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Clinical Psychological Science

Stefan G Hofmann, Steven C Hayes
In this rejoinder, we discuss the commonalities and differences of the commentaries to our target article. Each commentary agreed with our basic message that intervention science needs to move from the DSM-governed protocols-for-syndrome approach to process-based treatments. Functional analysis has been a guiding principle since the early days of behavior therapy, but lost its dominance with the ruse of the latent disease model of psychiatry. This model gave rise to disorder-specific treatments with limited benefit to patients and science...
January 2019: Clinical Psychological Science
Stefan G Hofmann, Steven C Hayes
Clinical science seems to have reached a tipping point. It appears that a new paradigm is beginning to emerge that is questioning the validity and utility of the medical illness model, which assumes that latent disease entities are targeted with specific therapy protocols. A new generation of evidence-based care has begun to move toward process-based therapies to target core mediators and moderators based on testable theories. This could represent a paradigm shift in clinical science with far-reaching implications...
January 2019: Clinical Psychological Science
Stephanie M Gorka, K Luan Phan, Bobak Hosseini, Eunice Y Chen, Michael S McCloskey
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important individual difference factor that may contribute to trait-like aggression. Deficient engagement of the ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC) during social situations may also be a mechanism that links these two constructs. The aim of the current study was to test a proposed mediation model whereby IU is associated with trait aggression through neural activation of the vlPFC during a social exclusion task. Fifty-three adults with a range of impulsive-aggressive traits completed validated assessments of IU and trait aggression, and the 'Cyberball' social exclusion task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Genevieve F Dash, Anna C Wilson, Benjamin J Morasco, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Despite being a significant public health concern, the role of opioid prescriptions in potentiating risk of opioid misuse in the context of pediatric pain has been under-investigated. To address this gap, the present review identifies theory-based hypotheses about these associations, reviews the extant literature on opioid prescriptions that supports these hypotheses, and provides routes for future empirical studies. A multi-level model of mechanisms through which opioid prescriptions may impact pain and other negative outcomes in youth, including risk for opioid misuse and related problems, is proposed with particular attention paid to the role that psychologists can play in informing policies and developing preventative interventions in healthcare settings...
September 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Derek J Dean, Sebastian Walther, Jessica A Bernard, Vijay A Mittal
Abnormal development of parallel cortical-striatal networks may contribute to abnormal motor, cognitive, and affective behavior prior to the onset of psychosis. Partitioning individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) using motor behavior may provide a novel perspective on different etiological pathways or patient subtypes. A K-means cluster analysis was conducted in CHR (N=69; 42% female, mean age=18.67 years) young adults using theoretically distinct measures of motor behavior. The resulting subtypes were then compared on positive and negative symptoms at baseline, and 2-year risk of psychosis conversion...
September 1, 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Naomi P Friedman, Alta du Pont, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt
Depression is associated with deficits in executive functions (EFs)-cognitive control abilities that regulate goal-directed thoughts and actions-but the etiology of these associations is unclear. We examined the relations between depressive symptoms and multiple EF latent variables in a population-based sample of 439 twin pairs assessed at mean ages 12, 17, and 23 years. Greater depressive symptoms negatively related to a Common EF factor capturing shared variance across response inhibition, working memory updating, and mental set shifting tasks, and also negatively related to an Updating-Specific factor, but not a Shifting-Specific factor...
July 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Charles L Burton, Katie Wang, John E Pachankis
Emotion regulation deficits may link stigma to poor mental health, yet existing studies rely on self-reported stigma and do not consider contextual factors. In the present research, we examined associations among cultural stigma (i.e., objective devaluation of others' status), emotion regulation deficits, and poor mental health. In Study 1, we created an index of cultural stigma by asking members of the general public and stigma experts to indicate desired social distance towards 93 stigmatized attributes. In Study 2, emotion regulation deficits mediated the association between cultural stigma and adverse mental health outcomes, including depressive symptoms and alcohol use problems, among individuals endorsing diverse stigmatized identities...
July 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Joshua R Oltmanns, Gregory T Smith, Thomas F Oltmanns, Thomas A Widiger
Three separate and distinct literatures exist investigating general factors of psychopathology ( p factor), personality (GFP), and personality disorder ( g -PD). Surprisingly, there has been little-to-no investigation regarding the convergence of these three distinct general factors. In the present investigation, two studies were conducted examining the convergence of the p factor, GFP, and g -PD. In Study 1, a combined model extracting all three factors from self-report data simultaneously found high convergence...
July 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Sanne T L Houben, Henry Otgaar, Jeffrey Roelofs, Harald Merckelbach
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a popular treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the memory effects of EMDR. Using a misinformation paradigm, we examined whether lateral eye movements, as used in EMDR, enhance susceptibility to false memories. Undergraduates ( N = 82) saw a video depicting a car crash. Subsequently, participants either performed eye movements or held their eyes stationary. Afterward, all participants received misinformation in the form of an eyewitness narrative...
July 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Eiko I Fried, Marloes B Eidhof, Sabina Palic, Giulio Costantini, Hilde M Huisman-van Dijk, Claudi L H Bockting, Iris Engelhard, Cherie Armour, Anni B S Nielsen, Karen-Inge Karstoft
The growing literature conceptualizing mental disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as networks of interacting symptoms faces three key challenges. Prior studies predominantly used (a) small samples with low power for precise estimation, (b) nonclinical samples, and (c) single samples. This renders network structures in clinical data, and the extent to which networks replicate across data sets, unknown. To overcome these limitations, the present cross-cultural multisite study estimated regularized partial correlation networks of 16 PTSD symptoms across four data sets of traumatized patients receiving treatment for PTSD (total N = 2,782)...
May 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Sacha Epskamp, Claudia D van Borkulo, Date C van der Veen, Michelle N Servaas, Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Harriëtte Riese, Angélique O J Cramer
Recent literature has introduced (a) the network perspective to psychology and (b) collection of time series data to capture symptom fluctuations and other time varying factors in daily life. Combining these trends allows for the estimation of intraindividual network structures. We argue that these networks can be directly applied in clinical research and practice as hypothesis generating structures. Two networks can be computed: a temporal network , in which one investigates if symptoms (or other relevant variables) predict one another over time, and a contemporaneous network , in which one investigates if symptoms predict one another in the same window of measurement...
May 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Jonathan D Schaefer, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Margaret A Sheridan, Jasmin Wertz, Avshalom Caspi
Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. Within the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested whether seven types of adolescent victimization increased risk of multiple psychiatric conditions and approached causal inference by systematically ruling out noncausal explanations. Longitudinal within-individual analyses showed that victimization was followed by increased mental health problems over a childhood baseline of emotional/behavioral problems...
May 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Caitlin Hitchcock, Ann-Marie J Golden, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Willem Kuyken, Tim Dalgleish
Across two studies we investigated the influence of contextual cues on autobiographical memory recall. In Study 1, participants ( N = 37) with major depressive disorder, in episode or in varying degrees of remission, were administered a Negative Autobiographical Memory Task (NAMT) that required them to retrieve negatively valenced memories in response to positive cue words (a positive context). We reasoned that increased depression symptom severity would be associated with a reduced ability to override priming from this disadvantageous context...
May 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Eric A Youngstrom, Tate F Halverson, Jennifer K Youngstrom, Oliver Lindhiem, Robert L Findling
Reliability of clinical diagnoses is often low. There are many algorithms that could improve diagnostic accuracy, and statistical learning is becoming popular. Using pediatric bipolar disorder as a clinically challenging example, we evaluated a series of increasingly complex models ranging from simple screening to a supervised LASSO regression in a large ( N =550) academic clinic sample. We then externally validated models in a community clinic ( N =511) with the same candidate predictors and semi-structured interview diagnoses, providing high methodological consistency; the clinics also had substantially different demography and referral patterns...
March 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Erin K Moran, Adam J Culbreth, Deanna M Barch
While recent evidence has pointed to disturbances in emotion regulation strategy use in schizophrenia, few studies have examined how these regulation strategies relate to emotionality and social behavior in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we investigated the relationship between emotion regulation, emotional experience and social interaction in the daily lives of individuals with schizophrenia. Participants (N=30) used mobile phones to complete online questionnaires reporting their daily emotional experience and social interaction...
March 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Leontien de Kwaadsteniet, York Hagmayer
Evidence-based psychotherapy requires clinicians to consider theories of psychopathology and evidence about effectiveness, and their experience when choosing interventions. Research on clinical decision making indicates that clinicians' theories of disorders might be personal and inform judgments and choices beyond current scientific theory and evidence. We asked 20 child therapists to draw models of how they believed that biological, psychological, environmental, and behavioral factors interact to cause and maintain four common developmental disorders...
March 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Alta du Pont, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Existing literature on rumination has predominately focused on depressive rumination; thus, there is little research directly comparing different forms of rumination as correlates of psychopathological outcomes. The present study investigated anger and depressive rumination as correlates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cross-sectional confirmatory factor analyses on data from 764 young adults from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study indicated that anger and depressive rumination were separable at the latent variable level, and were both associated with lifetime symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology...
February 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Frank D Mann, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Previous behavioral genetic research in children has found that conduct problems in the presence of high CU traits are more heritable than conduct problems in the presence of low CU traits -- a gene × trait interaction. The current study replicates and extends this finding using a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project, who were assessed for rule-breaking and aggression. We find evidence that genetic influences on CU traits contribute to genetic liability for both rule-breaking and aggressive behavior...
January 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Michaela Hoffman, Douglas Steinley, Timothy J Trull, Kenneth J Sher
Across various structured diagnostic instruments, the criteria used to diagnose alcohol use disorder (AUD) are not assessed consistently. For example, different instruments often pose questions that reflect different thresholds of the underlying symptoms. We consider the criteria for craving and the inability to cut down or stop drinking to demonstrate the influence of using different thresholds for a positive symptom endorsement with respect to the estimated edges of a symptom network. Results indicate that the utilization of these differing thresholds leads to significant differences in edge weights...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Elisabeth M Whyte, K Suzanne Scherf
The search for a female autism phenotype is difficult, given the low diagnostic rates in females. Here, we studied potential sex differences in a core feature of autism, difficulty with eye gaze processing, among typically developing individuals who vary in the broad autism phenotype, which includes autistic-like traits that are common, continuously distributed, and similarly heritable in males and females. Participants viewed complex images of an actor in a naturalistic scene looking at one of many possible objects and had to identify the target gazed-at object...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
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