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Current Pathobiology Reports

Darryl Shibata
Purpose of review: Recent studies demonstrate that normal human tissues accumulate substantial numbers of somatic mutations with aging, to levels comparable to their corresponding cancers. If mutations cause cancer, how do tissues avoid cancer when mutations are unavoidable? Recent findings: The small intestines (SI) and colon accumulate similar numbers of replication errors, but SI adenocarcinoma is much rarer than colorectal cancer. Both the small and large intestines are subdivided into millions of small neighborhoods (crypts) that are maintained by small numbers of stem cells...
September 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
G Kim Prisk
Purpose of Review: The challenges presented to the lung by the space environment are the effects of prolonged absence of gravity, the challenges of decompression stress associated with spacewalking, and the changes in the deposition of inhaled particulate matter. Recent Findings: Although there are substantial changes in the function of the lung in partial gravity, the lung is largely unaffected by sustained exposure, returning rapidly to a normal state after return to 1G...
September 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Andrew Bradshaw, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
Purpose of Review: Stem cells have been proposed as sources for tissue replacement when healing does not occur. These cells could contribute directly to skin structures via differentiation, or via producing trophic factors that would 'educate' the micro-environment to encourage tissue repair. Studies in animals have supported both mechanisms, but translation to humans has been challenged by poor cell survival after transplantation. However, the improvement noted with even transient existence suggests another new possibility, that of suppressing the inflammatory response that limits regenerative healing...
June 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Robert Fultz, Sriram Ayyaswamy, James Versalovic
Microbial metabolites influence the function of epithelial, endothelial and immune cells in the intestinal mucosa. Microbial metabolites like SCFAs and B complex vitamins direct macrophage polarization whereas microbial derived biogenic amines modulate intestinal epithelium and immune response. Aberrant bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis. Our perception of human microbes has changed from that of opportunistic pathogens to active participants maintaining intestinal and whole body homeostasis...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Thu Elizabeth Duong, James S Hagood
Purpose of Review: Myofibroblasts are the fundamental drivers of fibrosing disorders; there is great value in better defining epigenetic networks involved in myofibroblast behavior. Complex epigenetic paradigms, which are likely organ and/or disease specific, direct pathologic myofibroblast phenotypes. In this review, we highlight epigenetic regulators and the mechanisms through which they shape myofibroblast phenotype in fibrotic diseases of different organs. Recent Findings: Hundreds of genes and their expression contribute to the myofibroblast transcriptional regime influencing myofibroblast phenotype...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Ricardo Londono, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan, Thomas P Lozito
Purpose of the Review: This manuscript discusses wound healing as a component of epimorphic regeneration and the role of the immune system in this process. Recent findings: Epimorphic regeneration involves formation of a blastema, a mass of undifferentiated cells capable of giving rise to the regenerated tissues. The apical epithelial cap plays an important role in blastemal formation. Summary: True regeneration is rarely observed in mammals...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Traci A Wilgus
Purpose of review: Tissue injury stimulates an inflammatory response that is mediated in part by alarmins. Alarmins are a group of endogenous molecules that trigger inflammation in response to damage. This class of molecules is becoming increasingly recognized for their ability to influence wound healing. This article will provide an overview of alarmins and outline the latest findings on these mediators in cutaneous wound healing. Recent findings: In addition to stimulating inflammatory cells, recent evidence suggests that alarmins can act on other cells in the skin to affect wound closure and the extent of scar tissue production...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Tina L Morhardt, Atsushi Hayashi, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
Purpose of review: The intestine contains the largest compartment of immune regulatory cells which include T regulatory cells and IL-10 producing macrophages. These cell populations serve to restrain unnecessary immune responses of the intestine, which may lead to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease or food allergy. Recent findings: This review discusses the recent findings pertaining to the functional regulation of these cells which may provide insight into novel therapies...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Daniel Grölz, Siegfried Hauch, Martin Schlumpberger, Kalle Guenther, Thorsten Voss, Markus Sprenger-Haussels, Uwe Oelmüller
Purpose of Review: Liquid biopsy analyses based on circulating cell-free nucleic acids, circulating tumor cells or other diseased cells from organs, and exosomes or other microvesicles in blood offer new means for non-invasive diagnostic applications. The main goal of this review is to explain the importance of preserving whole blood specimens after blood draw for use as liquid biopsies, and to summarize preservation solutions that are currently available. Recent Findings: Despite the great potential of liquid biopsies for diagnostics and disease management, besides non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), only a few liquid biopsy applications are fully implemented for routine in vitro diagnostic testing...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Veronique M Neumeister, Hartmut Juhl
Purpose of Review: Precision medicine promises patient tailored, individualized diagnosis and treatment of diseases and relies on clinical specimen integrity and accuracy of companion diagnostic testing. Therefore, pre-analytics, which are defined as the collection, processing, and storage of clinical specimens, are critically important to enable optimal diagnostics, molecular profiling, and clinical decision-making around harvested specimens. This review article discusses the impact of tumor pre-analytics on molecular pathology focusing on biospecimen protein expression and analysis...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Nancy Y Villa, Grant McFadden
Purpose of Review: This review discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, and the advances in the prevention or treatment of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) by exploiting adjunct virotherapy. In addition, nonviral adjunct therapeutic options for the prevention of GvHD in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are discussed. The role of oncolytic viruses to treat different HSCT-eligible hematological cancers is also considered and correlated with the issue of GvHD in the context of allo-HSCT...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Amy M Boddy, Weini Huang, Athena Aktipis
Purpose: In this paper, we provide an overview of a life history theory and how it applies to cancer evolution. Recent Findings: We review the literature on trade-offs in tumors, focusing on the trade-offs among cellular proliferation, survival, and motility. Trade-offs are critical natural constraints for almost all evolutionary processes. Many ecological studies show that trade-offs among these cellular functions maintain a genetic diversity. In addition, these trade-offs are not fixed, but rather can shift depending on the ecological circumstances in the microenvironment...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Caghan Kizil
Purpose of the Review: The purpose of this study is to review the current knowledge on the damage-induced molecular programs that underlie the regenerative ability in zebrafish brain. Recent Findings: Neural stem cells are the reservoir for new neurons during development and regeneration of the vertebrate brains. Pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases hamper neural stem cell plasticity and neurogenic outcome in humans, whereas adult zebrafish brain can enhance proliferation and neurogenic capacity of its neural stem cells despite the incipient pathology...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Lei Lu, Erika C Claud
Purpose of Review: Significant research reveals that the microbiome modulates perinatal and postnatal health. This review aims to examine mechanisms by which intrauterine infection, the epigenome, and microbiome specifically influence preterm infant health outcomes. Recent Findings: Intrauterine infection is a primary cause of preterm birth and can cause alterations in gene expression and epigenetic programming as well as postnatal inflammatory responses in the offspring...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Daniel R Bauer, Michael Otter, David R Chafin
Purpose of Review: Studying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tissue collection efforts...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Melanie Rodrigues, Geoffrey Gurtner
Purpose of Review: Macrophages alter their responses during the temporal stages of wound healing. During the inflammatory phase macrophages perform phagocytosis. During neovascularization macrophages activate angiogenesis. In the proliferation phase of wound healing, macrophages deposit extracellular matrix and during wound resolution macrophages phagocytize excessive cellular components. This review addresses how these changing phenotypes affect skin repair and disease. Recent Findings: Macrophages can determine the outcome of repair and can shift the normal wound healing response into fibrosis or chronic wounds...
December 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Elizabeth A Mills, Daniel Goldman
Purpose of review: Notch signaling is an important component of retinal progenitor cell maintenance and MG specification during development, and its manipulation may be critical for allowing MG to re-enter the cell cycle and regenerate neurons in adults. In mammals, MG respond to retinal injury by undergoing a gliotic response rather than a regenerative one. Understanding the complexities of Notch signaling may allow for strategies that enhance regeneration over gliosis. Recent findings: Notch signaling is regulated at multiple levels, and is interdependent with various other signaling pathways in both the receptor and ligand expressing cells...
December 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Melissa A Gilbert, Nancy B Spinner
Purpose of review: We review the genetics of the autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder, Alagille syndrome and provide a summary on how current functional models and emerging biotechnologies are equipped to guide scientists towards novel therapies. The importance of haploinsufficiency as a disease mechanism will be underscored throughout this discussion. Recent findings: Alagille syndrome, a human disorder affecting the liver, heart, vasculature, kidney, and other systems, is caused by mutations in the Notch signaling pathway ligand, Jagged1 ( JAG1 ) or the receptor, NOTCH2 ...
September 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
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