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Noorul Wahab, Asifullah Khan, Yeon Soo Lee
Segmentation and detection of mitotic nuclei is a challenging task. To address this problem, a Transfer Learning based fast and accurate system is proposed. To give the classifier a balanced dataset, this work exploits the concept of Transfer Learning by first using a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) for segmentation, and then another Hybrid-CNN (with Weights Transfer and custom layers) for classification of mitoses. First, mitotic nuclei are automatically annotated, based on the ground truth centroids...
February 5, 2019: Microscopy
Taiga Okumura, Noriko Yamaguchi, Terumi Dohi, Kazuki Iijima, Toshihiro Kogure
Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), consisting substantially of silicate glass, were released to the environment during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Since the CsMPs were formed inside the damaged reactors during the accident, we investigate the inner structures of several CsMPs by transmission electron microscopy to understand the events within the reactors. Elemental mapping of the CsMPs shows a distinct radial distribution of Cs with a higher concentration near the surface of the CsMPs, implying that Cs was in a gaseous state in the reactor atmosphere and diffused into the glass matrix after formation of the glass particles...
February 5, 2019: Microscopy
Faryal Ijaz, Koji Ikegami
The cilium is a tiny organelle, with a length of 1-10 μm and a diameter of ~200 nm, that projects from the surface of many cells and functions to generate fluid flow and/or sense extracellular signals from the environment. Abnormalities in cilia may cause a broad spectrum of disease, i.e. the so-called ciliopathies. Multiple imaging approaches have been implemented to understand the structure, motion and function of the tiny cilium. In this review, we focus on the microscopic observations and analyses of the dynamic behaviors of both motile cilia and primary cilium...
January 31, 2019: Microscopy
Tetsuji Kodama, Nobuyuki Osakabe
The correlation of electron counts from two detectors illuminated by a coherent electron beam is analyzed by associating the path of the electron beam through the lenses with the direct Coulomb interaction between two individual electrons. This is shown to lead to a full statistical description of the electron counts. The dominant contribution to the correlation is found to be due to the trajectory displacement caused by the repulsive Coulomb interaction between the first anode and the cathode tip, and the correlation of electron counts is found to depend on the amount of defocusing on the shift of the virtual source for two electrons within the correlation time...
January 22, 2019: Microscopy
Masayuki Sasaki, Yu Yamashita, Hiroyuki Matsui, Yoshifumi Oshima, Jun Takeya
Thin films of the polymeric semiconductor 2,5-bis (3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno (3,2-b) thiophene obtained by compression with a glass blade exhibit high-carrier mobility. This enhanced performance has been attributed to the uniaxial alignment of the polymer molecules, although such alignment has not yet been demonstrated experimentally. In the present study, the local alignment of the polymer was estimated using transmission electron diffraction. The diffraction spots corresponding to π-π stacking layers (along the b-axis) showed an arc-like intensity distribution along with angles of 11...
January 4, 2019: Microscopy
Tomohiro Haruta, Yuta Ikeda, Yuji Konyuba, Tomohisa Fukuda, Hideo Nishioka
In this study, we investigated the optical properties of a silicon nitride (SiN) film. The thin SiN film (30 nm thick) exhibited good light transmittance and little autofluorescence and could be used as a microscope slide for optical microscopy (OM). In addition, we developed a novel correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) that combines OM with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using an SiN thin film. In this system, CLEM was performed by replacing a detachable retainer with a holder for TEM and an adaptor for OM...
January 4, 2019: Microscopy
Shunsuke Muto, Shigeo Arai, Tetsuo Higuchi, Koji Orita, Shigemasa Ohta, Hiromochi Tanaka, Takuya Suganuma, Masaya Ibe, Hirohito Hirata
We introduce herein a combined environmental high-voltage electron microscope and a quadrupole mass spectrometer to detect product gas species associated with chemical reactions occurring in the microscope, which allows new operando experiments of, for instance, observing catalytic reactions by concurrent high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation. We demonstrate the preliminary results of redox reactions, where the product gas species are unambiguously detected, associated with the expected structural transformations observed with TEM...
December 20, 2018: Microscopy
Masamitsu Wada
The haploid gametophyte generation of ferns is an excellent experimental material for cell biology studies because of its simple structure and high sensitivity to light. Each step of the developmental process, such as cell growth, cell cycle and the direction of cell division, is controlled, step by step, by light, unlike what happens in complex seed plant tissues. To perform analyses at the cell or organelle level, we have developed special tools, instruments and techniques, such as a cuvette suitable for repeated centrifugation in particular directions, microbeam irradiators for partial cell irradiation and single-cell ligation technique to create enucleated cells...
December 20, 2018: Microscopy
Shuhei Ota, Shigeyuki Kawano
Phycology has developed alongside light and electron microscopy techniques. Since the 1950s, progress in the field has accelerated dramatically with the advent of electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopes can only acquire imaging data on a 2D plane. Currently, many of the life sciences are seeking to obtain 3D images with electron microscopy for the accurate interpretation of subcellular dynamics. Three-dimensional reconstruction using serial sections is a method that can cover relatively large cells or tissues without requiring special equipment...
December 20, 2018: Microscopy
Yasuko Kaneko, Farhana Sharmin, Nayeema Bulbul, Kimie Atsuzawa
High-pressure frozen soybean root nodules were fractured and backscattered electron images were obtained from uncoated samples in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope equipped with a cryo-transfer system. Structures of infected cells were well preserved: numerous symbiosomes, as well as nuclei, plastids and mitochondria were observed without ice crystal damage. After appropriate sublimation of water, bacteria included in symbiosomes were visualized. Membrane accumulation near nuclei, and vesicles and tubular membranes, which possibly contribute to symbiosome membrane formation, could be observed in a near native state...
December 12, 2018: Microscopy
Kohei Aso, Koji Shigematsu, Tomokazu Yamamoto, Syo Matsumura
In situ sequential high-resolution observations were performed on gold nanorods under near-infra-red pulsed laser irradiation using a high-voltage electron microscope attached to a pulsed laser illumination system. The original nanorods were single crystals; the longer axes were oriented along [001]. Under laser light irradiation with λ = 1064 nm with an average intensity per pulse of 980 or 490 J/m2, the shape of the nanorods changed from rod to barrel surrounded by the {111} and {001} facets, while the original single-crystalline structure was maintained...
December 12, 2018: Microscopy
Raymond Bing Quan Ang, Humaira Nisar, Muhammad Burhan Khan, Chi-Yi Tsai
Activated sludge (AS) is a biological treatment process that is employed in wastewater treatment plants. Filamentous bacteria in AS plays an important role in the settling ability of the sludge. Proper settling of the sludge is essential for normal functionality of the wastewater plants, where filamentous bulking is always a persistent problem preventing sludge from settling. The performance of AS plants is conventionally monitored by physico-chemical procedures. An alternative way of monitoring the AS in wastewater treatment process is to use image processing and analysis...
November 29, 2018: Microscopy
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Microscopy
Tatsuaki Goh
Lateral roots comprise the majority of the branching root system and are important for acquiring nutrients and water from soil in addition to providing anchorage. Lateral roots develop post-embryonically from existing root parts and originate from a subset of specified pericycle cells (lateral root founder cells) located deep inside roots. Small numbers of these specified pericycle cells undergo several rounds of cell division to create a dome-shaped primordium, which eventually organizes a meristem, an essential region for plant growth with active cell division, and emerges from its parental root as a lateral root...
November 23, 2018: Microscopy
Yamato Yoshida, Yuko Mogi
Plastids and mitochondria are thought to have originated from free-living cyanobacterial and alpha-proteobacterial ancestors, respectively, via endosymbiosis. Their evolutionary origins dictate that these organelles do not multiply de novo but through the division of pre-existing plastids and mitochondria. Over the past three decades, studies have shown that plastid and mitochondrial division are performed by contractile ring-shaped structures, broadly termed the plastid and mitochondrial-division machineries...
November 22, 2018: Microscopy
Marisa S Otegui, Jannice G Pennington
Electron tomography (ET) approaches are based on the imaging of a biological specimen at different tilt angles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ET can be applied to both plastic-embedded and frozen samples. Technological advancements in TEM, direct electron detection, automated image collection, and imaging processing algorithms allow for 2-7-nm scale axial resolution in tomographic reconstructions of cells and organelles. In this review, we discussed the application of ET in plant cell biology and new opportunities for imaging plant cells by cryo-ET and other 3D electron microscopy approaches...
November 17, 2018: Microscopy
Satoshi Anada, Kazuo Yamamoto, Hirokazu Sasaki, Naoya Shibata, Miko Matsumoto, Yujin Hori, Kouhei Kinugawa, Akihiro Imamura, Tsukasa Hirayama
The innate electric potentials in biased p- and n-type GaAs compound semiconductors and the built-in potential were successfully measured with high accuracy and precision by applying in situ phase-shifting electron holography to a wedge-shaped GaAs specimen. A cryo-focused-ion-beam system was used to prepare the 35°-wedge-shaped specimen with smooth surfaces for a precise measurement. The specimen was biased in a transmission electron microscope, and holograms with high-contrast interference fringes were recorded for the phase-shifting method...
November 17, 2018: Microscopy
Daisuke Yamauchi, Aki Fukuda, Tomonori Nakai, Ichirou Karahara, Miyuki Takeuchi, Daisuke Tamaoki, Tetsuya Tsuda, Katsuhiko Tsunashima, Susumu Kuwabata, Masato Hoshino, Kentaro Uesugi, Akihisa Takeuchi, Yoshio Suzuki, Yoshinobu Mineyuki
X-ray micro-CT is one of the most useful techniques to examine 3D cellular architecture inside dry seeds. However, the examination of imbibed seeds is difficult because immersion in water causes a decline in the image quality. Here, we examined the use of ionic liquids for specimen preparation of chemically fixed imbibed seeds of Arabidopsis. We found that treatment with high concentrations of ionic liquids after osmium tetroxide fixation helped not only to prevent the structural damage caused by seed shrinkage, but also to preserve the image quality...
November 13, 2018: Microscopy
Keiichi Moriguchi, Takamichi Jogahara, Senichi Oda, Masaki Honda
A 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-based method was used to detect the localization of endogenous peroxidase activity in Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) parotid gland acinar cells. The tissue had previously been resin-embedded in gelatin capsules for routine electron microscopic observations and thus pre-incubation for endogenous peroxidase analysis was not possible. We attempted to demonstrate the relationship between secretory granules (SGs) in resin ultrathin sections of Indian rhinoceros parotid gland acinar cells and endogenous peroxidase activity...
October 31, 2018: Microscopy
Yuka Sato, Shigeo Okabe
Circuit-level alternations in patients of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under active investigation and detailed characterization of synapse morphology in ASD model mice should be informative. We utilized focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to obtain three-dimensional images of synapses in the layer 2/3 of the somatosensory cortex from a mouse model for ASD with human 15q11-13 chromosomal duplication (15q dup mice). We found a trend of higher spine density and a higher fraction of astrocytic contact with both spine and shaft synapses in 15q dup mice...
October 29, 2018: Microscopy
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