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BoneKEy Reports

Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, Amanda B Longo, Charles B Wakefield, Phil L Salmon, Paul J LeBlanc, Wendy E Ward
Long-term effects of repeated i n vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning at key stages of growth and bone development (ages 2, 4 and 6 months) on trabecular and cortical bone structure, as well as developmental patterns, have not been studied. We determined the effect of repetitive μCT scanning at age 2, 4 and 6 months on tibia bone structure of male and female CD-1 mice and characterized developmental changes. At 2, 4 and 6 months of age, right tibias were scanned using in vivo μCT (Skyscan 1176) at one of three doses of radiation per scan: 222, 261 or 460 mGy...
2017: BoneKEy Reports
Jonathan Reeve
In this review, I consider the varied mechanisms in cortical bone that help preserve its integrity and how they deteriorate with aging. Aging affects cortical bone in two ways: extrinsically through its effects on the individual that modify its mechanical loading experience and 'milieu interieur'; and intrinsically through the prolonged cycle of remodelling and renewal extending to an estimated 20 years in the proximal femur. Healthy femoral cortex incorporates multiple mechanisms that help prevent fracture...
2017: BoneKEy Reports
Robert MacDonell, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Nutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fats) have traditionally been thought of as fuels simply providing the energy for cellular metabolic activity. According to the classic view, if nutrients are available, then anabolic pathways are activated, and if nutrients are not available, catabolic pathways are activated. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that nutrient effects on bone cells (stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) are complex, some nutrients promote bone formation, whereas others interfere with bone formation or actually promote bone break down...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Peter Varga, Ladina Hofmann-Fliri, Michael Blauth, Markus Windolf
The high incidence of secondary hip fractures and the associated markedly increased mortality call for preventive actions that could help to avoid these injuries. By providing immediate strengthening and not relying on patient compliance, internal prophylactic augmentation of the osteoporotic proximal femur may overcome the main limitations of systemic bone drugs and wearable protective pads. However, such a method would have to provide sufficient and reliable strengthening effect with minimal risks and side effects to justify the need of an invasive treatment...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Emma O Billington, Greg D Gamble, Ian R Reid
Hyperparathyroidism may be associated with skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities, but it is unclear whether these associations exist for high-normal levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We assessed relationships between PTH and anthropometric, skeletal and cardiometabolic indices in normal men. Body composition, blood pressure, biochemistry and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in 151 healthy men. BMD was reassessed at 2 years, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured at 3.5 years. Relationships between PTH and other baseline characteristics, CAC scores and change in BMD were evaluated...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Gloria Allocca, Anjali P Kusumbe, Saravana K Ramasamy, Ning Wang
Confocal and two-photon microscopy has been widely used in bone research to not only produce high quality, three-dimensional images but also to provide valuable structural and quantitative information. In this article, we describe step-by-step protocols for confocal and two-photon microscopy to investigate earlier cellular events during colonisation of cancer cells in bone using xenograft mouse models. This includes confocal/two-photon microscopy imaging of paraformaldehyde fixed thick bone sections and frozen bone samples...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Huifang Lu, Richard E Champlin, Uday Popat, Xerxes Pundole, Carmelita P Escalante, Xuemei Wang, Wei Qiao, William A Murphy, Robert F Gagel
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ibandronate on bone loss following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). A single-centered, open-label prospective randomized-controlled study following allo-SCT. The treatment group received 3 mg of intravenous ibandronate quarterly starting within 45 days of allo-SCT. All patients received daily calcium and vitamin D supplements. We compared the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip at 6 and 12 months following allo-SCT between the control and treatment groups...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Melissa L Knothe Tate, Nicole Y C Yu, Iman Jalilian, André F Pereira, Ulf R Knothe
Periosteum is a smart mechanobiological material that serves as a habitat and delivery vehicle for stem cells as well as biological factors that modulate tissue genesis and healing. Periosteum's remarkable regenerative capacity has been harnessed clinically for over two hundred years. Scientific studies over the past decade have begun to decipher the mechanobiology of periosteum, which has a significant role in its regenerative capacity. This integrative review outlines recent mechanobiological insights that are key to modulating and translating periosteum and its resident stem cells in a regenerative medicine context...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Jean-Marie Delaisse
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/bonekey.2014.56.].
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Sandeep Paul, J Gage Crump
Three major mesenchymal cell types have important roles in determining the shapes of vertebrate animals: bone-producing osteoblasts, cartilage-producing chondrocytes, and fat-producing adipocytes. Although often considered discrete cell types, accumulating evidence is revealing mesenchymal cells of intermediate identities and interconversion of cell types. Such plasticity is particularly evident during adult skeletal repair. In this Review, we highlight recent work in zebrafish showing a role for hybrid cartilage-bone cells in large-scale regeneration of the adult jawbone, as well as their origins in the periosteum...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Laura E Wright, Penelope D Ottewell, Nadia Rucci, Olivier Peyruchaud, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Antonella Chiechi, Jeroen T Buijs, Julie A Sterling
Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in late-stage breast cancer patients and are currently considered incurable. Investigators rely on translational models to better understand the pathogenesis of skeletal complications of malignancy in order to identify therapeutic targets that may ultimately prevent and treat solid tumor metastasis to bone. Many experimental models of breast cancer bone metastases are in use today, each with its own caveats. In this methods review, we characterize the bone phenotype of commonly utilized human- and murine-derived breast cell lines that elicit osteoblastic and/or osteolytic destruction of bone in mice and report methods for optimizing tumor-take in murine models of bone metastasis...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Åshild Bjørnerem
Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. However, cortical bone loss occurs more slowly than trabecular loss due to the fact that less surface per unit of bone matrix volume is available for bone remodeling. Nevertheless, most of the bone loss over time is cortical because cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, and the relative proportion of trabecular bone diminishes with advancing age...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Brenda J Smith
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise, and as a result, research aimed at understanding the molecular basis for the co-morbidities has become an area of much scientific interest. Among the more recently recognized chronic complications of T2DM is the increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture, that has been reported independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A widely used animal model to study how the development and progression of impaired glucose tolerance affect the skeleton has been the diet-induce obesity (DIO) model...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Ushashi Dadwal, Carolyne Falank, Heather Fairfield, Sarah Linehan, Clifford J Rosen, David L Kaplan, Julie Sterling, Michaela R Reagan
Cancers that metastasize or grow in the bone marrow are typically considered incurable and cause extensive damage to the bone and bone marrow. The bone is a complex, dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of a plethora of cells that may contribute to, or constrain, the growth of tumor cells and development of bone disease. The development of safe and effective drugs is currently hampered by pre-clinical two-dimensional (2D) models whose poor predictive power does not accurately predict the success or failure of therapeutics...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Mark L Johnson
Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Karan M Shah, Matt M Stern, Amber R Stern, Janak L Pathak, Nathalie Bravenboer, Astrid D Bakker
The aim of this paper is to present several popular methods for in vitro culture of osteocytes and osteocyte cell lines. Osteocytes are located extremely suitably within the calcified bone matrix to sense mechanical signals, and are equipped with a multitude of molecular features that allow mechanosensing. However, osteocytes are more than specialized mechanosensing cells. Several signaling molecules are preferentially produced by osteocytes, and osteocytes hold a tight reign over osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity, but also have a role as endocrine cell, communicating with muscles or organs as remote as the kidneys...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Meghan M Moran, Kotaro Sena, Margaret A McNulty, D R Sumner, Amarjit S Virdi
In this paper, we provide a detailed protocol for a model of long bone mechanical marrow ablation in the rodent, including surgical procedure, anesthesia, and pre- and post-operative care. In addition, frequently used experimental end points are briefly discussed. This model was developed to study intramembranous bone regeneration following surgical disruption of the marrow contents of long bones. In this model, the timing of the appearance of bone formation and remodeling is well-characterized and therefore the model is well-suited to evaluate the in vivo effects of various agents which influence these processes...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Eric Lespessailles, Ridha Hambli, Serge Ferrari
With the development of new non-invasive analytical techniques and particularly the advent of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) it is possible to assess cortical and trabecular bone changes under the effects of ageing, diseases and treatments. In the present study, we reviewed the treatment-related effects on bone parameters assessed by HRpQCT imaging. We identified 12 full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals describing treatment-induced changes assessed by HRpQCT...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Uwe Wolfram, Jakob Schwiedrzik
Ageing and associated skeletal diseases pose a significant challenge for health care systems worldwide. Age-related fractures have a serious impact on personal, social and economic wellbeing. A significant proportion of physiological loading is carried by the cortical shell. Its role in the fracture resistance and strength of whole bones in the ageing skeleton is of utmost importance. Even though a large body of knowledge has been accumulated on this topic on the macroscale, the underlying micromechanical material behaviour and the scale transition of bone's mechanical properties are yet to be uncovered...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
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