steps were used (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and Mono Q 5/50 GL). BJ-PLA2 -I showed acidic characteristics, with pI~ 4...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Francielle Almeida Cordeiro, Bárbara Marques Coutinho, Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Cristiane Bregge-Silva, Nathalia Gonsales Rosa-Garzon, Hamilton Cabral, Beatrix Ueberheide, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: Lachesis muta rhombeata (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A2 . Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Flavia Rodrigues da Silva, Mayara Rodrigues Brandão de Paiva, Lays Fernanda Nunes Dourado, Rummenigge Oliveira Silva, Carolina Nunes da Silva, Bruna Lopes da Costa, Cibele Rodrigues Toledo, Maria Elena de Lima, Armando da Silva-Cunha
Background: The great diversity of molecules found in spider venoms include amino acids, polyamines, proteins and peptides, among others. Some of these compounds can interact with different neuronal receptors and ion channels including those present in the ocular system. To study potential toxicity and safety of intravitreal injection in rabbits of LyeTx I b, a synthetic peptide derived from the toxin LyeTx I found in venom from the spider Lycosa eritrognatha and to evaluate the angiogenic activity on a CAM model...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Daiane Dias Ferreira, Juliana Tonini Mesquita, Thais Alves da Costa Silva, Maiara Maria Romanelli, Denise da Gama Jaen Batista, Cristiane França da Silva, Aline Nefertiti Silva da Gama, Bruno Junior Neves, Cleber Camilo Melo-Filho, Maria de Nazare Correia Soeiro, Carolina Horta Andrade, Andre Gustavo Tempone
Background: Drug repurposing has been an interesting and cost-effective approach, especially for neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease. Methods: In this work, we studied the activity of the antidepressant drug sertraline against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the Y and Tulahuen strains, and investigated its action mode using cell biology and in silico approaches. Results: Sertraline demonstrated in vitro efficacy against intracellular amastigotes of both T...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Erika G Pinto, Andre G Tempone
Background: Considering the high toxicity and limited therapies available for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the drug repositioning approach represents a faster way to deliver new therapies to the market. Methods: In this study, we described for the first time the activity of a potent antiarrhythmic, amiodarone (AMD), against L. ( L. ) infantum and its in vitro and in vivo activity. Results: The evaluation against promastigotes has shown that amiodarone presents leishmanicidal effect against the extracellular form, with an IC50 value of 10 μM...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Rafaella Varzoni Manzini, Isabela Gobbo Ferreira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Ana Rita Thomazela Machado, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, José Cesar Rosa, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: In recent decades, snake venom disintegrins have received special attention due to their potential use in anticancer therapy. Disintegrins are small and cysteine-rich proteins present in snake venoms and can interact with specific integrins to inhibit their activities in cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. These molecules, known to inhibit platelet aggregation, are also capable of interacting with certain cancer-related integrins, and may interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Simone S Grecco, Thais A Costa-Silva, Fernanda S Sousa, Stefano B Cargnelutti, Eric Umehara, Poliana S Mendonça, Andre G Tempone, Joao Henrique G Lago
Background: The therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of Leishmaniasis is limited and includes toxic compounds (antimonials, amphotericin B, pentamidine and miltefosine). Given these aspects, the search for new compounds based on floristic biodiversity is crucial. In the present work, we report the isolation, characterization and antileishmanial activity of six related neolignans ( 1-6 ) of bioactive extract from Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) twigs. Methods: Dried and powdered twigs of N...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Carina Agostinho Rodrigues, Paloma Freire Dos Santos, Marcela Oliveira Legramanti da Costa, Thais Fernanda Amorim Pavani, Patrícia Xander, Mariana Marques Geraldo, Ana Mengarda, Josué de Moraes, Daniela Gonçales Galasse Rando
Background: There is still a need for new alternatives in pharmacological therapy for neglected diseases, as the drugs available show high toxicity and parenteral administration. That is the case for the treatment of leishmaniasis, particularly to the cutaneous clinical form of the disease. In this study, we present the synthesis and biological screening of eight 4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amines assayed against Leishmania amazonensis . Herein we propose that these compounds are good starting points for the search of new antileishmanial drugs by demonstrating some of the structural aspects which could interfere with the observed activity, as well as suggesting potential macromolecular targets...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Beatriz Philot Pavão, Kelly Cristina Demarque, Marcos Meuser Batista, Gabriel Melo de Oliveira, Cristiane França da Silva, Francisca Hildemagna Guedes da Silva, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves Caputo, Cynthia Machado Cascabulho, Marcello André Barcinski, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro
Background: Autologous whole blood (AWB) administration is described as alternative/complementary medical practice widely employed in medical and veterinary therapy against infections, chronic pathologies and neoplasias. Our aim is to investigate in vivo biological effect of AWB using healthy murine models under the course of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Methods: The first set of studies consisted of injecting different volumes of AWB and saline (SAL) into the posterior region of quadriceps muscle of healthy male Swiss mice under distinct therapeutic schemes evaluating: animal behavior, body and organ weight, hemogram, plasmatic biochemical markers for tissue damage and inflammatory cytokine levels and profile...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Fábio L S Costa, Maria Elena De Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Rafaela S Ferreira, Núbia S Prates, Tetsu Sakamoto, Carlos E Salas
Background: Lethal factors are multifunctional oligomeric proteins found in the venomous apparatus of Scorpaeniformes fish. These toxins elicit not only an array of biological responses in vitro but also cardiovascular disorders and strong hemolytic, nociceptive and edematogenic activities in vivo. This work describes the cloning and molecular identification of two toxin subunits, denominated Sp-CTx-α and Sp-CTx-β, from scorpionfish venom ( Scorpaena plumieri ). Methods: The primary structures were deduced after cDNA amplification by PCR with primers from conserved sequences described in Scorpaeniformes toxins...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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