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Pathogens and Disease

Pavithra Jayasundara, David G Regan, Kate L Seib, Duleepa Jayasundara, James G Wood
The bacterial species Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) has evolved to replicate effectively and exclusively in human epithelia, with its survival dependent on complex interactions between bacteria, host cells and antimicrobial agents. A better understanding of these interactions is needed to inform development of new approaches to gonorrhoea treatment and prevention but empirical studies have proven difficult, suggesting a role for mathematical modelling. Here we describe an in-host model of progression of untreated male symptomatic urethral infection, including NG growth and interactions with epithelial cells and neutrophils, informed by in vivo and in vitro studies...
February 16, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Mohd M Khan, Supaksorn Chattagul, Bao Q Tran, Jeffrey A Freiberg, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar, Mark E Shirtliff, Rasana W Sermswan, Robert K Ernst, David R Goodlett
Melioidosis associated with opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei imparts a huge medical burden in Southeast Asia and Australia. At present there is no available human vaccine that protects against B. pseudomallei infection and antibiotic treatments are limited particularly for drug-resistant strains and bacteria in biofilm forms. Biofilm forming bacteria exhibit phenotypic features drastically different to their planktonic states, often exhibiting a diminished response to antimicrobial therapies...
February 13, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Jia-Hui Deng, Han-Yu Chen, Chun Huang, Jia-Min Yan, Zhinan Yin, Xiao-Lian Zhang, Qin Pan
Macrophages are the primary host target cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). As a subunit of immunoregulatory cytokines IL-27 and IL-35, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) has typically been explored as the secreted form and assessed in terms of its effects triggered by extracellular EBI3. However, little is known about intracellular EBI3 function. In the current study, we report that EBI3 production by macrophages is elevated in TB patients. We further demonstrate that increased EBI3 accumulates in virulent M...
February 11, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Stephan T Kudlacek, Stefan W Metz
The four DENV serotypes are mosquito-borne pathogens that belong to the Flavivirus genus. These viruses present a major global health burden, being endemic in over 120 countries, causing ∼390 million reported infections yearly, with clinical symptoms ranging from mild fever to severe and potentially fatal hemorrhagic syndromes. Development of a safe and efficacious DENV vaccine is challenging because of the need to induce immunity against all 4 serotypes simultaneously, as immunity against one serotype can potentially enhance disease caused by a heterotypic secondary infection...
February 6, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Cliff C Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Fei-Ju Li, Lora Starrs, Gaetan Burgio
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen with growing clinical significance. A. baumannii has an exceptional ability to rapidly develop drug resistance and to adhere to abiotic surfaces, including medical equipment, significantly promoting bacterial spread and also limiting our ability to control A. baumannii infections. Consequently, A. baumannii is frequently responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia in clinical settings. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy, understanding host-pathogen interactions during A...
January 17, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Jayedul Hassan, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Noritoshi Hatanaka, Kentaro Okuno, Phuong Hoai Hoang, Akira Nagita, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
This study was aimed to develop a multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for the detection of Escherichia coli attaching and effacing (eae), Shiga toxin (stx) and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes encoding important virulence factors of diarrheagenic E. coli such as EPEC and STEC, and Escherichia albertii. For this purpose, the m-PCR was designed to detect eae, all the subtypes of stx (stx1, stx2a-g except stx2f) and cdt (I-V) genes. The m-PCR was validated with 58 and 55 target-gene positive and negative strains of different sources, respectively...
January 17, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Joana Castro, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Mucosal surfaces of the female reproductive tract contain a variety of antimicrobial components that provide the first line of defense against bacteria involved in the development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Microbiological analysis of BV has shown Gardnerella vaginalis to be a prominent species in BV development. However, G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV. Over the last decade, phenotypic and genotypic studies have demonstrated the existence of strain variants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if the major components of the vaginal immune response, specifically lysozyme, lactoferrin, and β-defensin 2, differently affected virulence traits of G...
January 16, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Hui Li, Yi-Feng Luo, Yong-Sheng Wang, Yong-Long Xiao, Hou-Rong Cai, Can-Mao Xie
We presume that severe secondary PA infection can lead to cellular senescence in lung tissue and thus contribute to high mortality. We established a two-hit mouse model using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by sublethal PA lung infection. In lung tissue, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, elevated lung injury and augmented cellular senescence was shown in mice with CLP followed by sublethal PA infection, and these observations reached a higher rank when higher (H) loads PA (PAO1) were administered to CLP mice (CLP + PAO1-H)...
January 14, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Jasweer Kaur, Vikash Kumar, Amrit Pal Singh, Vineeta Singh, Anjali Bisht, Taru Dube, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Ankita Behl, Prakash Chandra Mishra, Rachna Hora
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) proteins exported to infected erythrocytes are key effectors of malaria pathogenesis. These include the PfEMP1 (Pf erythrocyte membrane protein 1) protein family that affects malaria related mortality through cytoadhesion and parasite immune evasion. Parasites also induce membranous structures called Maurer's clefts (MC) in infected erythrocytes to compensate lack of host protein synthetic and export machinery. PfEMP1 export is mediated by a myriad of proteins including Pf skeleton binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) and PF70, a hypothetical 16 family member...
December 20, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Michel de Jesús Aceves-Sánchez, Crystal Shanley, Ian Orme, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
The guinea pig has proven to be a reliable model for testing of vaccine candidates against tuberculosis (TB) because of its capacity to produce human-like disease associated to primary TB, thus providing a more stringent test of the ability of a vaccine to prevent disease and deaths. Here, the BCGΔBCG1419c vaccine candidate, which previously has been shown to provide protection in mice, was tested in a guinea pig model. We found that this vaccine candidate was as effective as parental BCG in reducing M. tuberculosis H37Rv replication in lungs, and significantly reducing hematogenous spread to spleen at 60 days post-infection in comparison to BCG...
November 30, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Anette Schulz, Olga D Chuquimia, Haris Antypas, Svava E Steiner, Ruben M Sandoval, George A Tanner, Bruce A Molitoris, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors, Keira Melican
Bacterial infection of the kidney leads to a rapid cascade of host protective responses, many of which are still poorly understood. We have previously shown that following kidney infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a rapid vascular coagulation is initiated in local perivascular capillaries that protect the host from progressing from a local infection to systemic sepsis. The signaling mechanisms behind this response have not however been described. In this study we use a number of in vitro and in vivo techniques, including intravital microscopy, to identify two previously unrecognized components influencing this protective coagulation response...
November 26, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
McDonough Kathleen, Brennan Patrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sören Krüger, Emma Eichler, Lea Strobel, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir, Kay O Johswich
The complement system is the primary innate immune determinant protecting against invasive diseases caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (Nme, meningococcus), as evidenced by the extreme susceptibility of individuals with complement deficiencies. In contrast, the role of phagocytes such as neutrophils is much less well understood, although they are recruited in great numbers to the cerebrospinal fluid during meningococcal meningitis. Here, we consider the interaction of Nme with primary human neutrophils using either purified cells or a whole blood model of infection...
November 21, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Alexis Voegele, Darragh P O'Brien, Orso Subrini, Nicolas Sapay, Sara E Cannella, Véronique Yvette Ntsogo Enguéné, Audrey Hessel, Johanna Karst, Véronique Hourdel, Ana Cristina Sotomayor Perez, Marilyne Davi, Rémi Veneziano, Joel Chopineau, Patrice Vachette, Dominique Durand, Sébastien Brier, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is a multi-domain protein secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is involved in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis. CyaA is produced and acylated in the bacteria, and secreted via a dedicated secretion system. The cell intoxication process involves a unique mechanism of transport of the CyaA toxin catalytic domain (ACD) across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Once translocated, ACD binds to and is activated by calmodulin and produces high amounts of cAMP, subverting the physiology of eukaryotic cells...
November 18, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Melaine Delcroix, Kartoosh Heydari, Ren Dodge, Lee W Riley
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is characterized by an inflammatory response resulting in the formation of granulomas. These tight aggregates of immune cells play an important role in bacterial containment and in the eventual outcome of infection. Monocytes are a major component of the early immune response to Mtb and contribute to the cellular matrix of the newly forming granuloma. Therefore, defining which monocyte subset is the target of mycobacterial infection is critical. Here, we describe a flow-cytometry-based assay to analyze infectivity in vitro of monocyte subsets by Mycobacterium bovis BCG before granuloma formation...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Nicole Borel, Hanna Marti, Andreas Pospischil, Theresa Pesch, Barbara Prähauser, Sabina Wunderlin, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Nicola Low, Renata Flury
Chlamydia trachomatis is frequently detected in anorectal specimens from men and women. A recent hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis is a natural commensal organism asymptomatically colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we investigated the presence of chlamydial DNA and antigen in intestinal biopsy samples taken during colonoscopy. Cases (n = 32) were patients whose histopathology reports included the term 'chlamydia', suggesting a possible history of infection. Control patients (n = 234) did not have chlamydia mentioned in their histopathology report and all tested negative for Chlamydiaceae DNA by 23S ribosomal RNA-based real-time PCR...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Kavindra V Singh, Kenneth L Pinkston, Peng Gao, Barrett R Harvey, Barbara E Murray
Ace (Adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis) is a cell-wall anchored protein that is expressed conditionally and is important for virulence in a rat infective endocarditis (IE) model. Previously, we showed that rats immunized with the collagen binding domain of Ace (domain A), or administered anti-Ace domain A polyclonal antibody, were less susceptible to E. faecalis endocarditis than sham immunized controls. In this work, we demonstrated that a sub nanomolar monoclonal antibody (mAb), anti-Ace mAb70, significantly diminished E...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Andreas Kühbacher, Karel Novy, Juan J Quereda, Martin Sachse, Maryse Moya-Nilges, Bernd Wollscheid, Pascale Cossart, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that invades epithelial cells by activating host signaling cascades which promote bacterial engulfment within a phagosome. The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), which is required for bacteria phagosomal escape, has also been associated with the activation of several signaling pathways when secreted by extracellular bacteria, including Ca2+ influx and promotion of L. monocytogenes entry. Quantitative host surfaceome analysis revealed significant quantitative remodeling of a defined set of cell surface glycoproteins upon LLO treatment, including a subset previously identified to play a role in the L...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Mathilde Gondard, Lorraine Michelet, Athinna Nisavanh, Elodie Devillers, Sabine Delannoy, Patrick Fach, Anna Aspan, Karin Ullman, Jan Chirico, Bernd Hoffmann, Fimme Jan van der Wal, Aline de Koeijer, Conny van Solt-Smits, Seta Jahfari, Hein Sprong, Karen L Mansfield, Anthony R Fooks, Kirstine Klitgaard, Rene Bødker, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are one of the principal arthropod vectors of human and animal infectious diseases. Whereas the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in Europe is well studied, there is less information available on the prevalence of the other tick-borne viruses (TBVs) existing worldwide. The aim of this study was to improve the epidemiological survey tools of TBVs by the development of an efficient high-throughput test to screen a wide range of viruses in ticks.In this study, we developed a new high-throughput virus-detection assay based on parallel real-time PCRs on a microfluidic system, and used it to perform a large scale epidemiological survey screening for the presence of 21 TBVs in 18,135 nymphs of I...
November 13, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
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