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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Lyndsay S Baines, David J Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Padmamohan J Kurup, Seif Al-Abri, Salim Al-Mahrooqi, Amina Al-Jardani, Shyam Bawikar, Bader Al-Rawahi, Idris Al-Abaidani
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the epidemiology of meningitis cases admitted to hospitals in Oman and to identify any changing microbial patterns from the introduction of the new vaccines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of meningitis reported through a national surveillance system. Meningitis is a notifiable disease. RESULTS: Of a total of 581 cases of meningitis from the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2013, 15% (88) were confirmed to be bacterial in origin and 7...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Abu S Abdullah, Stephan Gaehde, Tim Bickmore
Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) offer a new means to support smokers as a virtual coach and motivate them to quit smoking. In this study we assess the feasibility and acceptability of an ECA to support quit smoking ("aka ECA-Q"). ECA-Q, a 14-days program, delivered through Tablet computers, interacts with participants with supporting messages for quit smoking and motivates them to set a quit date. Study participants ( n = 6) were Veterans receiving medical care at Boston VA Healthcare System who responded to an open advertisement...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Rakesh Yadav, Aastha Saini, Jureka Mankotia, Rajiv Khaneja, Priyanka Agarwal, Sunil Sethi
Rapid detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important for the successful treatment of tuberculosis. Fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside resistance detection by molecular methods becomes more complex due to cross resistance among them. Thus, we aimed to determine cross-resistance and mutations in resistance genes for these drugs. A total of 336 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases received in Mycobacteriology laboratory were screened for phenotypic drug sensitivity testing for second-line drugs, i...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Fatemeh Soleymani, Forouzan Taheri, Elizabeth Roughead, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Mohammad Abdollahi
Antidepressant prescribing patterns have changed globally over the past few years, with conventional drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors being replaced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and novel antidepressants. The objective of this study was to assess antidepressant utilization in Iran from 2006 to 2013 and to show Iran's situation in antidepressant consumption compared with other countries. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using prescription claims data from Iranian insurance agencies...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Hatem Othman Qutub, Abdelaziz Smiah Matani, Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Early mobilization (EM) is practiced for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in many hospitals in the Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia. Respiratory care professionals' knowledge about using EM was, therefore, surveyed and investigated to improve and update its practice and ultimately to develop related regulations and policies. A survey including 156 respiratory care professionals was conducted using a validated questionnaire. The focus was on collecting information on participants' relevant backgrounds and on proper use of EM...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Syed Manzoor Kadri, Saleem Ur Rehman, Kausar Rehana, Despoina-Rafailia Benetou, Dar Farooz Ahmad, Afshan Abdullah, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Waterborne diseases, such as hepatitis A and E, are a major public health concern in most developing countries, indicating the need for proper outbreak prevention, surveillance, and timely management. This study presents data regarding the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A and E outbreaks as well as water quality in Kashmir, India, during 2015-2017. Hepatitis outbreaks were initially investigated by rapid response teams, under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme. Suspected cases were further evaluated by blood sampling to confirm the disease along with water sampling evaluation...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Mohanad Faris Abdulhameed, Ian Duncan Robertson, Suzan Ali Al-Azizz, Ihab Habib
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognised worldwide as a neglected disease of public health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to describe, using a questionnaire survey, the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and practices of patients with CE from Basrah Province, Iraq. We interviewed 50 patients, 31 female and 19 male, of whom, 74% originated from rural areas. Approximately half (48%) of the participants reported slaughtering livestock at home for their families' consumption; 78% indicated the presence of a large number of stray dogs roaming freely about their village; 86% reported that they never boiled water prior to drinking it; and 26% reported not washing vegetables prior to eating them...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Forozan H Nezhad, Khojasteh H Nezhad, Parastoo M Choghakabodi, Bijan Keikhaei
This prospective study assessed the prevalence and genetic analysis of α - and β -thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Southwest Iran. Hematological indices were measured in 17,581 couples living in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran. Individuals with mean corpuscular volume <80, mean corpuscular hemoglobin <27, hemoglobin A2 ≥3/5 were considered as β -thalassemia traits. Prevalence of minor β -thalassemia, α -thalassemia, SCA, iron deficiency anemia, and silent thalassemia were respectively identified in 995 (5...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Hoda Jradi, Zuhaa Alharbi, Yasmeen Mohammad
Self-rated health (SRH) is an essential global measure of general health and quality of life, and a predictor of the mortality and morbidity of populations. We assessed the SRH and identified associated factors among women in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, using a cross-sectional survey conducted on a sample of women aged 18 years and older. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that are significantly associated with SRH. Overall, 36.6% ( n = 329) of participating women reported poor SRH...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
K E Mues, M Klein, D G Kleinbaum, W D Flanders, L M Fox
Episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADL) are a recurrent clinical aspect of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and a risk factor for progression of lymphedema. Inter-digital entry lesions, often found on the web spaces between the toes of those suffering from lymphedema, have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of ADL episodes. Use of antifungal cream on lesions is often promoted as a critical component of lymphedema management. Our objective was to estimate the observed effect of antifungal cream use on ADL episodes according to treatment regimen among a cohort of lymphedema patients enrolled in a morbidity management program...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Drake G LeBrun, Julius Del Rosario, John D Kelly, Sherry M Wren, David A Spiegel, Nyengo Mkandawire, Richard A Gosselin, Adam L Kushner
The extent to which sports injuries contribute to the burden of injury among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is unknown. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of sports injuries among adolescents in Africa. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-Based Student Health surveys were used to estimate the annual number of African adolescents sustaining sports injuries. Gender-stratified injury rates were calculated and applied to every African country's adolescent population to estimate country-specific and continent-wide injury totals...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
B N Ogunro, B O Olugasa, E J Verschoor, A O Olarinmoye, I Theyse, H Niphuis
Ebola viruses (family: Filoviridae ) are the cause of Ebola virus disease (EVD), a highly fatal illness characterised by haemorrhagic fever syndrome in both humans and non-human primates (NHPs). West Africa was the epicentre of the 2013-2015 EVD epidemic which caused the death of over 11,000 people, including eight casualties in southern Nigeria. Antibodies to filoviruses have been detected among NHPs in some countries, but there is no documented evidence of exposures to filoviruses among NHPs in Nigeria. From August 2015 to February 2017, a total of 142 serum samples were obtained from individual captive and wild animals, belonging to 11 NHP species, in southern Nigeria, and screened for species-specific antibodies to filoviruses belonging to the species; Zaire ebolavirus [Ebola virus (EBOV)], Sudan ebolavirus [Sudan virus (SUDV)], and Marburg marburgvirus [Ravn virus (RAVV)]-using a modified filovirus species-specific ELISA technique...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Saruna Ghimire, Devendra Raj Singh, Dhirendra Nath, Eva M Jeffers, Maheshor Kaphle
The objective of this study is to assess whether adult children's migration is associated with overall well-being of left-behind elderly parents in Nepal. A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted among 260 community-dwelling elderly residents of Krishnapur municipality, Nepal. Binary logistic regression was used to identify whether migration of adult children was associated with elderly parent's self-reported chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, perceived loneliness and social support. More than half of the study household (51...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
M H Shaheen, M I Siddiqui, H A Jokhdar, A Hassan-Hussein, M A Garout, S M Hafiz, M M Alshareef, A M Falemban, A A Neveen, A A Nermeen
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major public health problem and one of the commonest reasons for visiting primary health care centers (PHC). In developing countries, seventy-five percent of the cases are treated with antibiotics, although the majority are caused by viral infection. Our aim was to observe the pattern of physician practices with respect to ARI, in comparison to WHO protocols and to provide recommendations for health promotion enhancement. The study was conducted in Makkah PHC centers, for 2 months...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Reihaneh Hosseini Fard, Raziyeh Hosseini Fard, Mohammad Moradi, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination of cell phone in dental and engineering schools and also investigating the effect of an antibacterial spray. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A questionnaire was completed by participants, including the pattern of using mobile phones and their disinfection. The number of participants was 120 students and professors in each of dental and engineering schools. Swabs from mobile phones of the participants were taken and plated on culture medium...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Dipak K Mitra, Sabuj Kanti Mistry, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman
Bangladesh is currently going through a nutritional transition with rapid increase in overnutrition while undernutrition is still remaining prevalent. Nevertheless, population-based data on demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with underweight and overweight among adult population is scarce. Employing a nationwide cross-sectional survey, we collected anthropometric, demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and dietary information from 12,180 adults aged ≥35 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using standard formula and categorized into underweight (<18...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Zeinab Alizadeh, Awat Feizi, Mehri Rejali, Hamid Afshar, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Peyman Adibi
The current study aimed to determine the prognostic values of personality traits for common psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adult. In a large sample of healthy people (n = 4763) who lived in Isfahan province; the NEO-FFI was used to assess the personality traits; depression and anxiety were assessed using the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)" also stress was measured through Persian validated version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC) analysis was used as main statistical method for data analysis...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Glory Atilola, Obadara Tomisin, Mayowa Randle, Komolafe O Isaac, Gbenga Odutolu, Josephine Olomu, Laide Adenuga
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, maternal complications, and neonatal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women serve as a major reservoir for the persistence and ongoing transmission of hepatitis B virus and HIV in a generalized heterosexual epidemic. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiology of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in South West-Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study of 353 pregnant women across 10 health facilities in the region. Results showed that of the 353 pregnant women tested, 37 were positive for the HBV antigen giving a prevalence estimate of 10...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Michele Rubbini
Establishing indicators oriented towards the creation of a global society to the detriment of new forms of neo-colonialism. In the relations between Developed and Emerging Countries as part of the Global Health Diplomacy, there is a risk that the former can adopt behaviors induced by the financial needs of overcoming their crisis. The most relevant Documents by International Organizations and Articles published in the past regarding actions in this area and the forecast of economic growth in various areas of the World are considered and the hypothesis of dual scenarios that may arise from these are postulated...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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