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Yuki Takeshita, Tomonori Waku, Peter W Wilson, Yoshimichi Hagiwara
The control of ice growth in ice slurry is important for many fields, including (a) the cooling of the brain during cardiac arrest, (b) the storage and transportation of fresh fish and fruits, and (c) the development of distributed air-conditioning systems. One of the promising methods for the control is to use a substance such as antifreeze protein. We have observed and report here growth states of ice particles in both quiescent and flowing aqueous solutions of winter flounder antifreeze proteins in mini-channels with a microscope...
February 18, 2019: Biomolecules
Ruixia Hou, Leigang Wu, Jin Wang, Zhilu Yang, Qiufen Tu, Xingcai Zhang, Nan Huang
Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been widely applied for saving the life of patients with coronary artery diseases (CADs). However, conventional polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which are widely applied for drug-eluting stents studies, have serious bulk erosion problems, like high local acidity and poor mechanical properties. Instead, we chose surface erosion polymer poly (1, 3-trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as a drug carrier in this study. Here, we fabricated and characterized a novel durable-polymer drug-eluting 316 L stainless steel (SS) stent, in which the inner surface was coated with a Ti⁻O film using the magnetron sputtering method to promote the growth of endothelial cells (ECs)...
February 18, 2019: Biomolecules
Mohd Aslam Yusuf, Brahma N Singh, Surya Sudheer, Ravindra N Kharwar, Saba Siddiqui, Ahmed M Abdel-Azeem, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Kavya Dashora, Vijai K Gupta
Chrysophanol is a unique anthraquinone having broad-spectrum therapeutic potential along with ecological importance. It is the first polyketide that has been reported to be biosynthesized in an organism-specific manner. The traditional Chinese and Korean medicinal systems provide evidence of the beneficial effects of chrysophanol on human health. The global distribution of chrysophanol encountered in two domains of life (bacteria and eukaryota) has motivated researchers to critically evaluate the properties of this compound...
February 18, 2019: Biomolecules
Ivan Yudushkin
Intracellular signaling pathways mediate the rapid response of cells to environmental cues. To control the fidelity of these responses, cells coordinate the activities of signaling enzymes with the strength, timing, and localization of the upstream stimuli. Protein kinase Akt links the PI3K-coupled receptors to cellular anabolic processes by phosphorylating multiple substrates. How the cells ensure that Akt activity remains proportional to upstream signals and control its substrate specificity is unclear. In this review, I examine how cell-autonomous and intrinsic allosteric mechanisms cooperate to ensure localized, context-specific signaling in the PI3K/Akt axis...
February 16, 2019: Biomolecules
Ren-Fang Zeng, Jing-Jing Zhou, Sheng-Rui Liu, Zhi-Meng Gan, Jin-Zhi Zhang, Chun-Gen Hu
SQUAMOSA-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors that play vital roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 15 SBP-box genes were identified and isolated from Citrus clementina ( CclSBPs ), where 10 of these genes were predicted to be putative targets of Citrus clementina microRNA156 (CclmiR156). The 15 CclSBP genes could be classified into six groups based on phylogenetic analysis, diverse intron⁻exon structure, and motif prediction, similar to the SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) gene family of Populus trichocarpa and Arabidopsis thaliana ...
February 14, 2019: Biomolecules
Sandi Brudar, Barbara Hribar-Lee
Amyloid fibrils, highly ordered protein aggregates, play an important role in the onset of several neurological disorders. Many studies have assessed amyloid fibril formation under specific solution conditions, but they all lack an important phenomena in biological solutions-buffer specific effects. We have focused on the formation of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) fibrils in aqueous solutions of different buffers in both acidic and basic pH range. By means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence measurements and CD spectroscopy, we have managed to show that fibrillization of HEWL is affected by buffer identity (glycine, TRIS, phosphate, KCl-HCl, cacodylate, HEPES, acetate), solution pH, sample incubation (agitated vs...
February 14, 2019: Biomolecules
Danial Efendy Goon, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Normala Ab Latip, Sharaniza Ab Rahim, Musalmah Mazlan
Palm oil is natural oil packed with important compounds and fatty acids ready to be exploited in lipid-based formulations and drug delivery. Palm oil and palm kernel oil contain long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides, respectively, including phytonutrients such as tocotrienol, tocopherol and carotenes. The exploitation of these compounds in a lipid-based formulation would be able to address hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, poor bioavailability and low water-solubility of many current drugs. The utilisation of palm oil as part of the drug delivery system seemed to improve the bioavailability and solubility of the drug, stabilising emulsification of formulation between emulsifier and surfactant, promoting enhanced drug permeability and performance, as well as extending the shelf-life of the drug...
February 13, 2019: Biomolecules
Christof Hannesschlaeger, Thomas Barta, Hana Pechova, Peter Pohl
The assessment of weak acid membrane permeability ( P m ) frequently involves large unilamellar vesicles. It relies on measurements of the intravesicular pH drop, ΔpHin , in response to a sudden augmentation of external acid concentration. However, ΔpHin may be primarily governed by non-instantaneous protonation and deprotonation reactions of (i) the acid itself, (ii) the buffer molecules, and (iii) the fluorescent pH reporter dye. Moreover, buffer concentration and acid gradient also serve as determinants of ΔpHin , as we show here...
February 13, 2019: Biomolecules
Pelin Uysal, Hafize Uzun
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. Here, we examined the relationship between circulating serpina3g, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and -2, respectively) and severity of COPD. We included 150 stable COPD patients and 35 control subjects in the study. The COPD patients were classified into four groups (I, II, III, and IV), according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines based on the severity of symptoms and the exacerbation risk...
February 13, 2019: Biomolecules
Mariana Osswald, A Filipa Santos, Eurico Morais-de-Sá
Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells are a simple and powerful system commonly used in cell biology because they are well suited for high resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion. However, understanding dynamic processes, such as cell division, also requires methodology to interfere with protein function with high spatiotemporal control. In this research study, we report the adaptation of an optogenetic tool to Drosophila S2 cells. Light-activated reversible inhibition by assembled trap (LARIAT) relies on the rapid light-dependent heterodimerization between cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and cryptochrome-interacting bHLH 1 (CIB1) to form large protein clusters...
February 12, 2019: Biomolecules
Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Blanquart, Valérie Héroguez
Fast clearance, metabolism, and systemic toxicity are major limits for the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) present these defects, despite displaying promising anti-tumor properties on tumor cells in vitro and in in vivo models of cancer. The specific delivery of anti-cancer drugs into the tumor should improve their clinical benefit by limiting systemic toxicity and by increasing the anti-tumor effect. This paper deals with the synthesis of the polymeric nanoparticle platform, which was produced by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP), able to release anti-cancer drugs in dispersion, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, into mesothelioma tumors...
February 12, 2019: Biomolecules
Andrzej Galat
In this technical note, we describe analyses of more than 15,000 sequences of FK506-binding proteins (FKBP) and cyclophilins, also known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases). We have developed a novel way of displaying relative changes of amino acid (AA)-residues at a given sequence position by using heat-maps. This type of representation allows simultaneous estimation of conservation level in a given sequence position in the entire group of functionally-related paralogues (multigene family of proteins)...
February 11, 2019: Biomolecules
Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva, Muriel Primon-Barros, Alexandre José Macedo, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto
New medicines for the treatment of bacterial biofilm formation are required. For thisreason, this study shows the in vitro activity of betulinic acid (BA), ursolic acid (UA) and their twentyderivatives against planktonic and biofilm cells (gram-positive bacterial pathogens: Enterococcusfaecalis, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i>). We evaluated the antibiofilm activity(through the crystal violet method), as well as the antibacterial activity via absorbance (OD<sub>600</sub>) atconcentrations of 5, 25 and 100 μM...
February 11, 2019: Biomolecules
Dmitry Karateev, Natalia Belokoneva
Physician awareness and perceptions towards biosimilars are important factors in their adoption to clinical practice. Our objectives were to assess levels of knowledge and attitudes towards biosimilars and key policies on their use among Russian physicians, define the level of interest in new information on biosimilars, and determine what evidence drives treatment decisions in Russia. Physicians with awareness of biologics across different specialties and regions of Russia completed an online survey. A Likert and other rating scales were used to collect opinions, which were summarized descriptively...
February 11, 2019: Biomolecules
María L Del Prado-Audelo, Isaac H Caballero-Florán, Jorge A Meza-Toledo, Néstor Mendoza-Muñoz, Maykel González-Torres, Benjamín Florán, Hernán Cortés, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez
Curcumin is a polyphenol that is obtained from Curcuma longa and used in various areas, such as food and textiles. Curcumin has important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that allow it to be applied as treatment for several emerging pathologies. Remarkably, there are an elevated number of publications deriving from the terms "curcumin" and "curcumin brain diseases", which highlights the increasing impact of this polyphenol and the high number of study groups investigating their therapeutic actions...
February 8, 2019: Biomolecules
Margarida Moura, Carlos Conde
Mitosis requires extensive rearrangement of cellular architecture and of subcellular structures so that replicated chromosomes can bind correctly to spindle microtubules and segregate towards opposite poles. This process originates two new daughter nuclei with equal genetic content and relies on highly-dynamic and tightly regulated phosphorylation of numerous cell cycle proteins. A burst in protein phosphorylation orchestrated by several conserved kinases occurs as cells go into and progress through mitosis...
February 7, 2019: Biomolecules
Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Gabriel Rinaldi, Fátima Gärtner, José Manuel Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Treatment for schistosomiasis with praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against the parasite, by itself is not capable to counteract infection-associated disease lesions including hepatic fibrosis. There is a pressing need for novel therapies. Due to their biological properties, antioxidant biomolecules might be useful in treating and reverting associated pathological sequelae. Here, we investigated a novel therapy approach based on a combination of anthelmintic drugs with antioxidant biomolecules...
February 5, 2019: Biomolecules
Francesco Milano, Francesca Mussi, Silvia Fornaciari, Meltem Altunoz, Luca Forti, Laura Arru, Annamaria Buschini
Fruits and vegetables are a good source of potentially biologically active compounds. Their regular consumption in the human diet can help reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Plants produce additional chemical substances when subject to abiotic stress or infected by microorganisms. The phytochemical profile of spinach leaves ( Spinacia oleracea L.), which is a vegetable with widely recognized health-promoting activity, has been affected by applying root hypoxic and re-oxygenation stress during plant growth...
February 4, 2019: Biomolecules
Nadia R Zgajnar, Sonia A De Leo, Cecilia M Lotufo, Alejandra G Erlejman, Graciela Piwien Pilipuk, Mario D Galigniana
Immunophilins are a family of proteins whose signature domain is the peptidylprolyl-isomerase domain. High molecular weight immunophilins are characterized by the additional presence of tetratricopeptide-repeats (TPR) through which they bind to the 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), and via this chaperone, immunophilins contribute to the regulation of the biological functions of several client-proteins. Among these Hsp90-binding immunophilins, there are two highly homologous members named FKBP51 and FKBP52 (FK506-binding protein of 51-kDa and 52-kDa, respectively) that were first characterized as components of the Hsp90-based heterocomplex associated to steroid receptors...
February 1, 2019: Biomolecules
Seher Çatalkaya Demir, Erdem Demir, Sibel Çatalkaya
Background . Though several studies about prevalence, etiology, clinical characteristics, preceding events, clinical management, and outcome of Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) exist, the current knowledge of TTC remains limited. Objective . In 2006, TTC was classified among the acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. On the basis of pathophysiological implications, we analyzed whether the presence of ST-segment elevation in lead -aVR (i.e., ST-segment depression in aVR) and the simultaneous absence of ST-segment elevation in lead V1 allow a reliable differentiation of TTC from acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 30, 2019: Biomolecules
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