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Zhang Yifan, Xu Luwei, Liang Kai, Zhou Liuhua, Ge Yuzheng, Jia Ruipeng
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in cystine crystal formation and whether salvianolic acid B, a natural antioxidant, could prevent cystine-mediated oxidative injury in vivo and in vitro. The levels of oxidative stress and antioxidase activity in cystine stone patients were assessed. Then, the oxidative stress exerted by cystine on human kidney-2 (HK-2) cell viability and biochemical parameters including antioxidase activity and antioxidant protein expression were evaluated, and the protective action of salvianolic acid B was also examined...
February 18, 2019: Urolithiasis
Saajidah Fakier, Allen Rodgers, Graham Jackson
Kidney stone formation is governed by thermodynamic (supersaturation) and kinetic (crystal nucleation, growth, aggregation) mechanisms. We adopted a dual theoretical and experimental approach to investigate the potential role of urinary phytate in this regard. Thermodynamic constants for eight protonated phytate species and seven calcium-phytate complexes were determined by potentiometry and incorporated into the speciation program JESS. Urine was collected from 16 heathy males and their urine compositions were used as input for JESS...
February 14, 2019: Urolithiasis
Satoshi Yoshida, Ryoji Takazawa, Yusuke Uchida, Yusuke Kohno, Yuma Waseda, Toshihiko Tsujii
We examined the renal pelvic urine culture (RPUC) and stone culture (SC) during ureteroscopy and evaluated their associations with postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We prospectively collected data of 224 patients who underwent ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy from March 2015 to December 2017. We examined the bladder urine culture pre-operatively. If the patients had positive culture results, we treated them with antibiotics for 5-7 days before surgery based on the sensitivity profile...
February 13, 2019: Urolithiasis
Deng Li, Minglei Sha, Lei Chen, Yinglong Xiao, Jun Lu, Yi Shao
To evaluate the role of preoperative procalcitonin (PCT) levels in predicting postoperative fever after mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) in patients with a negative baseline urine culture. Between January 2014 and October 2017, 329 patients with a negative baseline urine culture and who underwent mini-PCNL were enrolled in this study. Patients were stratified into the control or febrile group based on a body temperature either less than or greater than 38 °C, respectively. Demographic and perioperative data were compared between the groups, and variables found to be statistically significant were included in a binary logistic regression analysis...
February 12, 2019: Urolithiasis
Kara L Watts, Abhishek Srivastava, Wilson Lin, Daniel Schoenfeld, Matthew Abramowitz, Joshua M Stern
To compare renal functional outcomes in patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) to identify predictors of change in renal function after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We reviewed patients who underwent PCNL by a single surgeon over 3.5 years. Patients' pre- and post-operative Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was calculated. Baseline GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (stage ≥ 3 CKD) defined our CKD cohort. Patients' baseline renal function, comorbidities, stone parameters, and intra-operative variables were analyzed to determine the relationship with post-operative renal function after PCNL by multivariate analysis...
February 12, 2019: Urolithiasis
Yunjin Bai, Yin Tang, Ping Han, Jia Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Urolithiasis
Ben Oliveira, Robert Unwin, Stephen B Walsh
The proximal tubule is responsible for reclaiming water, phosphates and amino acids from the tubular filtrate. There are genetic defects in both phosphate and amino acid transporters leading to nephrolithiasis. This review also explores genetic defects in regulators of phosphate and calcium transport in this nephron segment that lead to stone formation.
January 23, 2019: Urolithiasis
Roland Umbach, Jochen-Klaus Müller, Gunnar Wendt-Nordahl, Thomas Knoll, Jan Peter Jessen
Non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) is widely used measuring stone size in patients with urolithiasis. We performed an evaluation of the accuracy of stone size measuring via NCCT. In an in-vitro study, we analyzed a total of 38 uric acid and 38 phantom stones. Within NCCT, we used different slice thicknesses (1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm) and kernel settings (bone and soft-tissue window). Maximal height, maximal length, and maximal width of each stone were measured on a picture archiving and communication system workstation...
January 16, 2019: Urolithiasis
Allen L Rodgers, Dalielah Jappie-Mahomed, Paul J van Jaarsveld
The authors would like to add the following paragraph in the acknowledgement section of the original version of the paper.
January 8, 2019: Urolithiasis
Jared S Gleberzon, Yinyin Liao, Silvia Mittler, Harvey A Goldberg, Bernd Grohe
Polyelectrolyte-crystal interactions regulate many aspects of biomineralization, including the shape, phase, and aggregation of crystals. Here, we quantitatively investigate the role of phosphorylation in interactions with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM), using synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence 220-235 in osteopontin, a major inhibitor of kidney stone-related COM formation. COM formation is induced in the absence or presence of fluorescent-labeled peptides containing either no (P0), one (P1) or three (P3) phosphates and their adsorption to and incorporation into crystals determined using quantitative fluorimetry (also to determine maximum adsorption/incorporation), confocal/scanning electron microscopy and X-ray/Raman spectroscopy...
December 19, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ahmet Murat Yayik, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Saban Oguz Demirdogen, Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu, Haci Ahmet Alici, Husnu Kursad
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of peritubular infiltration and ultrasound-guided low thoracal paravertebral block in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Sixty patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, between the ages of 18 and 65 years undergoing PCNL were randomized into three groups. Group peritubal infiltration (Pi, n = 20) received infiltration along the nephrostomy tube 20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine, in 6 and 12 o'clock position. Group paravertebral block (Pv, n = 20) received single-shot paravertebral block with 20 ml 0...
December 18, 2018: Urolithiasis
Giovanna Capolongo, Miriam Zacchia, Alessandra Perna, Davide Viggiano, Giovambattista Capasso
In the last decades, proteomics has been largely applied to the Nephrology field, with the double aim to (1) elucidate the biological processes underlying renal diseases; (2) identify disease-specific biomarkers, predictor factors of therapeutic efficacy and prognostic factors of disease progression. Kidney stone disease, and in particular, inherited nephrolithiasis (INL) are not an exception. Given the multifactorial origin of these disorders, the combination of genomics and proteomics studies may complement each other, with the final objective to give a global and comprehensive mechanistic view...
December 18, 2018: Urolithiasis
Runolfur Palsson, Olafur S Indridason, Vidar O Edvardsson, Asmundur Oddsson
Kidney stone disease is a common disorder in Western countries that is associated with significant suffering, morbidity, and cost for the healthcare system. Numerous studies have demonstrated familial aggregation of nephrolithiasis and a twin study estimated the heritability to be 56%. Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies have uncovered several sequence variants that confer increased risk of common complex kidney stone disease. The first reported variants were observed at the CLDN14 locus in the Icelandic population...
December 6, 2018: Urolithiasis
Othmar J Wess, Juergen Mayer
Shock wave lithotripsy is the only non-invasive stone therapy and in clinical use since 1980. In spite of decades with millions of patients treated, the mechanism of fragmentation is still under debate. Detailed knowledge of the fragmentation process is required for improvements regarding safety and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism of fragmentation by drawing attention to basic physical laws of inertia and momentum transfer. Many fragmentation experiments are based on the overall efficiency of multiple shock waves in crushing kidney stones or artificial model stones utilizing small baskets or latex pouches...
December 6, 2018: Urolithiasis
Giovanni Gambaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Urolithiasis
Rong-Zhen Tao, Qing-Lai Tang, Shuang Zhou, Chun-Ping Jia, Jian-Lin Lv
To observe the efficacy and safety of External Physical Vibration Lithecbole (EPVL) in patients with upper ureteric stones 1.0-2.0 cm after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). A total of 271 patients with upper ureteric stones 1.0-2.0 cm were prospectively randomized into two groups. One hundred and twenty-seven cases in the treatment group accepted EPVL therapy and 144 cases as control after ESWL. The stone expulsion status and stone-free rates (SFRs) between two groups were compared at the 1st, 2nd and 4th weekends by imaging examinations...
November 28, 2018: Urolithiasis
David J Sas, Peter C Harris, Dawn S Milliner
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is caused by genetic mutations resulting in oxalate overproduction leading to nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, extrarenal manifestations, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. Advances in genetic testing techniques have improved our ability to efficiently and effectively obtain a definitive diagnosis of PH as well as easily screen at-risk family members. Similarly, advances in technologies related to intervening at the genetic and molecular level promise to change the way we treat patients with PH...
February 2019: Urolithiasis
Amrik Sahota, Jay A Tischfield, David S Goldfarb, Michael D Ward, Longqin Hu
Cystinuria, a genetic disorder of cystine transport, is characterized by excessive excretion of cystine in the urine and recurrent cystine stones in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in the bladder. Males generally are more severely affected than females. The disorder may lead to chronic kidney disease in many patients. The cystine transporter (b0,+ ) is a heterodimer consisting of the rBAT (encoded by SLC3A1) and b0,+ AT (encoded by SLC7A9) subunits joined by a disulfide bridge. The molecular basis of cystinuria is known in great detail, and this information is now being used to define genotype-phenotype correlations...
February 2019: Urolithiasis
David S Goldfarb
Careful phenotyping of patients to classify those with kidney stones has a long and important history in revealing the chemical basis for stone formation. Advances in our genetic understanding of kidney stones will lead to incredible insights regarding the pathophysiology of this common disorder. At this time, both evaluation of urine chemistry and genotyping of patients are extremely useful in the setting of a university and research-based kidney stone clinic. For much of the world, in a more clinically focused setting, these techniques are neither available nor absolutely necessary...
February 2019: Urolithiasis
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