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JMIR Research Protocols

Robert Ws Coulter, Jordan M Sang, William Louth-Marquez, Emmett R Henderson, Dorothy Espelage, Simon C Hunter, Matthew DeLucas, Kaleab Z Abebe, Elizabeth Miller, Brooke A Morrill, Kimberly Hieftje, Mark S Friedman, James E Egan
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth) experience myriad substance use and mental health disparities compared with their cisgender (nontransgender) heterosexual peers. Despite much research showing these disparities are driven by experiences of bullying and cyberbullying victimization, few interventions have aimed to improve the health of bullied SGMY. One possible way to improve the health of bullied SGMY is via a Web-accessible game intervention...
February 15, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Katriona Brooksbank, Joanne O'Donnell, Vicky Corbett, Sarah Shield, Rachel Ainsworth, Ross Shearer, Susan Montgomery, Andrew Gallagher, Hannah Duncan, Lorna Hamilton, Valerie Laszlo, Rhonda Noone, Anna Baxendale, David Blane, Jennifer Logue
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes universally recommend that adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity be offered individualized interventions to encourage weight loss. Yet despite the existing recommendations, provision of weight management services is currently patchy around the United Kingdom and where services are available, high attrition rates are often reported. In addition, individuals often fail to take up services, that is, after discussion with a general practitioner or practice nurse, individuals are referred to the service but do not attend for an appointment...
February 15, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Felicia Skelton, Lindsey Ann Martin, Charlesnika T Evans, Jennifer Kramer, Larissa Grigoryan, Peter Richardson, Mark E Kunik, Ivy Oiyee Poon, S Ann Holmes, Barbara W Trautner
BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria, either asymptomatic (ASB) or symptomatic, urinary tract infection (UTI), is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Current Veterans Health Administration (VHA) guidelines recommend a screening urinalysis and urine culture for every veteran with SCI during annual evaluation, even when asymptomatic, which is contrary to other national guidelines. Our preliminary data suggest that a positive urine culture (even without signs or symptoms of infection) drives antibiotic use...
February 14, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Rinad S Beidas, Kevin G Volpp, Alison N Buttenheim, Steven C Marcus, Mark Olfson, Melanie Pellecchia, Rebecca E Stewart, Nathaniel J Williams, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Molly Candon, Zuleyha Cidav, Jessica Fishman, Adina Lieberman, Kelly Zentgraf, David Mandell
BACKGROUND: Efficacious psychiatric treatments are not consistently deployed in community practice, and clinical outcomes are attenuated compared with those achieved in clinical trials. A major focus for mental health services research is to develop effective and cost-effective strategies that increase the use of evidence-based assessment, prevention, and treatment approaches in community settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this program of research is to apply insights from behavioral economics and participatory design to advance the science and practice of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) for individuals with psychiatric disorders across the life span...
February 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Akihiro Nomura, Hiroki Tateno, Katsunori Masaki, Tomoyasu Muto, Shin Suzuki, Kohta Satake, Eisuke Hida, Koichi Fukunaga
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation treatment programs have been widely available for patients with nicotine dependence. Despite intensive programs, the continuous abstinence rate (CAR) from weeks 9-12 is still about 50%. Recently, a smartphone app emerged as a novel tool for therapeutic interventions, including nicotine dependence. In this study, we developed "CureApp Smoking Cessation" (CASC), which consists of a smartphone app for patients and a Web-based patient management software for doctors with a mobile carbon monoxide (CO) checking device to improve the efficacy of the smoking cessation treatment...
February 11, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Edward Meinert, Abrar Alturkistani, Kimberley A Foley, Tasnime Osama, Josip Car, Azeem Majeed, Michelle Van Velthoven, Glenn Wells, David Brindley
BACKGROUND: A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, distributed public ledger that acts as a shared and synchronized database that records cryptocurrency transactions. Despite the shift toward digital platforms enabled by electronic medical records, demonstrating a will to reform the health care sector, health systems face issues including security, interoperability, data fragmentation, timely access to patient data, and silos. The application of health care blockchains could enable data interoperability, enhancement of precision medicine, and reduction in prescription frauds through implementing novel methods in access and patient consent...
February 8, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Edward Meinert, Abrar Alturkistani, Tasnime Osama, Celine-Lea Halioua-Haubold, Josip Car, Azeem Majeed, Glenn Wells, Robert E MacLaren, David Brindley
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenomics suggests that diseases with similar symptomatic presentations often have varying genetic causes, affecting an individual patient's response to a specific therapeutic strategy. Gene therapies and somatic cell therapies offer unique therapeutic pathways for ocular diseases and often depend on increased understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship in disease presentation and progression. While demand for personalized medicine is increasing and the required molecular tools are available, its adoption within pediatric ophthalmology remains to be maximized in the postgenomic era...
February 7, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Marina B Wasilewski, Mika Nonoyama, Craig Dale, Douglas A McKim, Jeremy Road, David Leasa, Roger Goldstein, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Across Europe, Canada, Australia, and the United States, the prevalence of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) prevalence is 6.6-12.9 per 100,000. At-home ventilator-assisted individuals (VAIs) are often vulnerable and highly comorbid, requiring complex care. In Canada, most VAI care is provided by family, leading to poor health-related quality of life and increased caregiver burden. No supportive interventions or peer support programs are tailored to VAI caregivers. Owing to the financial, geographic, and time limitations, Web-based support delivery may especially meet VAI family caregiver needs...
February 6, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Roger van Groenendael, Remi Beunders, Jan Hofland, Wim J Morshuis, Matthijs Kox, Lucas T van Eijk, Peter Pickkers
BACKGROUND: The cardiac surgery-induced systemic inflammatory response may induce postoperative hemodynamic instability and impairment of renal function. EA-230, a linear tetrapeptide (A-Q-G-V), is derived from the beta chain of the human chorionic gonadotropin pregnancy hormone. It has shown immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects in several animal models of systemic inflammation. In phase 1 and phase 2a studies, these immunomodulatory effects were confirmed during human experimental endotoxemia, and EA-230 was found to have an excellent safety profile...
February 6, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Amit Algotar, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, H H Sherry Chow, Shona Dougherty, Hani M Babiker, David Marrero, Ivo Abraham, Rachit Kumar, Jennifer Ligibel, Kerry S Courneya, Cynthia Thomson
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects such as reduced libido, hot flashes, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This reduces quality of life and potentially increases mortality. Several large clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in cardiometabolic risk with comprehensive multimodality lifestyle modification. However, there is a lack of data for such interventions in men on ADT for prostate cancer, and existing studies have used non-standardized interventions or lacked data on metabolic risk factors...
February 5, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Kristin E Heron, Robin J Lewis, Alexander T Shappie, Charlotte A Dawson, Rachel Amerson, Abby L Braitman, Barbara A Winstead, Michelle L Kelley
BACKGROUND: The Healthy People 2020 initiative aims to reduce health disparities, including alcohol use, among sexual minority women (SMW; eg, lesbian, bisexual, queer, and pansexual). Compared with heterosexual women, SMW engage in more hazardous drinking and report more alcohol-related problems. Sexual minority stress (ie, the unique experiences associated with stigmatization and marginalization) has been associated with alcohol use among SMW. Among heterosexuals, relationship factors (eg, partner violence and drinking apart vs together) have also been associated with alcohol use...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Giota Touloumi, Anna Karakatsani, Argiro Karakosta, Eleni Sofianopoulou, Panagiotis Koustenis, Magda Gavana, Yannis Alamanos, Maria Kantzanou, George Konstantakopoulos, Xenia Chryssochoou, Alexis Benos, Apostolos Vantarakis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Gregory Chlouverakis, Gregory Trypsianis, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Stavros Liatis, George Stergiou
BACKGROUND: Main causes of death in Greece are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), malignant neoplasms, respiratory diseases, and road traffic crashes. To assess the population health status, monitor health systems, and adjust policies, national population-based health surveys are recommended. The previous health surveys that were conducted in Greece were restricted to specific regions or high-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the design and methods of the Greek Health Examination Survey EMENO (National Survey of Morbidity and Risk Factors)...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Josep Vidal-Alaball, Dídac Royo Fibla, Miguel A Zapata, Francesc X Marin-Gomez, Oscar Solans Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important causes of blindness worldwide, especially in developed countries. In diabetic patients, periodic examination of the back of the eye using a nonmydriatic camera has been widely demonstrated to be an effective system to control and prevent the onset of DR. Convolutional neural networks have been used to detect DR, achieving very high sensitivities and specificities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this is paper was to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm for the detection of signs of DR in diabetic patients and to scientifically validate the algorithm to be used as a screening tool in primary care...
February 1, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Sylvie Naar, Jeffrey T Parsons, Bonita F Stanton
BACKGROUND: The past 30 years have witnessed such significant progress in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS that an AIDS-free generation and the end to the global AIDS epidemic are ambitious, but achievable, national and global goals. Despite growing optimism, globally, youth living with HIV are markedly less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy than adults (23% vs 38%). Furthermore, marked health disparities exist regarding HIV infection risk, with young men of color who have sex with men disproportionately affected...
February 1, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Esther Chor Leng Goh, Wan Har Chong, Jayashree Mohanty, Evelyn Chung Ning Law, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu, Jan De Mol, Leon Kuczynski
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the adaptive process of children and mothers from multistressed low-income families in Singapore. It aims to bridge the knowledge gap left by existing poverty studies, which are predominately risk focused. Through a sequential longitudinal mixed-methods design, we will differentiate children and mothers who demonstrate varied social, developmental, and mental health trajectories of outcomes. Through utilizing the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM), we aim to detect the development and changes of the positive Family Agency and adaptive capacities of these families over time...
February 1, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Precious J Kilimo, Tai Le, Ngoc T Phan, Huy-Dung Han, Hoc T Hoang, Nguyen C Vu, Nga Tt Pham, Hung Cao, Cuong K Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Having mobile devices that provide patients with the ability to record and monitor the electrical activity of their heart enhances patient self-care and the early detection of irregular heartbeat (cardiac arrhythmia), yet few such devices exist in Vietnam. Challenges exist for introducing mobile electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring devices in Vietnam, including patient accessibility and affordability. A low-cost mobile ECG monitoring device designed and developed in Vietnam, which allows patients to easily measure their heart's electrical activity and navigate recordings, may be a solution...
January 31, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Melissa Medich, Dallas T Swendeman, W Scott Comulada, Uyen H Kao, Janet J Myers, Ronald A Brooks
BACKGROUND: In the United States, disparities in the rates of HIV care among youth and young adults result from the intersections of factors that include stigma, substance use, homelessness or marginal housing, institutional neglect, and mental health issues. Novel interventions are needed that are geared to youth and young adults. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we aim to describe the interventions used by participating sites for Using Social Media initiative, the process for classifying the intervention components, and the methods for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the interventions...
January 31, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Jan-Niklas Kramer, Florian Künzler, Varun Mishra, Bastien Presset, David Kotz, Shawna Smith, Urte Scholz, Tobias Kowatsch
BACKGROUND: Smartphones enable the implementation of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) that tailor the delivery of health interventions over time to user- and time-varying context characteristics. Ideally, JITAIs include effective intervention components, and delivery tailoring is based on effective moderators of intervention effects. Using machine learning techniques to infer each user's context from smartphone sensor data is a promising approach to further enhance tailoring...
January 31, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Luis Mt Jesus, Joaquim Santos, Joana Martinez
BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed gains in using computers in speech and language therapy interventions for children with speech and/or language disorders when compared to a control group, but virtual tutors and computer-based visual feedback have been gaining interest in the literature. Previous systematic reviews mainly focused on development technological details of computer-based speech training systems or the potential of integrating mobile technology into education and rehabilitation, but recent systematic reviews have also evaluated the efficacy of computer-based speech and language therapy for children and how digital technology can support different activities, at school or elsewhere...
January 30, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Atinkut Alamirrew Zeleke, Tolga Naziyok, Fleur Fritz, Rainer Röhrig
BACKGROUND: Population-level survey is an essential standard method used in public health research to quantify sociodemographic events and support public health policy development and intervention designs with evidence. Although all steps in the survey can contribute to the data quality parameters, data collection mechanisms seem the most determinant, as they can avoid mistakes before they happen. The use of electronic devices such as smartphones and tablet computers improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of public health surveys...
January 30, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
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