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Plant Reproduction

Peng Gao, Daoquan Xiang, Teagen D Quilichini, Prakash Venglat, Prashant K Pandey, Edwin Wang, C Stewart Gillmor, Raju Datla
Embryogenesis represents a critical phase in the life cycle of flowering plants. Here, we characterize transcriptome landscapes associated with key stages of embryogenesis by combining an optimized method for the isolation of developing Arabidopsis embryos with high-throughput RNA-seq. The resulting RNA-seq datasets identify distinct overlapping patterns of gene expression, as well as temporal shifts in gene activity across embryogenesis. Network analysis revealed stage-specific and multi-stage gene expression clusters and biological functions associated with key stages of embryo development...
February 14, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Chenxin Li, Hengping Xu, Scott D Russell, Venkatesan Sundaresan
A detailed, step-by-step protocol for isolation of rice gametes for transcriptional profiling, with a general workflow that includes controls for RNA contamination from surrounding cells and tissues is presented. Characterization of the transcriptome and other -omics studies of flowering plant gametes are challenging as a consequence of the small sizes and relative inaccessibility of these cells. Collecting such poorly represented cells is also complicated by potential contamination from surrounding sporophytic, adjacent gametophytic tissues and difficulties in extracting high-quality intact cells...
February 12, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Xiao-Yu Zheng, Mary Gehring
Application of a low-input chromatin profiling method, CUT&RUN, to FACS-purified Arabidopsis endosperm nuclei generates parental-specific genome-wide H3K27me3 landscapes with high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Endosperm is an essential seed tissue with a unique epigenetic landscape. During endosperm development, differential epigenetic regulation of the maternal and paternal genomes plays important roles in regulating gene expression, especially at imprinted genes. In Arabidopsis, profiling the epigenetic landscape of endosperm on a genome-wide scale is challenging due to its small size, mode of development and close association with maternal tissue...
February 5, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Magdalena Pawełkowicz, Leszek Pryszcz, Agnieszka Skarzyńska, Rafał K Wóycicki, Kacper Posyniak, Jacek Rymuszka, Zbigniew Przybecki, Wojciech Pląder
Transcriptome data and qPCR analysis revealed new insight into genes regulatory mechanism related to cucumber sex determination. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an economically important crop cultivated worldwide. Enhancing the genomic resources for cucumber may enable the regulation of traits relevant to crop productivity and quality. Sequencing technologies and bioinformatics tools provide opportunities for the development of such resources. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the genes involved in sex determination and flower morphogenesis in cucumber isogenic lines that differed regarding flower sex type...
February 5, 2019: Plant Reproduction
María Flores-Tornero, Sebastian Proost, Marek Mutwil, Charles P Scutt, Thomas Dresselhaus, Stefanie Sprunck
A protocol for the isolation of egg apparatus cells from the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda to generate RNA-seq data for evolutionary studies of fertilization-associated genes. Sexual reproduction is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Studies in eudicot and monocot model species have significantly contributed to our knowledge on cell fate specification of gametophytic cells and on the numerous cellular communication events necessary to deliver the two sperm cells into the embryo sac and to accomplish double fertilization...
February 1, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Chandra Shekhar Misra, Mário R Santos, Mariana Rafael-Fernandes, Nuno P Martins, Marta Monteiro, Jörg D Becker
We present a detailed protocol for isolation of single sperm cells and transcriptome analysis to study variation in gene expression between sperm cells. Male gametophyte development in flowering plants begins with a microspore mother cell, which upon two consecutive cell divisions forms a mature pollen grain containing a vegetative nucleus and two sperm cells. Pollen development is a highly dynamic process, involving changes at both the transcriptome and epigenome levels of vegetative nuclei and the pair of sperm cells that have their own cytoplasm and nucleus...
January 24, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Michael Borg, Daniel Buendía, Frédéric Berger
Pollen represents the male sexual lineage in flowering plants. At maturity, pollen grains are composed of a companion vegetative cell with embedded sperm. During pollen development, these two cell types acquire vastly differing cell fates. Underlying this differential fate acquisition is dramatic reconfiguration of pollen chromatin that is highly evident at a cytological level. The precise link between histone mark deposition and fate acquisition remains largely unexplored, which in part has been hindered by the difficulty in working with pollen in model plant species like Arabidopsis...
January 22, 2019: Plant Reproduction
J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter
Overview of the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate meristem activity in the CMM compared to the SAM. Meristems are undifferentiated cells responsible for post-embryonic plant development. The meristems are able to form new organs continuously by carefully balancing between stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The plant stem cell niche in each meristem harbors the stem cells that are important to maintain each meristem. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces all above-parts of a plant and the molecular mechanisms active in the SAM are actively studied since many years, and models are available...
January 22, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Falko Hofmann, Michael A Schon, Michael D Nodine
Arabidopsis embryos possess unique transcriptomes relative to other plant tissues including somatic embryos, and can be partitioned into four transcriptional phases with characteristic biological processes. Cellular differentiation is associated with changes in transcript populations. Accurate quantification of transcriptomes during development can thus provide global insights into differentiation processes including the fundamental specification and differentiation events operating during plant embryogenesis...
January 4, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Gerardo Del Toro-De León, Claudia Köhler
We report the adaptation of the INTACT method for RNA-sequencing in the endosperm and demonstrate its feasibility for allele-specific expression analysis. Tissue-specific transcriptome analyses provide important insights into the developmental programs of defined cell types. The isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types (INTACT) is a versatile method that allows to isolate highly pure nuclei from defined tissue types that can be used for several downstream applications. Here, we describe the adaptation of INTACT from endosperm nuclei for high-throughput RNA-sequencing...
December 26, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Xuemei Zhou, Ce Shi, Peng Zhao, Mengxiang Sun
Plant zygotes usually undergo asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to the formation of two daughter cells with distinct developmental cell fate. The small apical cell will develop into the major part of embryo proper, whereas the larger basal cell will divide to form a transient suspensor. Thus, the apical and basal cell lineages are an excellent model to study cell fate determination in relation to zygote polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the differentiation of two distinct cell lineages is not yet understood, possibly due to the technique limitations...
December 13, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Nathaniel Ponvert, Jacob Goldberg, Alexander Leydon, Mark A Johnson
In flowering plants, successful reproduction and generation of seed depends on the delivery of immotile sperm to female gametes via the pollen tube. As reproduction in flowering plants is the cornerstone of our agricultural industry, there is a need to uncover the genes, small molecules, and environmental conditions that affect pollen tube growth dynamics. However, methods for measuring pollen tube phenotypes are labor intensive, and suffer from a tradeoff between workload and resolution. To approach these problems, we use an image analysis technique called Automated Stack Iterative Subtraction (ASIST)...
December 12, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Oluwabusayo Sarah Adeyemo, Peter T Hyde, Tim L Setter
Cassava is a starch-storing root crop that is an important source of dietary energy in tropical regions of the world. Genetic improvement of cassava by breeding is hindered by late flowering and sparse flower production in lines that are needed as parents. To advance understanding of regulatory mechanisms in cassava, this work sought to identify and characterize homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene. Ten members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family, to which FT belongs, were obtained from the cassava genome database...
December 12, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Tomokazu Kawashima, Mark A Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Encarnación Aguado, Alicia García, Susana Manzano, Juan Luis Valenzuela, Julián Cuevas, Virginia Pinillos, Manuel Jamilena
In the species of the Cucurbitaceae family, the occurrence of separate male and female flowers in the same plant (monoecy) is controlled by an ethylene biosynthesis ACS gene, which specifically suppresses the development of stamen in the female flower. In watermelon, a mutation of loss of function in CitACS4 promotes the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and of monoecious into andromonoecious plants. We have studied whether the ethylene produced by CitACS4 enzyme could also be involved in other ethylene-regulated traits, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of female flowers per plant, the development of floral organs other than stamens, as well as fruit and seed set, and fruit development...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Sridharan Jegadeesan, Avital Beery, Leviah Altahan, Shimon Meir, Etan Pressman, Nurit Firon
Tomato pollen grains have the capacity for ethylene production, possessing specific components of the ethylene-biosynthesis and -signaling pathways, being affected/responsive to high-temperature conditions. Exposure of plants to heat stress (HS) conditions reduces crop yield and quality, mainly due to sensitivity of pollen grains. Recently, it was demonstrated that ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a significant role in tomato pollen heat-tolerance. It is not clear, however, whether, or to what extent, pollen grains are dependent on the capacity of the surrounding anther tissues for ethylene synthesis and signaling, or can synthesize this hormone and possess an active signaling pathway...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
Overview of current understanding of epigenetic alterations after abiotic stresses during reproductive development in cereals. Abiotic stresses, including heat, drought, cold, flooding, and salinity, negatively impact crop productivity. Various stages during reproductive development are especially sensitive to environmental stresses, which may lead to complete sterility and severe yield losses. Plants exhibit diverse responses to ameliorate stress damage. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification as well as regulation of small RNA and long noncoding RNA pathways have been shown to represent key modulators in plant stress responses...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Nikita Maksimov, Anastasia Evmenyeva, Maria Breygina, Igor Yermakov
Endogenous ROS, including those produced by NADPH oxidase, are required for spruce pollen germination and regulate membrane potential in pollen tubes; [Formula: see text] and H 2 O 2 are unevenly distributed along the tube. Recently, the key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant reproduction has been decisively demonstrated for angiosperms. This paper is dedicated to the involvement of ROS in pollen germination of gymnosperms, which remained largely unknown. We found that ROS are secreted from pollen grains of blue spruce during the early stage of activation...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Siew-Eng Ooi, Norashikin Sarpan, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Azimi Nuraziyan, Meilina Ong-Abdullah
Transcriptomes generated by laser capture microdissected abnormal staminodes revealed adoption of carpel programming during organ initiation with decreased expression of numerous HSPs, EgDEF1, EgGLO1 but increased LEAFY expression. The abnormal mantled phenotype in oil palm involves a feminization of the male staminodes into pseudocarpels in pistillate inflorescences. Previous studies on oil palm flowering utilized entire inflorescences or spikelets, which comprised not only the male and female floral organs, but the surrounding tissues as well...
November 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Joakim Palovaara, Dolf Weijers
In the early embryo of vascular plants, the different cell types and stem cells of the seedling are specified as the embryo develops from a zygote towards maturity. How the key steps in cell and tissue specification are instructed by genome-wide transcriptional activity is poorly understood. Progress in defining transcriptional regulation at the genome-wide level in plant embryos has been hampered by difficulties associated with capturing cell-type-specific transcriptomes in this small and inaccessible structure...
November 15, 2018: Plant Reproduction
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