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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783579/factors-that-affect-the-growth-and-photosynthesis-of-the-filamentous-green-algae-chaetomorpha-valida-in-static-sea-cucumber-aquaculture-ponds-with-high-salinity-and-high-ph
#1
Ronglian Xing, Weiwei Ma, Yiwen Shao, Xuebin Cao, Lihong Chen, Aili Jiang
Chaetomorpha valida , dominant filamentous green algae, can be harmful to sea cucumber growth in aquaculture ponds of China. In order to understand the environmental factors affecting the growth of C. valida in sea cucumber aquaculture ecosystems, a combination of field investigations and laboratory experiments were conducted. Field surveys over one year revealed that C. valida survived in sea cucumber aquaculture ponds in salinities ranging from 24.3 ± 0.01‰ to 32.0 ± 0.02‰ and a pH range of 7.5 ± 0...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783578/biodiversity-and-temporal-patterns-of-macrozoobenthos-in-a-coal-mining-subsidence-area-in-north-china
#2
Guanxiong Zhang, Xingzhong Yuan, Kehong Wang
Coal resources play a strategic role in the long-term development of China. Large-scale mining has a considerable impact on the landscape, and it is a long-term heritage of industrialization unique to the Anthropocene. We investigated the macrozoobenthos and water in nine mining subsidence wetlands at different developmental stages (3-20 years) in North China. A total of 68 species were found, and the macrozoobenthos community in the newly formed wetlands showed high diversity. We believe that this high diversity is not random; rather, the high diversity was because of the special origin and development of the wetland...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783577/the-value-of-diffusion-tensor-tractography-delineating-corticospinal-tract-in-glioma-in-rat-validation-via-correlation-histology
#3
Xiaoxiong Jia, Zhiyong Su, Junlin Hu, Hechun Xia, Hui Ma, Xiaodong Wang, Jiangshu Yan, Dede Ma
Background: An assessment of the degree of white matter tract injury is important in neurosurgical planning for patients with gliomas. The main objective of this study was to assess the injury grade of the corticospinal tract (CST) in rats with glioma using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: A total 17 rats underwent 7.0T MRI on day 10 after tumor implantation. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were acquired in the tumor, peritumoral and contralateral areas, and the ADC ratio (ipsilateral ADC/contralateral ADC) and rFA (relative FA = ipsilateral FA/contralateral FA) in the peritumoral areas were measured...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783576/everything-you-always-wanted-to-know-about-gene-flow-in-tropical-landscapes-but-were-afraid-to-ask
#4
Waléria Pereira Monteiro, Jamille Costa Veiga, Amanda Reis Silva, Carolina da Silva Carvalho, Éder Cristian Malta Lanes, Yessica Rico, Rodolfo Jaffé
The bulk of the world's biodiversity is found in tropical regions, which are increasingly threatened by the human-led degradation of natural habitats. Yet, little is known about tropical biodiversity responses to habitat loss and fragmentation. Here we review all available literature assessing landscape effects on gene flow in tropical species, aiming to help unravel the factors underpinning functional connectivity in the tropics. We map and classify studies by focus species, the molecular markers employed, statistical approaches to assess landscape effects on gene flow, and the evaluated landscape and environmental variables...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783575/age-differences-in-the-effect-of-animacy-on-mandarin-sentence-processing
#5
Xinmiao Liu, Wenbin Wang, Haiyan Wang
Animate nouns are preferred for grammatical subjects, whereas inanimate nouns are preferred for grammatical objects. Animacy provides important semantic cues for sentence comprehension. However, how individuals' ability to use this animacy cue changes with advancing age is still not clear. The current study investigated whether older adults and younger adults were differentially sensitive to this semantic constraint in processing Mandarin relative clauses, using a self-paced reading paradigm. The sentences used in the study contained subject relative clauses or object relative clauses and had animate or inanimate subjects...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783574/a-large-late-miocene-cetotheriid-cetacea-mysticeti-from-the-netherlands-clarifies-the-status-of-tranatocetidae
#6
Felix G Marx, Klaas Post, Mark Bosselaers, Dirk K Munsterman
Cetotheriidae are a group of small baleen whales (Mysticeti) that evolved alongside modern rorquals. They once enjoyed a nearly global distribution, but then largely went extinct during the Plio-Pleistocene. After languishing as a wastebasket taxon for more than a century, the concept of Cetotheriidae is now well established. Nevertheless, the clade remains notable for its variability, and its scope remains in flux. In particular, the recent referral of several traditional cetotheriids to a new and seemingly unrelated family, Tranatocetidae, has created major phylogenetic uncertainty...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783573/overexpression-of-osftl10-induces-early-flowering-and-improves-drought-tolerance-in-oryza-sativa-l
#7
Maichun Fang, Zejiao Zhou, Xusheng Zhou, Huiyong Yang, Meiru Li, Hongqing Li
Flowering time control is critically important for the reproductive accomplishment of higher plants as floral transition can be affected by both environmental and endogenous signals. Flowering Locus T-like ( FTL ) genes are major genetic determinants of flowering in plants. In rice, 13 OsFTL genes have been annotated in the genome and amongst them, Hd3a ( OsFTL2 ) and RFT1 ( OsFTL3 ) have been studied extensively and their functions are confirmed as central florigens that control rice flowering under short day and long day environment, respectively...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783572/additional-sauropod-dinosaur-material-from-the-callovian-oxford-clay-formation-peterborough-uk-evidence-for-higher-sauropod-diversity
#8
Femke M Holwerda, Mark Evans, Jeff J Liston
Four isolated sauropod axial elements from the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of Peterborough, UK, are described. Two associated posterior dorsal vertebrae show a dorsoventrally elongated centrum and short neural arch, and nutrient or pneumatic foramina, most likely belonging to a non-neosauropod eusauropod, but showing ambiguous non-neosauropod eusauropod and neosauropod affinities. An isolated anterior caudal vertebra displays a ventral keel, a 'shoulder' indicating a wing-like transverse process, along with a possible prespinal lamina...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783571/embracing-heterogeneity-coalescing-the-tree-of-life-and-the-future-of-phylogenomics
#9
Gustavo A Bravo, Alexandre Antonelli, Christine D Bacon, Krzysztof Bartoszek, Mozes P K Blom, Stella Huynh, Graham Jones, L Lacey Knowles, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Thomas Marcussen, Hélène Morlon, Luay K Nakhleh, Bengt Oxelman, Bernard Pfeil, Alexander Schliep, Niklas Wahlberg, Fernanda P Werneck, John Wiedenhoeft, Sandi Willows-Munro, Scott V Edwards
Building the Tree of Life (ToL) is a major challenge of modern biology, requiring advances in cyberinfrastructure, data collection, theory, and more. Here, we argue that phylogenomics stands to benefit by embracing the many heterogeneous genomic signals emerging from the first decade of large-scale phylogenetic analysis spawned by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Such signals include those most commonly encountered in phylogenomic datasets, such as incomplete lineage sorting, but also those reticulate processes emerging with greater frequency, such as recombination and introgression...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783570/shifting-headlines-size-trends-of-newsworthy-fishes
#10
Fiona T Francis, Brett R Howard, Adrienne E Berchtold, Trevor A Branch, Laís C T Chaves, Jillian C Dunic, Brett Favaro, Kyla M Jeffrey, Luis Malpica-Cruz, Natalie Maslowski, Jessica A Schultz, Nicola S Smith, Isabelle M Côté
The shifting baseline syndrome describes a gradual lowering of human cognitive baselines, as each generation accepts a lower standard of resource abundance or size as the new norm. There is strong empirical evidence of declining trends of abundance and body sizes of marine fish species reported from docks and markets. We asked whether these widespread trends in shrinking marine fish are detectable in popular English-language media, or whether news writers, like many marine stakeholders, are captive to shifting baselines...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783569/effects-of-traditional-agroecosystems-and-grazing-areas-on-amphibian-diversity-in-a-region-of-central-mexico
#11
José Daniel Lara-Tufiño, Luis M Badillo-Saldaña, Raquel Hernández-Austria, Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista
Habitat loss or degradation due to land cover change is regarded as one of the main drivers of amphibian decline; therefore, it is imperative to assess the effects of land-cover change on this group of vertebrates. In this study, we analyze changes in alpha and beta diversity of amphibian communities found in five land-cover types: mountain cloud forest, tropical evergreen forest, shade coffee, milpa huasteca, and grazing areas; six samples sites were established for each land-cover type, separated at least one km away...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783568/the-origin-of-oxalis-corniculata-l
#12
Quentin J Groom, Jan Van der Straeten, Ivan Hoste
Background: Oxalis corniculata L. is a weed with a world-wide distribution and unknown origin. Though it belongs to a section of the genus from South America, the evidence that this species came from there is weak. Methods: We reviewed the evidence for the origin of O. corniculata using herbarium specimens, historic literature and archaeobotanical research. We also summarized ethnobotanical literature to understand where this species is most used by humans as a medicine...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783567/application-of-relay-puncture-technique-in-treating-patients-with-complicated-lower-extremity-arterial-diseases
#13
Chengzhi Li, Huimin You, Hong Zhang, Yulong Liu, Wanghai Li, Xiaobai Wang, Yan Zhang
Objective: This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the safety and efficacy of the relay puncture technique in patients with complicated lower extremity arterial diseases. Methods: A total of 21 patients (16 male and five female patients; median age: 68.5 years old), who had suffered from lower extremity arterial diseases between December 2014 and July 2017, were retrospectively collected. For all patients, the contralateral femoral artery was not available for puncture access, and the length of the devices was too short for the brachial artery approach...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783566/x-ray-vision-the-accuracy-and-repeatability-of-a-technology-that-allows-clinicians-to-see-spinal-x-rays-superimposed-on-a-person-s-back
#14
Jacob Aaskov, Gregory N Kawchuk, Kenton D Hamaluik, Pierre Boulanger, Jan Hartvigsen
Objective: Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, clinicians have evaluated X-ray images separately from the patient. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy and repeatability of a new technology which seeks to resolve this historic limitation by projecting anatomically correct X-ray images on to a person's skin. Methods: A total of 13 participants enrolled in the study, each having a pre-existing anteroposterior lumbar X-ray. Each participant's image was uploaded into the Hololens Mixed reality system which when worn, allowed a single examiner to view a participant's own X-ray superimposed on the participant's back...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783565/physicochemical-investigation-of-shrimp-fossils-from-the-romualdo-and-ipubi-formations-araripe-basin
#15
Olga Alcântara Barros, João Hermínio Silva, Gilberto Dantas Saraiva, Bartolomeu Cruz Viana, Alexandre Rocha Paschoal, Paulo Tarso Cavalcante Freire, Naiara Cipriano Oliveira, Amauri Jardim Paula, Maria Somália Viana
The Ipubi and Romualdo Formations are Cretaceous units of the Araripe Basin (Santana Group). The first and most ancient was deposited in a lake environment, and some fossils were preserved in shales deposited under blackish conditions. The second was deposited in a marine environment, preserving a rich paleontological content in calcareous concretions. Considering that these two environments preserved their fossils under different processes, in this work we investigated the chemical composition of two fossilized specimens, one from each of the studied stratigraphic units, and compared them using vibrational spectroscopy techniques (Raman and IR), X-ray diffraction and large-field energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mappings...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783564/protein-signatures-linking-history-of-miscarriages-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-proteomic-study-among-north-indian-women
#16
Saurabh Sharma, Suniti Yadav, Ketaki Chandiok, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Vandana Mishra, Kallur Nava Saraswathy
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MeS), a constellation of metabolic adversities, and history of miscarriage make women at a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, molecular evidence indicating a link between the two phenotypes (history of miscarriage and MeS) among women would offer an opportunity to predict the risk factor for CVDs at an early stage. Thus, the present retrospective study attempts to identify the proteins signatures (if any) to understand the connection between the history of miscarriage and MeS...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783563/evolutionary-insights-of-bean-common-mosaic-necrosis-virus-and-cowpea-aphid-borne-mosaic-virus
#17
James M Wainaina, Laura Kubatko, Jagger Harvey, Elijah Ateka, Timothy Makori, David Karanja, Laura M Boykin, Monica A Kehoe
Plant viral diseases are one of the major limitations in legume production within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), as they account for up to 100% in production losses within smallholder farms. In this study, field surveys were conducted in the western highlands of Kenya with viral symptomatic leaf samples collected. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing was carried out to gain insights into the molecular evolution and evolutionary relationships of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) present within symptomatic common bean and cowpea...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783562/dynamic-multi-species-occupancy-models-reveal-individualistic-habitat-preferences-in-a-high-altitude-grassland-bird-community
#18
David H Maphisa, Hanneline Smit-Robinson, Res Altwegg
Moist, high-altitude grasslands of eastern South African harbour rich avian diversity and endemism. This area is also threatened by increasingly intensive agriculture and land conversion for energy production. This conflict is particularly evident at Ingula, an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area located within the least conserved high-altitude grasslands and which is also the site of a new Pumped Storage Scheme. The new management seeks to maximise biodiversity through manipulation of the key habitat variables: grass height and grass cover through burning and grazing to make habitat suitable for birds...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783561/a-modification-of-the-leaf-bags-method-to-assess-spring-ecosystem-functioning-benthic-invertebrates-and-leaf-litter-breakdown-in-vera-spring-central-italy
#19
Giovanni Cristiano, Bruno Cicolani, Francesco Paolo Miccoli, Antonio Di Sabatino
The evaluation of leaf detritus processing (decomposition and breakdown) is one of the most simple and cost-effective method to assess the functional characteristics of freshwater ecosystems. However, in comparison with other freshwater habitats, information on leaf litter breakdown in spring ecosystems is still scarce and fragmentary. In this paper, we present results of the first application of a variant of the leaf-bags method to assess structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages and leaf-litter breakdown in a Central Apennines (Italy) cold spring which was investigated from July 2016 to October 2016...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783560/balancing-plant-conservation-and-agricultural-production-in-the-ecuadorian-dry-inter-andean-valleys
#20
Catalina Quintana, Marco Girardello, Henrik Balslev
Background: Conserving both biodiversity and ecosystem services is a major goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Hotspots for biodiversity in the Andes significantly overlap with areas with dense human populations that sustain their economy through agricultural production. Therefore, developing management forms that reconcile food provisioning services-such as agriculture-with biodiversity conservation must be addressed to avoid social conflicts and to improve conservation in areas where biodiversity co-occurs with other ecosystem services...
2019: PeerJ
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