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Current Ophthalmology Reports

Ru-Ik Chee, Dana Darwish, Alvaro Fernandez-Vega, Samir Patel, Karyn Jonas, Susan Ostmo, J Peter Campbell, Michael F Chiang, Rv Paul Chan
Purpose of Review: An update and overview of the literature on current telemedicine applications in retina. Recent Findings: The application of telemedicine to the field of Ophthalmology and Retina has been growing with advancing technologies in ophthalmic imaging. Retinal telemedicine has been most commonly applied to diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity in adult and pediatric patients respectively. Telemedicine has the potential to alleviate the growing demand for clinical evaluation of retinal diseases...
March 2018: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Mayank Verma, Krysta Fitzpatrick, Linda K McLoon
Purpose of Review: The goal of this review is to summarize the unique regenerative milieu within mature mammalian extraocular muscles (EOMs). This will aid in understanding disease propensity for and sparing of EOMs in skeletal muscle diseases as well as the recalcitrance of the EOM to injury. Recent Findings: The EOMs continually remodel throughout life and contain an extremely enriched number of myogenic precursor cells that differ in number and functional characteristics from those in limb skeletal muscle...
September 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Catherine Y Liu, Masatoshi Hirayama, Marwan Ali, Dhara Shah, Vinay K Aakalu
Purpose of review: Aqueous deficient dry eye disease, a significant cause of morbidity worldwide, is due to dysfunction of the main and accessory lacrimal glands. Recent advances in efforts to regenerate lacrimal gland are reviewed. Recent findings: Several strategies are being explored: ex vivo culture models of human and non-human lacrimal gland epithelial and myoepithelial cells, isolation and characterization of adult precursor cells within lacrimal glands, directed differentiation of stem cells to lacrimal gland cells, and organogenesis and engraftment techniques...
September 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Galaxy Y Cho, Yazeed Abdulla, Jesse D Sengillo, Sally Justus, Kellie A Schaefer, Alexander G Bassuk, Stephen H Tsang, Vinit B Mahajan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a genome engineering system with great potential for clinical applications due to its versatility and programmability. This review highlights the development and use of CRISPR-mediated ophthalmic genome surgery in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Diverse CRISPR techniques are in development to target a wide array of ophthalmic conditions, including inherited and acquired conditions...
September 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Joon-Bom Kim, Rajinder S Nirwan, Ajay E Kuriyan
Purpose of Review: The goal of this paper is to review the recent literature of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and provide an update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, and management. Recent Findings: Although indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA) is still the gold standard for diagnosis of PCV, the use of en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography are useful tools in the diagnosis of PCV. Studies demonstrate superior treatment outcomes with combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Renata Portella Nunes, Raquel Goldhardt
PURPOSE: To discuss the characteristics, indications and adverse events (AEs) of sustained-release corticosteroid devices for the treatment of cystoid macular edema (CME). RECENT FINDINGS: Ozurdex® is approved for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), retinal vein occlusion related-CME and noninfectious posterior uveitis (NIPU). It releases dexamethasone over a maximum period of 6 months making repeated intravitreal injections necessary for recurrent CME...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Nitish Mehta, Rosa Dolz Marco, Raquel Goldhardt, Yasha Modi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will seek to answer if advances in ophthalmic imaging and evolution of treatment modalities have shed further light on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of acute CRAO. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging characteristics of acute CRAO have been further characterized with the use of fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography, and indocyanine-green angiography. Layer segmentation of OCT imaging has found inner retinal layer hyper-reflectivity to be a common finding in acute CRAO...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Luiz Roisman, Raquel Goldhardt
PURPOSE: To review the most recent findings, characteristics, faults and future perspectives of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RECENT FINDINGS: In dry AMD, OCTA is useful on the evaluation of choriocapillaris perfusion and detection of naïve quiescent non-exudative choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In wet AMD, OCTA can provide detailed anatomic and morphologic information of CNVs, which may help to understand why and how they develop and become active...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Brian E Goldhagen, Raquel Goldhardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW WHAT IS THE GOAL OF YOUR PAPER? WHAT QUESTIONS DID YOU SEEK TO ANSWER?: The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the management options for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). RECENT FINDINGS SUMMARIZE THE LATEST RESEARCH ON YOUR TOPIC: The majority of cases of acute CSCR may be managed with observation and cessation of corticosteroids, if possible, as well as life-style modifications including stress reduction and control of hypertension...
June 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Sayena Jabbehdari, Alireza Baradaran Rafii, Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Pedram Hamrah, Edward J Holland, Ali R Djalilian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review the indications and latest management of high-risk penetrating keratoplasty. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the immune-privilege status of the cornea, immune-mediated graft rejection still remains the leading cause of corneal graft failure. This is particularly a problem in the high-risk graft recipients, namely patients with previous graft failure due to rejection and those with inflamed and vascularized corneal beds. A number of strategies including both local and systemic immunosuppression are currently used to increase the success rate of high-risk corneal grafts...
March 2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Yolandi van der Merwe, Michael B Steketee
Purpose: We discuss recent advances in extracellular vesicle (EV) technology as biomarkers, therapeutics, and drug delivery vehicles in the visual system with an emphasis on the retina. Recent Findings: Retinal cell-type specific EVs can be detected in the blood and in the aqueous humor and EV miRNA cargoes can be used diagnostically to predict retinal disease progression. Studies have now shown EVs can deliver bioactive miRNA and AAV cargoes to the inner retinal cell layers and, in some models, improve retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration...
2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Deborah S Jacobs
Purpose of Review: The aim of this review is to help ophthalmologists and other clinicians understand and treat ocular neuropathic pain. Recent Findings: Advances in the field of neurophysiology of ocular sensations explain why some cases of dry eye may represent a pain syndrome rather than a problem related to tear status. Principles related to management of pain syndromes such as persistent post-operative pain and complex regional pain syndrome are relevant to the care of these patients...
2017: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Niraj Nathan, Rachel W Kuchtey
Recent studies have shed new light on the genetic factors underlying pseudoexfoliation syndrome, growing our understanding of the role of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene and its various polymorphisms as well as identifying new genetic associations. Recent years have brought new insight on how these genetic factors interact with other factors, including environmental, to confer risk to individuals and populations worldwide. All of these findings may hold importance to the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of pseudoexfoliation and may also help lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets...
December 2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Thasarat S Vajaranant, Jessica Liu, Jacob Wilensky, M Soledad Cortina, Ahmad A Aref
Glaucoma remains a prevalent disorder and visual limiting factor after Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 implantation. Patients with glaucoma have worse initial and late visual acuity outcomes after otherwise successful keratoprosthesis implantation. Management of glaucoma in the setting of a keratoprosthesis is challenging because of relatively rapid progression and an inability to accurately measure intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, there are no standard guidelines for glaucoma surveillance and monitoring after keratoprosthesis surgery...
September 2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Mariana R Thorell, Raquel Goldhardt
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular disease classified according to the anatomical location of the occlusion in central (CRVO) or branch (BRVO) retinal vein occlusion. RVO is an important cause of visual loss worldwide and frequently results in visual impairment and ocular complications. Major causes of vision loss in BRVO and CRVO include macular edema (ME), capillary non-perfusion, and neovascularization, causing glaucoma, vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment.[1-4] Macular edema is the leading cause of decreased central visual acuity in RVO...
March 2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Raquel Goldhardt, Bradley Simon Rosen
The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in the treatment of uveitic macular edema (ME). ME represent a major cause of visual loss in uveitis and adequate management is crucial for the maintenance of useful vision in patients with chronic uveitis.
March 2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Sarah Moussa, Herbert Reitsamer, Josef Ruckhofer, Günther Grabner
Severe ocular diseases may result in partial or complete limbal cell deficiency. Besides conservative options, treatment options include conjunctival replacement procedures and limbal autografting. Limbal allografts are an option in patients with bilateral limbal cell deficiency. In many of these cases, a keratoprosthesis (KPro) is the last option to restore functional vision in patients with severe corneal blindness with no other options.
2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Elizabeth Atchison, Andrew Barkmeier
Diabetic retinopathy is an increasingly common medical issue in the United States. The risk of developing the disease or having the disease progress is caused by many systemic health factors. This article examines the existing literature on the links between glycemic control, arterial hypertension, high cholesterol and hyperlipidemia, obesity, inflammatory markers, sleep-disordered breathing, and exercise with risk of diabetic retinopathy development and prevention. The literature shows benefit for good glycemic and blood pressure control...
2016: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Jessica A Cooke, Jason S Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Current Ophthalmology Reports
Julie M Schallhorn, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
As corneal transplantation has evolved, the spectrum of post-surgical infection has changed and often presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lamellar techniques hold the potential of improved outcomes and decreased post-operative complications, however, they create a lamellar interface, which is a potential space for sequestration of infectious organisms. In addition, while keratoprosthesis offers vision to patients who are poor candidates for traditional keratoplasty, infectious complications can be severe and sight threatening...
September 2015: Current Ophthalmology Reports
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