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Journal of Nutritional Science

Sarah L Eady, Alison J Wallace, Christine A Butts, Duncan Hedderley, Lynley Drummond, Juliet Ansell, Richard B Gearry
Functional gastrointestinal disorders including constipation affect up to 14 % of the world's population. Treatment is difficult and challenging resulting in a need for alternative safe and effective therapies. The present study investigated whether daily consumption of three gold-fleshed kiwifruit could alleviate constipation and improve gastrointestinal discomfort in mildly constipated individuals with and without pain. A total of thirty-two participants were enrolled in a 16-week randomised, single-blind, crossover study...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Vincent J van Buul, Catherine A W Bolman, Fred J P H Brouns, Lilian Lechner
Consumers intending to eat healthily should consult available information on the energy, salt, sugar and saturated fat content of foods. Some consumers, however, do this more than others do. The objective of this research was to identify distinct subgroups within the group of consumers who intend to eat healthily, segmented according to the timing and frequency of their use of information about energy, salt, sugar and saturated fat. Furthermore, we analysed whether consulting this information actually led to healthier food choices...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Elizabeth Beals, S G Kamita, R Sacchi, E Demmer, N Rivera, T S Rogers-Soeder, E R Gertz, M D Van Loan, J B German, B D Hammock, J T Smilowitz, A M Zivkovic
CVD and associated metabolic diseases are linked to chronic inflammation, which can be modified by diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in inflammatory markers, blood metabolic and lipid panels and lymphocyte gene expression in response to a high-fat dairy food challenge with or without milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Participants consumed a dairy product-based meal containing whipping cream (WC) high in saturated fat with or without the addition of MFGM, following a 12 h fasting blood draw...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Paola Vitaglione, Giovanna Mazzone, Vincenzo Lembo, Giuseppe D'Argenio, Antonella Rossi, Maria Guido, Marcella Savoia, Federico Salomone, Ilario Mennella, Francesca De Filippis, Danilo Ercolini, Nicola Caporaso, Filomena Morisco
Coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A gap in the literature still exists concerning the intestinal mechanisms that are involved in the protective effect of coffee consumption towards NAFLD. In this study, twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups each receiving a standard diet, a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD plus decaffeinated coffee (HFD+COFFEE) for 12 weeks. Coffee supplementation reduced HFD-induced liver macrovesicular steatosis ( P  < 0·01) and serum cholesterol ( P  < 0·001), alanine aminotransferase and glucose ( P  < 0·05)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Aki Saito, Mai Matsumoto, Aiko Hyakutake, Masafumi Saito, Naoko Okamoto, Masayoshi Tsuji
Home cooking has been suggested as a key to healthy dietary intakes. However, little is known about the association between cooking behaviour and nutrient intake among young-to-middle-aged women. We aimed to investigate the association between home cooking frequency and nutrient intake adequacy among married Japanese women. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the weekly frequency of cooking dinner at home and habitual nutrient intake during the preceding month. We evaluated nutrient intake adequacy by comparing the self-reported intake with two indices of the dietary reference intakes for Japanese (2015): the estimated average requirement (EAR) of fourteen nutrients, and the 'tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related diseases' (DG) of seven nutrients...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
David Allaway, Matt Gilham, Antje Wagner-Golbs, Sandra González Maldonado, Richard Haydock, Alison Colyer, Jonathan Stockman, Phillip Watson
Short-term feeding studies have highlighted a phenomenon in Ca regulation that raises concerns around Ca absorption in dogs that may make an impact on commercial diets near to the maximum recommended level. A recent study to determine responses in dogs fed one of two diets differing in dietary Ca over 40 weeks found no evidence to suggest a concern across a range of biological parameters hypothesised to be affected by Ca. Unforeseen consequences of dietary Ca could have occurred and metabolic profiling was deemed a suitable data-driven approach to identify effects of dietary Ca...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ryan Chaban, Katja Buschmann, Ahmed Ghazy, Alicia Poplawski, Nadja Wittmann, Andres Beiras-Fernandez, Christian-Friedrich Vahl
Leptin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, has been linked to many regulatory pathways. Its role in the complex relationship between obesity and CVD is not yet clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leptin interferes directly with cardiac function regulation, altering its contractile force character, and hence contributing to different pathological processes. Muscle samples were obtained from human atrial myocardium. Each trial included two samples from the same patient. They were simultaneously electrically stimulated under sustained perfusion to perform isometric contractions...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Steven P Hirsh, Marianne Pons, Steven V Joyal, Andrew G Swick
This pilot randomised controlled study evaluated the effects of a nutrient-supported intermittent energy restriction nutrition programme to prevent weight gain in healthy overweight adults during the 6-week winter holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year. For 52 d, twenty-two overweight adults (mean age 41·0 years, BMI 27·3 kg/m2 ) were assigned to either the nutrition programme ( n 10; two fasting days of 730 kcal/d (3050 kJ/d) of balanced shake and dietary supplements to support weight management efforts, followed by 5 d of habitual diet) or a control group ( n 12; habitual diet)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L Hare, Minh Bui, Sandra Iuliano
CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of 'meat' (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from 'meat' and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
D R Fraser
Palaeontological deductions from the fossil remnants of extinct dinosaurs tell us much about their classification into species as well as about their physiological and behavioural characteristics. Geological evidence indicates that dinosaurs became extinct at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene eras, about 66 million years ago, at a time when there was worldwide environmental change resulting from the impact of a large celestial object with the Earth and/or from vast volcanic eruptions. However, apart from the presumption that climate change and interference with food supply contributed to their extinction, no biological mechanism has been suggested to explain why such a diverse range of terrestrial vertebrates ceased to exist...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Devika Chawla, Julie L Daniels, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Cathrine Hoyo, Jessie P Buckley
Insufficient vitamin D during pregnancy increases risk of adverse outcomes, with known differences by race/ethnicity. We sought to determine whether predictors of vitamin D insufficiency vary by race/ethnicity in an ethnically diverse pregnancy cohort. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and patient characteristics were measured at first prenatal visit to prenatal clinics in south-eastern USA between 2009 and 2011 ( n 504). Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % CI were estimated using multivariable regression to quantify predictors of vitamin D insufficiency, overall and by race/ethnicity...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Angélica Gallego-Narbón, Belén Zapatera, Laura Barrios, M Pilar Vaquero
Studies on the nutritional status of vegetarians in Spain are lacking. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency is the main concern, as dietary sources are of animal origin. The present study aimed to evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status of Spanish vegetarians using classical markers and functional markers. Participants were adult and healthy lacto-ovo vegetarians (forty-nine subjects) and vegans (fifty-four subjects) who underwent blood analyses and completed a FFQ. Serum vitamin B12 , homocysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), erythrocyte folate and haematological parameters were determined...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Seiji Matsumoto, W Lawrence Beeson, David J Shavlik, Gina Siapco, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Gary Fraser, Synnove F Knutsen
The association between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors among non-Hispanic whites has not been fully studied. Data from 650 non-Hispanic white adults who participated in one of two clinical sub-studies (about 2 years after the baseline) of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) were analysed. Four dietary patters were identified using a validated 204-item semi-quantitative FFQ completed at enrolment into AHS-2: vegans (8·3 %), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (44·3 %), pesco-vegetarians (10·6 %) and non-vegetarians (NV) (37·3 %)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Marjolein E Buisman, Jochem Jonkman
Dietary trends and changing lifestyle patterns have been associated with the increasing occurrence of obesity in the Western world. These dietary trends are commonly studied using longitudinal food consumption surveys. An alternative to studying changes in eating behaviour may be found in recipe analysis of traditional cookbooks. Few such studies exist, however, and it is unclear whether dietary trends over time can be identified this way. The present paper analyses full-meal recipes from a traditional Dutch cookbook between 1950 and 2010...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Collin J Popp, Jeannette M Beasley, Stella S Yi, Lu Hu, Judith Wylie-Rosett
Favourable body composition has been associated with higher dietary protein intake. However, little is known regarding this relationship in a population of Chinese Americans (CHA), who have lower BMI compared with other populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary protein intake, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in CHA. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010-2011 ( n 1707); dietary intake was assessed using an adapted and validated FFQ...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Marianne S Sabinsky, Ulla Toft, Helle M Sommer, Inge Tetens
Strategies are needed to improve the dietary habits of children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of implementing a school food programme on the dietary quality of lunches consumed by school children aged 7-13 years compared with packed lunches brought from home. A secondary objective was to investigate if a possible effect would differ between the younger children and the older. A quasi-experimental study design with four intervention schools and four matched control schools was conducted...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Yoko Yamashita, Masaaki Okabe, Midori Natsume, Hitoshi Ashida
Procyanidins have been reported to possess potential for the prevention of hyperglycaemia. However, there are very few data for procyanidins about the difference the degree of polymerisation (DP) has on anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which procyanidins suppress hyperglycaemia are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we prepared procyanidin fractions with different DP, namely low-DP (DP≤3) and high-DP (DP≥4) fractions, from a cacao liquor procyanidin-rich extract (CLPr)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Caroline Jensen, Trygve Hausken, Einar Lied, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Ingeborg Brønstad, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Gülen Arslan Lied
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1017/jns.2018.23.].
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ryusei Uchio, Shinji Murosaki, Hiroshi Ichikawa
Curcuma longa , also known as turmeric, has long been used as a medicinal herb with various biological effects. A hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) has been reported to show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but its effect on hepatic inflammation is poorly understood. In the present study, to investigate the effect of WEC on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-methionine, choline-deficient diet with 0·175 % WEC (WEC group) or without WEC (control group) for 6 or 12 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kaija Nissinen, Liisa Korkalo, Henna Vepsäläinen, Päivi Mäkiranta, Leena Koivusilta, Eva Roos, Maijaliisa Erkkola
Validated methodological aids for food quantification are needed for the accurate estimation of food consumption. Our objective was to assess the validity of an age-specific food picture book, which contains commonly eaten foods among Finnish children, for parents and early educators in estimating food portion sizes. The food picture book was developed to assist in portion size estimation when filling in food records in the Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study. All ninety-five food pictures in the book, each containing three or four different portion sizes, were evaluated at real-time sessions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
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