journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38610069/non-canonical-ikb-kinases-regulate-yap-taz-and-pathological-vascular-remodeling-behaviors-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Aja Aravamudhan, Paul B Dieffenbach, Kyoung Moo Choi, Patrick A Link, Jeffrey A Meridew, Andrew J Haak, Laura E Fredenburgh, Daniel J Tschumperlin
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and leading to right heart failure and death. Matrix stiffening early in the disease promotes remodeling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), contributing to PAH pathogenesis. Our research identified YAP and TAZ as key drivers of the mechanobiological feedback loop in PASMCs, suggesting targeting them could mitigate remodeling. However, YAP/TAZ are ubiquitously expressed and carry out diverse functions, necessitating a cell-specific approach...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38610066/eight-weeks-of-treatment-with-mineralocorticoid-receptor-blockade-does-not-alter-vascular-function-in-individuals-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Stine H Finsen, Mie R Hansen, Pernille B L Hansen, Stefan P Mortensen
Aldosterone has been suggested to be involved in the microvascular complications observed in type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade on endothelial function in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy controls. We included 12 participants with type 2 diabetes and 14 controls. We measured leg hemodynamics at baseline and during femoral arterial infusion of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside before and 8 weeks into treatment with MR blockade (eplerenone)...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38605426/physiological-impacts-of-atmospheric-pollution-effects-of-environmental-air-pollution-on-exercise
#3
REVIEW
Michael Stephen Koehle
In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in our understanding of the physiology of the air pollution and exercise. The key areas covered include the effect of exercise intensity, the effects of pre-exposure to air pollution, acclimation to air pollution, and the utility of masks during exercise. Although higher intensity exercise leads to an increase in the inhaled dose of pollutants for a given distance traveled, the acute effects of (diesel exhaust) air pollution do not appear to be more pronounced...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38605421/intramuscular-injection-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-augments-basal-muscle-protein-synthesis-after-bouts-of-resistance-exercise-in-male-mice
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Junya Takegaki, Kohei Sase, Yusuke Kono, Takuya Fujita, Satoshi Konishi, Satoshi Fujita
Skeletal muscle mass is critical for activities of daily living. Resistance training maintains or increases muscle mass, and various strategies maximize the training adaptation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with differential potency in skeletal muscle cells and the capacity to secrete growth factors. However, little is known regarding the effect of intramuscular injection of MSCs on basal muscle protein synthesis and catabolic systems after resistance training. Here, we measured changes in basal muscle protein synthesis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy-lysosome system-related factors after bouts of resistance exercise by intramuscular injection of MSCs...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38605405/considerations-on-static-pressure-gradients-in-closed-circulatory-systems
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nato Popara, Denis Cvitković, Marinko Vilić, Selim Pašić
Siphons are devices that transport liquids uphill between two containers. It has been proposed that a siphon principle operates in closed circulatory systems, as best exemplified by the circulation of blood in mammals. This principle is supposed to ensure that no additional work is necessary to pump blood above the level of the heart, and that there is no gravitational static pressure gradient in the column of blood. The first statement is correct, while we demonstrate that, ignoring hydraulic resistance to blood flow, the static pressure gradient is equal to the hydrostatic gradient in a siphon model of blood circulation, although the details of the proof do not depend on the geometry of the circulatory system and the proof can be trivially extended to other models such as a vascular waterfall...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38584119/examining-the-significance-of-arginine-vasopressin-release-to-elucidate-the-often-multifactorial-etiology-of-hypotonic-hyponatremia-a-novel-criterion
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Philip J G M Voets
Clinical hyponatremia guidelines, protocols and flowcharts are a convenient means for clinicians to quickly establish an etiological diagnosis for hyponatremia, and facilitate its often complex analysis. Unfortunately, they often erroneously attribute multifactorial hyponatremia to a single cause, which is potentially dangerous. In this manuscript, a novel criterion is proposed to quickly determine the physiological relevance of non-osmotic arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, and to add nuance to hyponatremia analysis...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38584117/uncovering-sympathetic-nervous-system-dysfunction-in-disorders-of-consciousness-via-heart-rate-variability-during-head-up-tilt-test
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Weiqiang Cai, Xu Han, Xinwei Tang, Zuojun Cao, Zi Yu, Zuowen Sun, Junfa Wu, Yi Wu, Hongyu Xie
Few standardized tools are available for evaluation of disorders of consciousness (DOC). The potential of heart rate variability (HRV) during head-up tilt (HUT) test was investigated as a complementary evaluation tool. Twenty-one DOC patients and 21 healthy participants were enrolled in this study comparing clinical characteristics and HRV time- and frequency-domain outcomes and temporal changes during HUT test. During the 1st-5th min of the HUT, DOC group showed a significant increase and decrease in log low frequency (LF) (p = 0...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575554/dapagliflozin-prevents-erk-activation-and-sglt2-dependent-endoglin-upregulation-in-a-mechanically-provoked-cardiac-injury-model
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tung-Chen Yeh, Yi-Chung Wu, Tzyy Yue Wong, Gwo-Ching Sun, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Pei-Wen Cheng
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are rapidly gaining ground in the treatment of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by an unknown mechanism. Upregulation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1), SGLT1, and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the diseased hearts was found to be attenuated by prolonged SGLT2i treatment. Unfortunately, dapagliflozin is not well understood as to how Na+ /Ca2+ homeostasis is affected in cardiomyocytes...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38570312/cerebrovascular-carbon-dioxide-reactivity-is-intact-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Justin D Sprick, Jeann Sabino-Carvalho, Elsa Mekonnen, Melissa McGranahan, Matias Zanuzzi, Dana DaCosta, Jeanie Park
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an elevated risk for cerebrovascular disease including stroke. One mechanism that may contribute to this heightened risk is an impairment in cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity (CVR). We compared CVR between CKD patients stages III-IV and controls (CON) without CKD but matched for hypertension and diabetes status. CVR was measured via 5% CO2 inhalation followed by voluntary hyperventilation in 14 CKD and 11 CON participants while mean arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were measured continuously...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38561252/the-bk-ca-slo-channel-regulates-the-cardiac-function-of-drosophila
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shubha Gururaja Rao, Alexander Lam, Sarah Seeley, Jeniffer Park, Shriya Aruva, Harpreet Singh
The large conductance, calcium, and voltage-active potassium channels (BKCa ) were originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster as slowpoke (slo). They are extensively characterized in fly models as ion channels for their roles in neurological and muscular function, as well as aging. BKCa is known to modulate cardiac rhythm and is localized to the mitochondria. Activation of mitochondrial BKCa causes cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury, possibly via modulating mitochondrial function in adult animal models...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38561249/inhibition-of-pannexin-1-does-not-restore-electrolyte-balance-in-precystic-pkd1-knockout-mice
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Wouter H van Megen, Teun J van Houtert, Caro Bos, Dorien J M Peters, Jeroen H F de Baaij, Joost G J Hoenderop
Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. In a subset of ADPKD patients, reduced blood calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) concentrations are observed. As cystic fluid contains increased ATP concentrations and purinergic signaling reduces electrolyte reabsorption, we hypothesized that inhibiting ATP release could normalize blood Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels in ADPKD. Inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout mice (iKsp-Pkd1-/- ) exhibit hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia in a precystic stage and show increased expression of the ATP-release channel pannexin-1...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38561248/exercise-increases-tca-intermediate-concentrations-during-low-calorie-diet-independent-of-insulin-resistance-among-women-with-obesity
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tristan J Ragland, Steven K Malin
Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAi) have been proposed to act as myokines that influence energy metabolism. We determined if 2-weeks of low-calorie diet with interval exercise (LCD + INT) would increase TCAi more than a low-calorie diet (LCD). Twenty-three women were randomized to 2-weeks of LCD (n = 12, 48.4 ± 2.5 years, 37.8 ± 1.5 kg/m2 , ~1200 kcal/d) or LCD + INT (n = 11, 47.6 ± 4...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38561245/discordant-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-tissues-in-response-to-exercise-training
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael Svensson, Alen Lovric, Torbjörn Åkerfeldt, David Hellsten, Tara Haas, Thomas Gustafsson, Eric Rullman
Exercise has different effects on different tissues in the body, the sum of which may determine the response to exercise and the health benefits. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether physical training regulates transcriptional network communites common to both skeletal muscle (SM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Eight such shared transcriptional communities were found in both tissues. Eighteen young overweight adults voluntarily participated in 7 weeks of combined strength and endurance training (five training sessions per week)...
April 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38546216/influence-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-adipocyte-size-on-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-after-cardiovascular-surgery
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hiroyuki Natsui, Masaya Watanabe, Takashi Yokota, Satonori Tsuneta, Yoshizuki Fumoto, Haruka Handa, Matsushima Shouji, Jiro Koya, Kotaro Nishino, Daishiro Tatsuta, Takuya Koizumi, Takahide Kadosaka, Motoki Nakao, Taro Koya, Taro Temma, Yoichi M Ito, Hatanaka C Kanako, Yutaka Hatanaka, Shingu Yasushige, Satoru Wakasa, Shuhei Miura, Takahiko Masuda, Naritomo Nishioka, Shuichi Naraoka, Kayoko Ochi, Tomoko Kudo, Tsugumine Ishikawa, Toshihisa Anzai
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an active endocrine organ that is closely associated with occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the role of EAT in the development of postoperative AF (POAF) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between EAT profile and POAF occurrence in patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery. We obtained EAT samples from 53 patients to evaluate gene expression, histological changes, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in the EAT, and protein secretion in EAT-conditioned medium...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538038/a-multicenter-study-of-maternal-conditions-and-amniotic-fluid-volume-in-ethiopia-in-2023
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Besfat Berihun Erega, Wassie Yazie Ferede, Fillorenes Ayalew Sisay, Abeba Belay Ayalew, Rahel Birhanu Arage
The amniotic fluid is a protective liquid found in amniotic found in the amniotic sac and mainly containing water and some solid substances including epitheloid and fibroblastic type cells. Most of the studies conducted about amniotic fluid volume (AFV) reported fetal and placental factors as a determinant of AFV. The aim of this study is to examine maternal and obstetric conditions in relation to AFV among women with term pregnancies. A multicenter institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among clients attending selected public hospitals of South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia from January 01, 2023 to May 30, 2023...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538032/the-difference-in-endothelium-dependent-relaxation-components-in-proximal-and-distal-thoracic-aorta-regions-of-male-rats
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
O R Mezhenskyi, I B Philyppov
Aorta, the largest vessel in the body, is generally considered anatomically homogeneous, yet spatial functional differences exist. In our study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis by reexamining public RNA-SEQ data, comparing expression patterns between thoracic and abdominal aorta. Additionally, we measured acetylcholine-induced relaxations of the different regions of thoracic aorta in Wistar Rats. Our results revealed a distinct percentage difference in acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the proximal and distal segments of the thoracic aorta (p = 1...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538007/adeno-associated-virus-based-approach-for-genetic-modification-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-in-adult-rat-hearts
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bridget Nieto, Michael W Cypress, Bong Sook Jhun, Jin O-Uchi
Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are an attractive target for reducing pathological cardiac remodeling, and understanding the underlying mechanisms of these processes is the key to develop successful therapies for treating the pressure-overloaded heart. CF-specific knockout (KO) mouse lines with a Cre recombinase under the control of human TCF21 (hTCF21) promoter and/or an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-hTCF21 system provide a powerful tool for understanding CF biology in vivo. Although a variety of rat disease models are vital for the research of cardiac fibrosis similar to mouse models, there are few rat models that employ cardiac cell-specific conditional gene modification, which has hindered the development and translational relevance of cardiac disease models...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38537943/limb-sex-but-not-acute-dietary-capsaicin-modulate-the-near-infrared-spectroscopy-vascular-occlusion-test-estimate-of-muscle-metabolism
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lauren M Greaves, Kendall S Zaleski, Alexs A Matias, Abena O Gyampo, Gaia Giuriato, Meaghan Lynch, Brian Lora, Tawn Tomasi, Emma Basso, Emma Finegan, Jack Schickler, Massimo Venturelli, Justin A DeBlauw, Elena Shostak, Oliver E Blum, Stephen J Ives
The downward slope during the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-vascular occlusion test (NIRS-VOT) is purported as a simplified estimate of metabolism. Whether or not the NIRS-VOT exhibits sex- or limb-specificity or may be acutely altered remains to be elucidated. Thus, we investigated if there is limb- or sex specificity in tissue desaturation rates (DeO2 ) during a NIRS-VOT, and if acute dietary capsaicin may alter this estimate of muscle metabolism. Young healthy men (n = 25, 21 ± 4 years) and women (n = 20, 20 ± 1 years) ingested either placebo or capsaicin, in a counterbalanced, single-blind, crossover design after which a simplified NIRS-VOT was conducted to determine the DeO2 (%/s), as an estimate of oxidative muscle metabolism, in both the forearm (flexors) and thigh (vastus lateralis)...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38531560/harmaline-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-migration-in-a2780-ovarian-cancer-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Seyed Ali Shariat Razavi, Masoumeh Taghdisi Khaboushan, Raha Jafari, Arshia Shahini, Gordon A Ferns, Afsane Bahrami
Ovarian cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in women. Harmaline is reported to have powerful anticancer properties. We aimed to investigate the apoptotic and antimetastatic properties of harmaline in A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were investigated in cells treated with harmaline. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mRNA expression of apoptosis-associated genes, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured. Harmaline attenuated the viability of A2780 ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent way...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38519264/the-associations-of-depressive-symptoms-and-perceived-stress-with-arterial-health-in-adolescents
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Emmi Toivonen, Earric Lee, Marja H Leppänen, Tomi Laitinen, Mika Kähönen, Timo A Lakka, Eero A Haapala
Cardiovascular and mental diseases are among the most important global health problems, but little is known on the associations between mental and arterial health in adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the associations of arterial health with depressive symptoms and perceived stress in adolescents. A total of 277 adolescents, 151 boys, 126 girls, aged 15-17 years participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and perceived stress by the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale...
March 2024: Physiological Reports
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