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Physiological Reports

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779323/-work-to-work-exercise-slows-pulmonary-oxygen-uptake-kinetics-decreases-critical-power-and-increases-w-during-supine-cycling
#1
Richie P Goulding, Denise M Roche, Simon Marwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756528/cigarette-smoking-promotes-bladder-cancer-via-increased-platelet-activating-factor
#2
Shannon Kispert, John Marentette, Jane McHowat
Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for bladder cancer development and epidemiological data suggest that nearly half of all bladder cancer patients have a history of smoking. In addition to stimulating the growth of a primary tumor, it has been shown that there is a correlation between smoking and tumor metastasis. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is expressed on the cell surface of the activated endothelium and, through binding with the PAF-receptor (PAF-R), facilitates transendothelial migration of cells in the circulation (McHowat et al...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756526/effect-of-hypobaria-on-maximal-ventilation-oxygen-uptake-and-exercise-performance-during-running-under-hypobaric-normoxic-conditions
#3
Takeshi Ogawa, Naoto Fujii, Yasuhiro Kurimoto, Takeshi Nishiyasu
During exposure to high altitude, hypoxia develops because of reductions in barometric pressure and partial pressure of O2 . Although several studies have examined the effects of hypoxia on exercise performance and physiological responses, such as maximal minute ventilation ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> <mml:mo>·</mml:mo> </mml:mover> </mml:math>Emax ) and maximal oxygen uptake ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756520/effects-of-nrf2-deficiency-on-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-aged-skeletal-muscle
#4
Yu Kitaoka, Yuki Tamura, Kenya Takahashi, Kohei Takeda, Tohru Takemasa, Hideo Hatta
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with the aging process. However, the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 -related factor 2 (Nrf2) in skeletal muscle during aging remains to be clarified. In the current study, we assessed whether the lack of Nrf2, which is known as a master regulator of redox homeostasis, promotes age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and muscle atrophy in skeletal muscle. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal and protein carbonyls, markers of oxidative stress, were robustly elevated in aged Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice because of the decreased expression of Nrf2-target antioxidant genes...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746893/variation-in-the-repulsive-guidance-molecule-family-in-human-populations
#5
Peter Rotwein
Repulsive guidance molecules, RGMA, RGMB, and RGMC, are related proteins discovered independently through different experimental paradigms. They are encoded by single copy genes in mammalian and other vertebrate genomes, and are ~50% identical in amino acid sequence. The importance of RGM actions in human physiology has not been realized, as most research has focused on non-human models, although mutations in RGMC are the cause of the severe iron storage disorder, juvenile hemochromatosis. Here I show that repositories of human genomic and population genetic data can be used as starting points for discovery and for developing new testable hypotheses about each of these paralogs in human biology and disease susceptibility...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746862/alteration-of-renal-na-k-atpase-in-rats-following-the-mediastinal-%C3%AE-irradiation
#6
Barbora Kaločayová, Ivona Kovačičová, Jana Radošinská, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Lucia Jagmaševič-Mézešová, Marko Fülöp, Ján Slezák, Pavel Babál, Pavol Janega, Norbert Vrbjar
Na,K-ATPase represents the key enzyme that maintains the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in the cells. It was documented that in directly irradiated organs the activity of this enzyme is decreased. The aim of present study was to clarify the remote effect of irradiation in mediastinal area on the activity of the Na,K-ATPase in kidneys in rats. Ionizing radiation in single dose 25 Gy resulted in consequent decrease of the body weight gain as well as the size of kidneys in Wistar rats. In addition, radiation induced alterations in the oxidative status of blood plasma...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740934/effect-of-adenosine-on-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-mouse-piriform-cortex-in-vitro-adenosine-acts-as-a-high-pass-filter
#7
Simon P Perrier, Marie Gleizes, Caroline Fonta, Lionel G Nowak
We examined the effect of adenosine and of adenosine A1 receptor blockage on short-term synaptic plasticity in slices of adult mouse anterior piriform cortex maintained in vitro in an in vivo-like ACSF. Extracellular recording of postsynaptic responses was performed in layer 1a while repeated electrical stimulation (5-pulse-trains, frequency between 3.125 and 100 Hz) was applied to the lateral olfactory tract. Our stimulation protocol was aimed at covering the frequency range of oscillatory activities observed in the olfactory bulb in vivo...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740933/intramyocellular-lipid-accumulation-after-sprint-interval-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-in-healthy-and-diabetic-subjects
#8
Tanja Sjöros, Virva Saunavaara, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Mikko Koivumäki, Ilkka H A Heinonen, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski
The effects of sprint interval training (SIT) on intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular (EMCL) lipid accumulation are unclear. We tested the effects of SIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on IMCL and EMCL accumulation in a randomized controlled setting in two different study populations; healthy untrained men (n 28) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or prediabetes (n 26). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) was used to determine IMCL and EMCL in the Tibialis anterior muscle (TA) before and after a 2-week exercise period...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740930/augmented-contractility-of-murine-femoral-arteries-in-a-streptozotocin-diabetes-model-is-related-to-increased-phosphorylation-of-mypt1
#9
Lubomir T Lubomirov, Hristo Gagov, Mechthild M Schroeter, Rudolf J Wiesner, Andras Franko
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with high prevalence, and a major risk factor for macro- and microvascular abnormalities. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms of hypercontractility of murine femoral arteries (FA) obtained from mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and its relation to the phosphorylation profile of the myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, MYPT1. The immunoreactivity of MYPT1 toward phospho-MYPT1-T696, MYPT1-T853, or MYPT1-S695, used as a read out for MYPT1 phosphorylation, has been studied by Western Blotting...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740912/unexplained-death-in-patients-with-ngly1-mutations-may-be-explained-by-adrenal-insufficiency
#10
Britt J van Keulen, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Homozygous mutations in NGLY1 were recently found to cause a condition characterized by a complex neurological syndrome, hypo- or alacrimia, and elevated liver transaminases. For yet unknown reasons, mortality is increased in patients with this condition. NGLY1 encodes the cytosolic enzyme N-glycanase 1, which is responsible for the deglycosylation of misfolded N-glycosylated proteins. Disruption of this process is hypothesized to lead to an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the cytosol. Here, we describe the disease course of a girl with a homozygous mutation in NGLY1, namely c...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737904/akt-and-erk1-2-activation-via-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-prevents-kcne2-dependent-sudden-cardiac-death
#11
Zhaoyang Hu, Jin Liu, Leng Zhou, Xin Tian, Geoffrey W Abbott
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading global cause of mortality. SCD often arises from cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, pathologic sequence variants within ion channel genes, or a combination of the two. Alternative approaches are needed to prevent or ameliorate ventricular arrhythmias linked to SCD. Here, we investigated the efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of the limb versus the liver in reducing ventricular arrhythmias in a mouse model of SCD. Mice lacking the Kcne2 gene, which encodes a potassium channel β subunit associated with acquired Long QT syndrome were exposed to IR injury via coronary ligation...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734533/skeletal-muscle-oxygenation-during-cycling-at-different-power-output-and-cadence
#12
Lisha Shastri, Mariana Alkhalil, Claire Forbes, Tina El-Wadi, Gerrard Rafferty, Koji Ishida, Federico Formenti
The selection of cadence during cycling may be determined by a number of factors, including the degree of oxygenation in the exercising skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of muscle oxygenation associated with different cycling cadences and exercise intensities, and its putative role in the choice of self-selected cadence during cycling. We recorded cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to cycling at exercise intensities of 70% and 90% of the ventilatory threshold (Tvent ), and used near-infrared spectroscopy to determine tissue saturation index as a measure of skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) oxygenation...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714348/area-under-the-curve-analysis-of-blood-pressure-reveals-increased-spontaneous-locomotor-activity-in-spak-knock-in-mice-relevance-for-hypotension-induced-by-spak-inhibition
#13
Kieran Burgess, Sofija Jovanović, Rajni Sudhir, Aleksandar Jovanović
SPAK (Ste20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) has been recently identified as a protein kinase which targets the electroneutral cation-coupled chloride cotransporters and it stands out as a target for inhibition in novel anti-hypertensive agents. From this prospective, any information about physiological consequences of SPAK inhibition would be useful to better understand the efficacy and potential adverse effects of the SPAK-based anti-hypertensive therapy. Radiotelemetry was employed to continuously measure the parameters of blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure), heart rate, and physical activity in SPAK knock-in (KI) mice and littermate controls for 24 h...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714335/expiratory-flow-limitation-under-moderate-hypobaric-hypoxia-does-not-influence-ventilatory-responses-during-incremental-running-in-endurance-runners
#14
Yinhang Cao, Yuhei Ichikawa, Yosuke Sasaki, Takeshi Ogawa, Tsutomu Hiroyama, Yasushi Enomoto, Naoto Fujii, Takeshi Nishiyasu
We tested whether expiratory flow limitation (EFL) occurs in endurance athletes in a moderately hypobaric hypoxic environment equivalent to 2500 m above sea level and, if so, whether EFL inhibits peak ventilation ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover> </mml:math> Epeak ), thereby exacerbating the hypoxia-induced reduction in peak oxygen uptake ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706701/altered-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-hif-1%C3%AE-signaling-contributes-to-impaired-angiogenesis-in-fetal-lambs-with-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-pphn
#15
Kartikeya Makker, Adeleye J Afolayan, Ru-Jeng Teng, Girija G Konduri
Previous studies in adult pulmonary hypertension reported that increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, alterations in endothelial HIF-1α signaling and its contribution to impaired angiogenesis in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) remain unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that HIF-1α levels are increased in lung endothelial cells in PPHN and contribute to impaired angiogenesis function. We examined HIF-1α expression and promoter activity in the isolated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) from fetal lambs with or without PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706700/furin-variant-associations-with-postexercise-hypotension-are-intensity-and-race-dependent
#16
Burak T Cilhoroz, Elizabeth D Schifano, Gregory A Panza, Garrett I Ash, Lauren Corso, Ming-Hui Chen, Ved Deshpande, Amanda Zaleski, Paulo Farinatti, Lucas P Santos, Beth A Taylor, Rachel J O'Neill, Paul D Thompson, Linda S Pescatello
FURIN is a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin enzyme important in pro-renin receptor processing, and FURIN (furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) variants are involved in multiple aspects of blood pressure (BP) regulation. Therefore, we examined associations among FURIN variants and the immediate blood pressure (BP) response to bouts of aerobic exercise, termed postexercise hypotension (PEH). Obese (30.9 ± 3.6 kg  m-2 ) Black- (n = 14) and White- (n = 9) adults 42.0 ± 9.8 year with hypertension (139...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706678/impaired-adaptation-of-energy-intake-induces-severe-obesity-in-aged-mice-on-a-high-fat-diet
#17
Tadashi Okada, Yuichiro Mita, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces inflammation in various tissues, including the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus, resulting in obesity and metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of short-term HFD on aged and young mice. Aged mice easily gained weight during short-term HFD feeding, and required many days to adapt their energy intake. One-day HFD in aged mice induced inflammation in the distal colon, but not in the nodose ganglion or hypothalamus. The anorexic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was attenuated in aged mice...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706674/the-impact-of-age-and-sex-on-body-composition-and-glucose-sensitivity-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Thomas H Reynolds, Allison Dalton, Lucas Calzini, Andrei Tuluca, Dakembay Hoyte, Stephen J Ives
A paucity of data exists regarding sex differences in age-related obesity and insulin resistance, particularly in the preclinical murine model. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age and sex on insulin action and body composition in C57BL/6J mice. Aged (AG, 18 months old) male C57BL/6J mice, glucose tolerance was diminished compared to young (YG, 6 months old) male mice (Area Under Curve: 95,103 ± 6818 vs. 64,005 ± 2031, P = 0.002). However, there was no age-related decline in glucose or insulin tolerance in females...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693670/mechanisms-of-sympathetic-regulation-during-apnea
#19
Stephen A Busch, Christina D Bruce, Rachel J Skow, Jaime R Pfoh, Trevor A Day, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
Volitional Apnea produces a robust peak sympathetic response through several interacting mechanisms. However, the specific contribution of each mechanism has not been elucidated. Muscle sympathetic activity was collected in participants (n = 10; 24 ± 3 years) that performed four maximal volitional apneas aimed at isolating lung-stretch (mechanical) and chemoreflex drive: (Ainslie and Duffin ) end-expiratory breath-hold, (Ainslie et al. ) end-inspiratory breath-hold, (Alpher et al. ) prehyperventilation breath-hold, and (Andersson and Schagatay ) prehyperoxia breath-hold...
January 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688031/st-hr-variables-in-firefighter-exercise-ecg-relation-to-ischemic-heart-disease
#20
Anna Carlén, Eva Nylander, Meriam Åström Aneq, Mikael Gustafsson
Exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) is regularly performed by Swedish firefighters by law. Heart rate-corrected analysis of ST segment variables (ST/HR) has shown improved prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to ST depression alone. This has not previously been extensively studied in asymptomatic persons with a low probability of IHD. We therefore evaluated the predictive performance of ST/HR analysis in firefighter ExECG. ExECG was studied in 521 male firefighters. During 8.4 ± 2.1 years, 2...
January 2019: Physiological Reports
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