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BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation

Å B Tornberg, P Håkansson, I Svensson, P Wollmer
Background: Power output and force development during exercise are thought to be important indices of performance in elite athletes. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the forces applied at the footrest during ergometric kayaking in individual kayakers at different competitive levels. Methods: Three elite female kayakers participated voluntarily in the study. Oxygen consumption (VO2 ) and mean power were measured during paddling at three different work levels (15 W below onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), at OBLA, 15 W above OBLA and all-out paddling) on a modified kayak ergometer...
2019: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Christian Baumgart, Wouter Welling, Matthias W Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald, Alli Gokeler
Background: Strength deficits, muscle imbalances, and quadriceps inhibition are common after the surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), even after the patient's returned-to-sport. Typically, asymmetries between the operated and non-operated leg as well as the hamstring/quadriceps (HQ) ratio are calculated using maximum isokinetic torque values. Moreover, the knee flexion angles, which correspond to the measured torque values, were not considered. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the usage of an angle-specific approach for the analysis of isokinetic data in patients after an ACL-reconstruction...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Ramona Häberle, Florian Schellenberg, Renate List, Michael Plüss, William R Taylor, Silvio Lorenzetti
Background: Internal and external rotation exercises of the shoulder are frequently performed to avoid injury and pain. Knowledge about the motion and loadings of the upper extremities during these exercises is crucial for the development of optimal training recommendations. However, a comparison of the angles and corresponding moments in the upper extremities that are achieved during internal and external rotation exercises for the shoulder by using different resistance types has not yet been performed...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Fred J DiMenna, Avigdor D Arad
Type 2 diabetes and obesity epidemics are in effect in the United States and the two pathologies are linked. In accordance with the growing appreciation that 'exercise is medicine,' it is intuitive to suggest that exercise can play an important role in the prevention and/or treatment of these conditions. However, if exercise is to truly be considered as a viable alternative to conventional healthcare prevention/treatment strategies involving pharmaceuticals, it must be prescribed with similar scrutiny. Indeed, it seems reasonable to posit that the recent initiative calling for 'precision medicine' in the US standard healthcare system should also be applied in the exercise setting...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Joshua Mattock, Julie R Steele, Karen J Mickle
Background: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a lower leg injury with a reported incidence rate of up to 35% in active individuals. Although numerous prospective studies have tried to identify risk factors for developing MTSS, managing the syndrome remains difficult. One risk factor yet to be extensively explored in MTSS development is reduced lower leg girth. Further investigation of reduced lower leg girth is required due to the important role lower leg musculature plays in attenuating ground reaction forces during the gait cycle...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Abbey Sawyer, Vinicius Cavalheri, Sue Jenkins, Jamie Wood, Nola Cecins, Bhajan Singh, Kylie Hill
Background: In people with cystic fibrosis (CF), higher exercise capacity is associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQoL), reduced risk of hospitalisation for a respiratory infection and survival. Therefore, optimisation of exercise capacity is an important treatment goal. The Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines recommend that people with CF complete 30 to 60 min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on most days of the week. This recommendation can be difficult to achieve by people with CF because of time constraints, and intolerable breathlessness and muscle fatigue during continuous exercise...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Erik Hohmann, Vaida Glatt, Kevin Tetsworth
Background: Swimming induced pulmonary oedema is an uncommon occurrence and usually presents during strenuous distance swimming in cold water. The prevalence is most likely underreported and the underlying mechanisms are controversial. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence with regards to prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment of swimming induced pulmonary oedema in endurance athletes. Methods: Medline, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched and level I-IV from 1970 to 2017 were included...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Rocco Cavaleri, Tribikram Thapa, Paula R Beckenkamp, Lucy S Chipchase
Background: There exists conflicting evidence regarding the impact of kinesiology tape on performance and muscle function. One variable that may account for disparities in the findings of previous studies is the colour of the tape applied. Colour is hypothesised to influence sporting performance through modulation of arousal and aggression. However, few studies have investigated the influence of colour on products designed specifically to enhance athletic performance. Further, no studies have investigated the potential influence of colour on other drivers of performance, such as corticomotor activity and neuromuscular function...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Henny Solleveld, John Flutter, Arnold Goedhart, Luc VandenBossche
Background: Dental caries and periodontitis are associated with elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines which may trigger muscle fatigue during exercise, a strong risk factor for sports injuries. Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOA) may cause poor oral health and may disturb proprioceptive inputs of the stomatognathic system. This study aims to explore associations of poor oral health and of use of a FOA with injury frequency and postural stability. Methods: One hundred eighty seven Belgian elite junior male soccer players, aged 12-17 years, completed a self-report questionnaire asking about injuries in the past year, oral health problems, use of a FOA, demographics and sports data, and stood in unipedal stance with eyes closed on a force plate to assess postural stability...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Eva Ageberg, Anna Cronström
Background: Different test procedures are often used within performance-based measures, causing uncertainty as to whether results can be compared between studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess agreement between different test procedures for the single-leg hop for distance (SLHD) and the single-leg mini squat (SLMS), respectively, two commonly used tasks for assessing deficiency in lower extremity muscle function. Methods: Twenty-three participants (20-42 years) with lower extremity injury performed the SLHD with arms free and with arms behind back, and the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI; injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) was calculated...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Silvio Lorenzetti, Mira Ostermann, Fabian Zeidler, Pia Zimmer, Lina Jentsch, Renate List, William R Taylor, Florian Schellenberg
Background: Squatting is a core exercise for many purposes. The tissue loading during squatting is crucial for positive adaptation and to avoid injury. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of narrow, hip and wide stance widths, foot position angles (0°, 21°, and 42°), strength exercise experience, and barbell load (0 and 50% body weight, experts only) during squatting. Methods: Novice ( N  = 21) and experienced ( N  = 21) squatters performed 9 different variations of squats (3 stance widths, 3 foot placement angles)...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Yasuhito Sogi, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Yutaka Yabe, Takuya Sekiguchi, Haruki Momma, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Kaoru Kuroki, Kenji Kanazawa, Masashi Koide, Nobuyuki Itaya, Shinichiro Yoshida, Toshihisa Yano, Eiji Itoi, Ryoichi Nagatomi
Background: Soccer is a high-intensity sport with a high injury rate. Among youth soccer players, lower extremity pain is a major problem that could be associated with trunk function. This study investigated the association between lower extremity pain and trunk pain among youth soccer players. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving youth soccer players participating in the Miyagi Amateur Sports Association was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between trunk pain and lower extremity pain...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Hannah MacLeod, Simon Cooper, Stephan Bandelow, Rachel Malcolm, Caroline Sunderland
Background: It has previously been suggested that heat exposure and hypohydration have negative effects on cognitive performance, which may impact upon sporting performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the independent effects of heat stress and hypohydration on cognitive performance in elite female field hockey players. Methods: Eight unacclimatised elite field hockey players (age: 22 ± 3 y; height: 1.68 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 63.1 ± 6...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Zarko Krkeljas, Sarah Johanna Moss
Background: Various musculoskeletal changes occurring during pregnancy may lead to the change in gait and contribute to the increase in walking energy expenditure. Previous research indicates that changes in gait mechanics may lead to the increase in mechanical work required during walking. However, there is little information to indicate if changes in gait mechanics during pregnancy have impact on active or total energy expenditure. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in gait kinematics and walking energy expenditure in pregnant women...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Francesco Sartor, Jos Gelissen, Ralph van Dinther, David Roovers, Gabriele B Papini, Giuseppe Coppola
Background: The need for unobtrusive HR (heart rate) monitoring has led to the development of a new generation of strapless HR monitors. The aim of this study was to determine whether such an unobtrusive, wrist-worn optical HR monitor (OHRM) could be equivalent and therefore a valid alternative to a traditional chest strap during a broad range of activities in a heterogeneous healthy population and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Methods: One hundred ninety-nine healthy volunteers, 84 males and 115 females, including 35 overweight-obese subjects, 53 pregnant women, and 20 CAD patients were tested in the present study...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Mark G L Sayers, Michel Schlaeppi, Marina Hitz, Silvio Lorenzetti
Background: Numerous methods have been proposed that use submaximal loads to predict one repetition maximum (1RM). One common method applies standard linear regression equations to load and average vertical lifting velocity (Vmean ) data developed during squat jumps or three bench press throw (BP-T). The main aim of this project was to determine which combination of three submaximal loads during BP-T result in the most accurate prediction of 1RM Smith Machine bench press strength in healthy individuals...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Hege Berg Henriksen, Sveinung Berntsen, Ingvild Paur, Manuela Zucknick, Anne Juul Skjetne, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Christine Henriksen, Sigbjørn Smeland, Monica Hauger Carlsen, Rune Blomhoff
Background: In order to investigate the impact of adherence to recommendations of physical activity and sedentary time on health outcomes in clinical trials, there is a need for feasible tools such as questionnaires that can give representative estimates of these measures. The primary aim of the present study was to validate two such questionnaires and their ability to estimate adherence to the recommendations of physical activity defined as moderate-to- vigorous physical activity or moderate physical activity of at least 150 min/week in colorectal cancer patients...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Carole A Paley, Mark I Johnson
Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Goris Nazari, Pavlos Bobos, Joy C MacDermid, Kathryn E Sinden, Julie Richardson, Ada Tang
Background: Technological development and improvements in Wearable Physiological Monitoring devices, have facilitated the wireless and continuous field-based monitoring/capturing of physiologic measures in healthy, clinical or athletic populations. These devices have many applications for prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders, assuming reliable and valid data is collected. The purpose of this study was to appraise the quality and synthesize findings from published studies on psychometric properties of heart rate measurements taken with the Zephyr Bioharness device...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Farouk Chrif, Tobias Nef, Kenneth J Hunt
Background: Leg-press machines are widely employed for musculoskeletal conditioning of the lower-limbs and they provide cardiovascular benefits for resistance training in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a dynamic leg press (DLP) for incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and to compare the results with those obtained using a cycle ergometer (CE). Methods: Twelve healthy participants aged 27±4 years (mean ± standard deviation) performed incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a DLP and on a CE...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
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