ISRN Obesity

Kristi B Adamo, Shanna L Wilson, Zachary M Ferraro, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Eric Doucet, Gary S Goldfield
Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Ruopeng An
Aim. To provide national estimates of obesity among US adults aged 20 years and older in 2011-2012 and track its trends from 1999 to 2012. Methods. Measured weight/height from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2012 waves was used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and prevalence measures. Piecewise logistic regressions were conducted to test the differential trends before and after 2010. Results. In 2011-2012, the age-adjusted prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥ 25) was 71...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Katerina Kotzampassi, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, George Stavrou
Obesity is a major public health concern, caused by a combination of increased consumption of energy-dense foods and reduced physical activity, with contributions from host genetics, environment, and adipose tissue inflammation. In recent years, the gut microbiome has also been found to be implicated and augmented research in mice and humans have attributed to it both the manifestation and/or exacerbation of this major epidemic and vice versa. At the experimental level, analysis of fecal samples revealed a potential link between obesity and alterations in the gut flora (drop in Bacteroidetes and increase in Firmicutes), the specific gut microbiome being associated with the obese phenotype...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Adaeze C Wosu, Juan Carlos Vélez, Clarita Barbosa, Asterio Andrade, Megan Frye, Xiaoli Chen, Bizu Gelaye, Michelle A Williams
This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Kelly R Laurson, Joey A Lee, Douglas A Gentile, David A Walsh, Joey C Eisenmann
Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7-12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3)...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Yvonne N Pierpont, Trish Phuong Dinh, R Emerick Salas, Erika L Johnson, Terry G Wright, Martin C Robson, Wyatt G Payne
Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Sigrid Bairdain, Chueh Lien, Alexander P Stoffan, Michael Troy, Donald C Simonson, Bradley C Linden
Background. Obesity studies are often performed on population data. We sought to examine the incidence of obesity and its associated comorbidities in a single freestanding children's hospital. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of all visits to Boston Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2012. This was conducted to determine the incidence of obesity, morbid obesity, and associated comorbidities. Each comorbidity was modeled independently. Incidence rate ratios were calculated, as well as odds ratios...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Carrie L Matteson, Thomas D N Merth, Diane T Finegood
Individuals seeking healthcare treatment in the context of obesity often experience difficulty engaging in discussions around their health and face challenges finding consensus with practitioners on care plans that best suit their lives. The complex set of biological, social, and environmental variables that have contributed to the higher prevalence of obesity are well illustrated in the foresight obesity system map. Effectively understanding and addressing key variables for each individual has proven to be difficult, with clinicians facing barriers and limited resources to help address patients' unique needs...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Victor Mogre, Rauf Nyaba, Samuel Aleyira
This study evaluated the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among students of the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UDS-SMHS), Tamale, Ghana. Also, lifestyle risk factors for the two obesity indices were investigated. This study was conducted among a sample of 646 students. Anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference were appropriately assessed. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was 1.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Risk factors of general obesity were being female (crude OR = 6...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Youngwon Kim, Jung-Min Lee, Kelly Laurson, Yang Bai, Glenn A Gaesser, Gregory J Welk
Objective. To evaluate classification accuracy of NC and compare it with body mass index (BMI) in identifying overweight/obese US children. Methods. Data were collected from 92 children (boys: 61) aged 7 to 13 over a 2-year period. NC, BMI, and percent of body fat (BF%) were measured in each child and their corresponding cut-off values were applied to classify the children as being overweight/obese. Classification accuracy of NC and BMI was systematically investigated for boys and girls in relation to true overweight/obesity categorization as assessed with a criterion measure of BF% (i...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Adam P Knowlden
Pediatric obesity is a pertinent public health challenge. Child physical activity and screen time behaviors enacted within the context of the family and home environment are important determinants of pediatric obesity. The purpose of this study was to operationalize five, maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs for predicting physical activity and screen time behaviors in children. A secondary purpose was to elucidate the function of suppressor variables in the design and implementation of family- and home-based interventions seeking to prevent pediatric obesity...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Hala Abd El-Hafez, Mohamed M Elrakhawy, Azza A El-Baiomy, Mervat M El-Eshmawy
Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Peter D Ray, Reid A Maclellan, Jin He, Zhigang Liu, Jianguo Wu
Rapamycin (RAPA) is a clinical immunosuppressive agent first reported in the literature in 1975 after its discovery in a soil sample from the island of Rapa Nui. Aside from the well-documented effects of RAPA on cell division and immunologic response, the literature reveals it to have negative effects on adipocyte and osteocyte differentiation as well. Understanding of the molecular effects of RAPA on cell differentiation is fragmentary in regard to these cell lineages. In this paper, we examined a potential mechanism for RAPA's effects on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Shilpi Gupta, Satwanti Kapoor
Background. One of the limitations of body mass index is its accuracy to assess body fatness. To address this limitation, a new index, body adiposity index, has been developed. However its validity needs to ascertained. Objective. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific relationship between BAI, BMI, and percent body fat in an endogamous population of Delhi, India. Method. Data was collected from 578 adults on bodyweight, height, skinfold thicknesses, hip circumference, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Kongkiat Chaikriangkrai, Mahwash Kassi, Sayf Khaleel Bala, Faisal Nabi, Su Min Chang
Obesity paradox has been described in various populations of coronary artery disease, mainly asymptomatic subjects. However, relationship between obesity and coronary artery calcification detected by cardiac CT in symptomatic patients has rarely been demonstrated. This study seeks to investigate whether the paradoxical relationship between obesity and coronary artery calcification exists in patients with acute chest pain. A final cohort of 1030 chest pain patients presenting at our emergency department who underwent coronary evaluation by multidetector cardiac CT were examined...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Angela A Geraci, Ardith Brunt, Cindy Marihart
Purpose. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. and has nearly doubled worldwide since 1980. Bariatric surgery is on the rise, but little focus has been placed on the psychosocial impacts of surgery. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of patients who have undergone bariatric surgery at least two years before to gain an understanding of the successes and challenges they have faced since surgery. Methods. This study used a phenomenological approach, to investigate the meaning and essence of bariatric patients with food after surgery...
2014: ISRN Obesity
Maria João Neuparth, Jorge Brandão Proença, Alice Santos-Silva, Susana Coimbra
Aim. Our aim was to study how different BMI scores may influence the levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, adipogenesis, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in lean, overweight, and obese Portuguese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied 28 lean, 38 overweight, and 17 obese patients with T2DM and 20 controls (gender and age matched). The circulating levels of oxLDL, CRP, and some adipokines-adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin-and the lipid profile were evaluated. Results. Obese patients presented significantly lower levels of adiponectin and higher leptin, oxLDL, and chemerin levels, as compared to the overweight, lean, and control groups...
2013: ISRN Obesity
Jean-Claude Pineau, Loïc Lalys, Massimo Pellegrini, Nino Carlo Battistini
Objective. To examine measurement of body composition by ultrasound compared with a reference technique:dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the accuracy of a portable ultrasound-based device in estimating total body fat mass with those assessed by DXA in adult. Methods. Body fat mass has been estimated using a portable ultrasound-based device in comparison with a contemporary reference DXA apparatus: the Hologic Discovery A. Anthropometric data has been assessed in order to maximize the output of the software associated with the ultrasound-based device...
2013: ISRN Obesity
Rogier Hörchner, Dave Schweitzer
Background. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered an effective and well-tolerated surgical procedure. In this retrospective study, we critically assessed efficacy and negative personal experiences (NPEs) after RYGB with a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ). Methods. This questionnaire study included 404 patients who had undergone RYGB. Analysis was performed using data from medical records, referral letters, and SAQs at an average of 33 months after procedure. We evaluated the occurrence of hypertension, CPEP use and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the amount of excess weight loss, degree of satisfaction and negative personal experiences (NPEs) related to the procedure, and adherence to a dedicated life style program and (non)attendance to followup...
2013: ISRN Obesity
Tonya F Turner, Laura M Nance, William D Strickland, Robert J Malcolm, Susan Pechon, Patrick M O'Neil
Objective. Dietary fiber can reduce hunger and enhance satiety, but fiber intake during hypocaloric weight loss diets typically falls short of recommended levels. We examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: (a) beans or (b) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Methods. Subjects were 2 men, 18 women, mean age = 46.9, and mean BMI = 30.6. Subjects completed 3-day food diaries in each of the two baseline weeks. Subjects were then randomized to four weeks on one of two 1400-calorie diets including 25-35 g fiber primarily from 1...
2013: ISRN Obesity
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