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Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

Artor Niccoli Asabella, Alessandra Cimino, Corinna Altini, Valentina Lavelli, Giuseppe Rubini
Congenital heart diseases, such as tetralogy of fallot (TOF), are the most common human birth defects that may cause pulmonary diseases. Lung perfusion scintigraphy (LPS) has an important role in evaluating pulmonary involvement in patients with these defects, both as part of the diagnostic work-up and for follow-up to guide best therapeutic strategy. Herein, we report a 10-year-old female patient with TOF who underwent LPS two years after cardiac surgery. The scan showed hypoperfusion of the left respect to the right lung and abnormal uptake of Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin in the kidneys and spleen, revealing the presence of a right-to-left shunt, and the necessity for further cardiac surgery...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Eser Kaya, Tamer Aksoy, Ahmet Levent Güner, Hakan Temiz, Erkan Vardareli
Primary malignant melanoma occurs most often in the skin and much less frequently in the choroid layer of the eyes, in the leptomeninges, oral cavity, nasal mucosa, pharynx, esophagus, bronchus, under the nail and vaginal or anorectal mucosa. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract has been confirmed for lesions occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum through several published reports, as these are the areas where melanocytes normally exist. The occurrence of primary malignant melanoma in the colon is relatively rare, because melanocytes are embryologically absent in the large bowel...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Mohsen Qutbi
Proper interpretation of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is primarily based on strict adherence to standard procedural protocols from patient preparation to image processing and display. Inadvertent faulty injection of the radiopharmaceutical and, consequently, dose extravasation during SPECT MPI is a more important issue than that in any other diagnostic scintigraphic procedure. As it can be considered as a major source of false negative result, clinician’s awareness of this problem during interpretation is of great importance...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Aylin Oral, Bülent Yazıcı, Özgür Ömür
A sixty-two-year-old male patient underwent orchiectomy and was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the testicle and spermatic cord. 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning was performed for initial staging. 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan revealed multiple hyper-metabolic lymphadenopathies, lung lesions and mass lesions in the adrenal glands and kidneys. In addition, diffuse increased 18 F-FDG uptake suggesting lymphomatous infiltration on the right testicle, prostate and left testicular veins were detected...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Ezgi Başak Erdoğan, Hacı Mehmet Türk, Ertuğrul Tekçe, Mehmet Aydın
A 43-year-old male patient presented with a mass lesion on the right liver lobe, segment 5, in radiological imaging and elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels (323 ng/mL) compatible with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images showed background level 18 F-FDG uptake in the mass lesion. In addition, a secondary focus of increased 18 F-FDG uptake was detected on the left liver lobe, segment 2, approximately 1,5 cm in diameter. Histopathological examination revealed HCC in the larger mass lesion with a lower 18 F-FDG uptake, and cholangiocellular carcinoma in the smaller mass lesion with a higher 18 F-FDG uptake...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Olivier Rager, Marlise Picarra, Emmanouil Astrinakis, Valentina Garibotto, Gaël Amzalag
A 23-year-old African native male patient presented with fever, lumbalgia and dysuria after returning from a trip to Togo. His physical examination revealed pain over the pubic symphysis and rectal tenderness on digital exam. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level was elevated along with positive blood and urinary cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . An magnetic resonance imaging that has been performed to rule out arthritis/osteomyelitis in the pubis revealed edema of the symphysis. An 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography supported the diagnosis of prostate infection and showed a focal uptake of the pubic symphysis, with diffuse hyper-metabolism of the insertions of the rectus abdominis and longus adductor muscles, corresponding to athletic pubalgia...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Arzu Cengiz, Sibel Göksel, Yakup Yürekli
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). Methods: One hundred twenty one patients with a diagnosis of CUP who underwent whole body 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging were included in this retrospective study. The final diagnoses were confirmed either histopathologically or by clinical follow-up. Results: The 18 F-FDG-PET/CT successfully detected the primary tumor in 59 out of 121 (49%) patients...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Saima Riaz, Humayun Bashir, Saadiya Javed Khan, Abid Qazi
Objective: I-131 mIBG scan semi-quantitative analysis with modified Curie and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN) scoring systems is helpful in the evaluation of disease extent and has prognostic impact in stage 4 neuroblastoma. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of baseline I-131 mIBG scans in 21 patients with stage 4 or 4S neuroblastoma diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2015. All scans were assessed for Curie and SIOPEN scores...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Anastas Krassenov Demirev, Irena Dimitrova Kostadinova, Iliya Rumenov Gabrovski
Objectives: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) can be an adverse complication of radiotherapy (RT) and can limit the application of the already planned radiation dose. It is often associated with RT of lung carcinoma and is occasionally caused by radiation therapy of breast carcinoma and lymphomas located in the mediastinum. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) emerges lately as a prospective modality for early diagnostics of RP. The aim of this study was to summarize the initial data from diagnostic application of PET/CT in patients suspicious of RP and to derive criteria, which can help differentiate RP from early recurrence of the disease and/or residual tumor...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Leticia Burton, Gregory L. Falk, Stephen Parsons, Mel Cusi, Hans Van Der Wall
Objectives: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is both common and troubling with a prevalence of 20-40%. We assessed the utility of a scintigraphic reflux study to evaluate the oesophageal and extra-oesophageal manifestation of disease compared to the standard tests such as pH monitoring and manometry. Methods: Patients were recruited into a prospective database of referrals to a tertiary referral center for either resistance to maximal medical therapy or extra-oesophageal symptoms of GORD...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Aylin Oral, Bülent Yazıcı, Cenk Eraslan, Zeynep Burak
Objective: Radioiodine is the most specific radionuclide for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) imaging. Despite its high specificity and sensitivity, false-positive I-131 uptake could be seen on whole body scan (WBS) that may lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary radioiodine treatment. In this study, we aimed to present the I-131 WBS and concomitant single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images of unexpected false-positive radioiodine uptake along with the patients’ clinical outcomes and the contribution of SPECT/CT imaging...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Aamna Hassan, Saima Riaz, Amna Asif
Thyroid incidentalomas are frequently reported on 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan. High risk of malignancy is thought to be associated with increased metabolic activity and high standardized uptake value. Likewise, thyroid nodules with focal FDG avidity have a higher potential to be malignant. However, some benign nodules such as follicular and Hurthle cell adenomas can also present with focal hypermetabolic activity. We report a case of a 59-year-old lady diagnosed with gastric carcinoma, who had a hypermetabolic thyroid nodule on FDG PET/CT scan...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
William Makis, Mark Palayew, Christopher Rush, Stephan Probst
A 60-year-old female with no significant medical history presented with hematuria. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive lymphadenopathy with hypodensities in the liver and spleen, and she was referred for an 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) study to assess for malignancy of unknown primary. PET/CT revealed extensive 18 F-FDG avid lymphadenopathy as well as innumerable intensely 18 F-FDG avid lung, liver and splenic nodules, highly concerning for malignancy...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Berna Okudan, Nazım Coşkun, Pelin Arıcan, Rıza Şefizade, Seniha Naldöken
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) is a paraneoplastic manifestation of gastric and, more frequently, lung carcinomas. It is characterized by extremity pain, clubbing, arthritis and periostitis of the long bones. Periostitis is the hallmark of HPOA and can be revealed with bone scintigraphy. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) is very sensitive during the active lesion period and WBBS findings usually precede that of plain radiography. WBBS can also show improvement in the first 6 months following treatment, thus making it an important technique in the management and follow-up of these patients...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Stephan Probst, Gad Abikhzer, Guillaume Chaussé, Michael Tamilia
Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer has been used in clinical practice for almost 60 years and is generally accepted to be a safe and efficacious treatment. Severe toxicity in the form of radiation pneumonitis, sometimes progressing to fibrosis, and bone marrow suppression are reported but remain rare. We present a case of severe myelosuppression requiring hospitalization and transfusion support in an otherwise well, young female patient who had received 175 mCi I-131 for low-volume micronodular lung disease one month prior, with a cumulative lifetime administered activity of 575 mCi...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Arzu Cengiz, Sibel Göksel, Yeşim Başal, Şule Taş Gülen, Füruzan Döğer, Yakup Yürekli
Laryngeal tuberculosis is a rare presentation of tuberculosis. It can mimic laryngeal carcinoma with its clinical and imaging findings. A 51-year old woman underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging for clinically suspected carcinoma of the larynx. PET/CT revealed lung lesions consistent with tuberculosis in additional to hypermetabolic focus on larynx. The patient was histopathologically diagnosed with lung and laryngeal tuberculosis.
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Emine Budak, Gürsel Çok, Ayşegül Akgün
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death throughout the world, and the correct choice of treatment based on early diagnosis and staging increases the chance of survival. The present study aims to investigate the contribution of fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) to the management of lung cancer. METHODS: In this study, 50 patients who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT for lung cancer diagnosis and staging between February 2012 and February 2014 were included...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Özge Vural Topuz, Fatma Arzu Görtan, Zübeyde Rana Kaya Döner, Çetin Önsel, Haluk Burçak Sayman
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the utility of PET/CT in cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients with pathological negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN), within the first year. METHODS: The results of PET/CTs and SLN biopsy (SLNB) in 65 patients (39 male and 26 female, mean age 53.8) with a PET/CT in the first postoperative year were evaluated. Within this cohort, the utility of early PET/CT imaging was assessed in patients with negative SLNB. McNemar test was used to compare PET/CT findings with SLNB results...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Kürşat Okuyucu, Semra İnce, Engin Alagöz, Erman Ataş, Nuri Arslan
OBJECTIVE: Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a form of extra-nodal lymphoma originating from the testicles. Currently, positron emission tomography (PET) with glucose analogue 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is the most popular and widely used modality for evaluating tumor metabolism, and PTL usually displays increased 18 F-FDG uptake. Despite the rapid increase in clinical applications of FDG PET/ computed tomography (CT), its role in PTL has neither been clearly defined nor reviewed systematically...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Mojtaba Ansari, Hoda Hashemi, Mehdi Soltanshahi, Mohsen Qutbi, Zahra Azizmohammadi, Faraj Tabeie, Hamid Javadi, Esmail Jafari, Maryam Barekat, Majid Assadi
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the effects of heart cavity volume, presence and absence of perfusion defect, gender and type of study (stress and rest) on the difference of systolic parameters of myocardial perfusion scan in 16 and 8 framing gated SPECT imaging. METHODS: Cardiac gated SPECT in both 16 and 8 framing simultaneously and both stress and rest phases at one-day protocol was performed for 50 patients. Data have been reconstructed by filter back projection (FBP) method and left ventricular (LV) systolic parameters were calculated by using QGS software...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
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