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Multisensory Research

Jo Burzynska, Qian Janice Wang, Charles Spence, Susan Elaine Putnam Bastian
Associations between heaviness and bass/low-pitched sounds reverberate throughout music, philosophy, literature, and language. Given that recent research into the field of cross-modal correspondences has revealed a number of robust relationships between sound and flavour, this exploratory study was designed to investigate the effects of lower frequency sound (10 Hz to 200 Hz) on the perception of the mouthfeel character of palate weight/body. This is supported by an overview of relevant cross-modal studies and cultural production...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Marijn Peters Rit, Ilja Croijmans, Laura J Speed
The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound-odor congruence on people's attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants' attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the product's brand was measured, as well as memory for the product...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Vladimir Kosonogov, José M Martínez-Selva, Ginesa Torrente, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Aurelio Arenas, Juan P Sánchez-Navarro
The complex sensory input and motor reflexes that keep body posture and head position aligned are influenced by emotional reactions evoked by visual or auditory stimulation. Several theoretical approaches have emphasized the relevance of motor reactions in emotional response. Emotions are considered as a tendency or predisposition to act that depends on two motivational systems in the brain - the appetitive system, related to approach behaviours, and the defensive system, related to withdrawal or fight-or-flight behaviours...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Chiara Ferrari, Costanza Papagno, Alexander Todorov, Zaira Cattaneo
Deaf individuals may compensate for the lack of the auditory input by showing enhanced capacities in certain visual tasks. Here we assessed whether this also applies to recognition of emotions expressed by bodily and facial cues. In Experiment 1, we compared deaf participants and hearing controls in a task measuring recognition of the six basic emotions expressed by actors in a series of video-clips in which either the face, the body, or both the face and body were visible. In Experiment 2, we measured the weight of body and face cues in conveying emotional information when intense genuine emotions are expressed, a situation in which face expressions alone may have ambiguous valence...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Qian Janice Wang, Bruno Mesz, Pablo Riera, Marcos Trevisan, Mariano Sigman, Apratim Guha, Charles Spence
Several studies have examined how music may affect the evaluation of food and drink, but the vast majority have not observed how this interaction unfolds in time. This seems to be quite relevant, since both music and the consumer experience of food/drink are time-varying in nature. In the present study we sought to fix this gap, using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS), a method developed to record the dominant sensory attribute at any given moment in time, to examine the impact of music on the wine taster's perception...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Julia Föcker, Brigitte Röder
The aim of the present study was to test whether multisensory interactions of emotional signals are modulated by intermodal attention and emotional valence. Faces, voices and bimodal emotionally congruent or incongruent face-voice pairs were randomly presented. The EEG was recorded while participants were instructed to detect sad emotional expressions in either faces or voices while ignoring all stimuli with another emotional expression and sad stimuli of the task irrelevant modality. Participants processed congruent sad face-voice pairs more efficiently than sad stimuli paired with an incongruent emotion and performance was higher in congruent bimodal compared to unimodal trials, irrespective of which modality was task-relevant...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Angela Ju, Emily Orchard-Mills, Erik van der Burg, David Alais
Recent exposure to asynchronous multisensory signals has been shown to shift perceived timing between the sensory modalities, a phenomenon known as 'temporal recalibration'. Recently, Van der Burg et al. (2013, J Neurosci, 33, pp. 14633-14637) reported results showing that recalibration to asynchronous audiovisual events can happen extremely rapidly. In an extended series of variously asynchronous trials, simultaneity judgements were analysed based on the modality order in the preceding trial and showed that shifts in the point of subjective synchrony occurred almost instantaneously, shifting from one trial to the next...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Chizuru T Homma, Hiroshi Ashida
Cognition of space and time affect each other; a line with longer length appears to be longer in exposure duration (space on time), and a line with longer exposure duration appears to be longer in length (time on space). This cognitive interaction is known to be asymmetric; the effect of space on time is larger than that of time on space. We conjectured that this asymmetry is not intrinsic but may depend on the saliency of relevant signals. Participants were asked to judge the visual exposure duration of lines that varied in length or the lengths of the lines with different exposure times...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Silvia Convento, Kira A Wegner-Clemens, Jeffrey M Yau
In both audition and touch, sensory cues comprising repeating events are perceived either as a continuous signal or as a stream of temporally discrete events (flutter), depending on the events' repetition rate. At high repetition rates (>100 Hz), auditory and tactile cues interact reciprocally in pitch processing. The frequency of a cue experienced in one modality systematically biases the perceived frequency of a cue experienced in the other modality. Here, we tested whether audition and touch also interact in the processing of low-frequency stimulation...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Pia Hauck, Heiko Hecht
Previous research has shown that auditory cues can influence the flavor of food and drink. For instance, wine tastes better when preferred music is played. We have investigated whether a music background can modify judgments of the specific flavor pattern of a beverage, as opposed to mere preference. This was indeed the case. We explored the nature of this crosstalk between auditory and gustatory perception, and hypothesized that the 'flavor' of the background music carries over to the perceived flavor (i.e...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Patrawat Samermit, Jeremy Saal, Nicolas Davidenko
We propose that cross-sensory stimuli presenting a positive attributable source of an aversive sound can modulate negative reactions to the sound. In Experiment 1, participants rated original video sources (OVS) of eight aversive sounds (e.g., nails scratching a chalkboard) as more aversive than eight positive attributable video sources (PAVS) of those same sounds (e.g., someone playing a flute) when these videos were presented silently. In Experiment 2, new participants were presented with those eight aversive sounds in three blocks...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Ilja Croijmans, Laura J Speed, Artin Arshamian, Asifa Majid
When we imagine objects or events, we often engage in multisensory mental imagery. Yet, investigations of mental imagery have typically focused on only one sensory modality - vision. One reason for this is that the most common tool for the measurement of imagery, the questionnaire, has been restricted to unimodal ratings of the object. We present a new mental imagery questionnaire that measures multisensory imagery. Specifically, the newly developed Vividness of Wine Imagery Questionnaire (VWIQ) measures mental imagery of wine in the visual, olfactory, and gustatory modalities...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Andrea Ciricugno, Luca Rinaldi, Tomaso Vecchi, Lotfi B Merabet, Zaira Cattaneo
Prior studies have shown that strabismic amblyopes do not exhibit pseudoneglect in visual line bisection, suggesting that the right-hemisphere dominance in the control of spatial attention may depend on a normally developing binocular vision. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether an abnormal binocular childhood experience also affects spatial attention in the haptic modality, thus reflecting a supramodal effect. To this aim, we compared the performance of normally sighted, strabismic and early monocular blind participants in a visual and a haptic line bisection task...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Alexandra N Scurry, Tiziana Vercillo, Alexis Nicholson, Michael Webster, Fang Jiang
Encoding the temporal properties of external signals that comprise multimodal events is a major factor guiding everyday experience. However, during the natural aging process, impairments to sensory processing can profoundly affect multimodal temporal perception. Various mechanisms can contribute to temporal perception, and thus it is imperative to understand how each can be affected by age. In the current study, using three different temporal order judgement tasks (unisensory, multisensory, and sensorimotor), we investigated the effects of age on two separate temporal processes: synchronization and integration of multiple signals...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Felipe Reinoso-Carvalho, Silvana Dakduk, Johan Wagemans, Charles Spence
We introduce a novel methodology to assess the influence of the emotion induced by listening to music on the consumer's multisensory tasting experience. These crossmodal effects were analyzed when two contrasting music tracks (positive vs negative emotion) were presented to consumers while tasting beer. The results suggest that the emotional reactions triggered by the music influenced specific aspects of the multisensory tasting experience. Participants liked the beer more, and rated it as tasting sweeter, when listening to music associated with positive emotion...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Charles Spence
This review deals with the question of the relative vs absolute nature of crossmodal correspondences, with a specific focus on those correspondences involving the auditory dimension of pitch. Crossmodal correspondences have been defined as the often-surprising crossmodal associations that people experience between features, attributes, or dimensions of experience in different sensory modalities, when either physically present, or else merely imagined. In the literature, crossmodal correspondences have often been contrasted with synaesthesia in that the former are frequently said to be relative phenomena (e...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Charles Spence, Felipe Reinoso-Carvalho, Carlos Velasco, Qian Janice Wang
Food product-extrinsic sounds (i.e., those auditory stimuli that are not linked directly to a food or beverage product, or its packaging) have been shown to exert a significant influence over various aspects of food perception and consumer behaviour, often operating outside of conscious awareness. In this review, we summarise the latest evidence concerning the various ways in which what we hear can influence what we taste. According to one line of empirical research, background noise interferes with tasting, due to attentional distraction...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Mathieu Koppen, Arjan C Ter Horst, W Pieter Medendorp
When walking or driving, it is of the utmost importance to continuously track the spatial relationship between objects in the environment and the moving body in order to prevent collisions. Although this process of spatial updating occurs naturally, it involves the processing of a myriad of noisy and ambiguous sensory signals. Here, using a psychometric approach, we investigated the integration of visual optic flow and vestibular cues in spatially updating a remembered target position during a linear displacement of the body...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Basil Wahn, Scott Sinnett
Human information processing is limited by attentional resources. That is, via attentional mechanisms humans select information that is relevant for their goals, and discard other information. While limitations of attentional processing have been investigated extensively in each sensory modality, there is debate as to whether sensory modalities access shared resources, or if instead distinct resources are dedicated to individual sensory modalities. Research addressing this question has used dual task designs, with two tasks performed either in a single sensory modality or in two separate modalities...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso, Ulrik Beierholm, Ladan Shams
Results in the recent literature suggest that multisensory integration in the brain follows the rules of Bayesian inference. However, how neural circuits can realize such inference and how it can be learned from experience is still the subject of active research. The aim of this work is to use a recent neurocomputational model to investigate how the likelihood and prior can be encoded in synapses, and how they affect audio-visual perception, in a variety of conditions characterized by different experience, different cue reliabilities and temporal asynchrony...
January 1, 2019: Multisensory Research
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