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Nutrition and Metabolic Insights

Justin C Brown, Michael O Harhay, Meera N Harhay
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT)-fat stored deep in the abdominal cavity that surrounds vital organs-is associated with a variety of chronic health conditions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the gold standards to quantify VAT. However, the high cost, limited accessibility, and potential exposure to radiation limit the use of these imaging modalities. In this commentary, we review the application of a previously validated regression equation that estimates anthropometrically predicted VAT (apVAT) to explain variance in blood-based biomarkers and predict mortality in a large sample of adults...
2019: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Mario John Soares, Kaveri Pathak
The measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is important to both human physiology and nutrition. There are several pre-conditions for the proper measurement of REE, but a key criterion is that it takes place in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Deciding whether a person is in his or her TNZ is not an easy task, and a suggested way forward is the monitoring of forearm to fingertip skin temperature gradients (FFG). In this commentary, we highlight our recent findings that FFG varies between individuals even when measured at a temperature within TNZ...
2019: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Kelly Vowell Johnson, Allison L Scott, Marilou Shreve, Britni L Ayers, Victoria S Seaton, Pearl A McElfish
Introduction: Obesity affects more than 40 million children globally. Efforts to promote proper nutrition in an attempt to reduce childhood obesity should consider maternal beliefs and cultural customs around food. Little is known regarding child feeding, including weaning practices and foods consumed in the first years of life among Marshallese children, a sub-group of Pacific Islanders, residing in the United States. Methods: This study aims to explore the influences on introduction of complementary foods among Marshallese mothers and caregivers residing in the United States, to serve as the basis for promotion of improved nutrition...
2019: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Sultan Mahmood, Leah Hoffman, Ijlal Akbar Ali, Yan D Zhao, Allshine Chen, Karen Allen
Background: Resident physicians are frequently uncomfortable ordering enteral nutrition (EN) and are unaware of the variety of formulas and supplements available for different disease processes. Many depend on a clinical dietician to assist with recommending EN formulas and patient energy requirements that may not be readily available on patient admission. This creates a barrier to early initiation of EN and non-compliance with Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines...
2019: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Dalila Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Maria Sônia Lopes Duarte, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Background: The food consumption assessment is necessary to monitor elderly's nutritional status because it allows detecting nutrition deficits and guiding the elaboration of effective conducts. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the global quality of the elderly's diet in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study, involving noninstitutionalized elderly. Diet quality was assessed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) validated to the Brazilian population...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Ryuichiro Abe, Atsuhiro Matsumoto, Ryota Sakaguchi, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa, Akinori Uchiyama, Yuji Fujino
Objective: We assessed what predicts nutritional adequacy at day 14 following implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Method: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 97 adult patients who underwent LVAD implantation at our institution from June 2011 to June 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on the administered enteral nutrition (EN) calories on post-operative day (POD) 14: the EN calories of group SEN (sufficient enteral nutrition) were >80% of their total target calories, or the EN calories of group IEN (insufficient enteral nutrition) were <80% of their total target calories...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Claire Ann Callus, Samantha Vella, Peter Ferry
Background and objective: Scurvy, caused by vitamin C deficiency, first described by Hippocrates, is known to many as 'The Pirates' Disease'. Although a disease rarely acknowledged in modern medicine, we present 2 cases of elderly gentlemen found to have scurvy, who improved significantly on treatment. Methods: This study presents a case report of 2 patients undergoing rehabilitation at Karin Grech Hospital in Malta, noted to have signs and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Wolfgang Kopp
Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypertension are common age-related comorbidities. Although the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is still largely unresolved and poorly understood, a significant age-independent association was found between BPH and hypertension, indicating a common pathophysiological factor for both diseases. It has previously been suggested that the development of essential hypertension may be related to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia. This study follows the question, whether BPH may develop due to the same mechanism, thereby explaining the well-known comorbidity of these 2 disorders...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Mohammad Altamimi
Background: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It is believed that the cause of autism is multifactorial, where genetic predispositions interact with environmental factors. In this context, micronutrients play a crucial role. Objective: To present evidence on current micronutrient status in Palestine and highlight its possible role in increasing problems of neurodevelopment disorders in general and autism in particular. Method: Analytical review of results...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Mykola D Khalangot, Volodymir A Kovtun, Nadia V Okhrimenko, Vitaly G Gurianov, Victor I Kravchenko
A relationship between childhood starvation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in adulthood was previously indicated. Ukraine suffered a series of artificial famines between 1921 and 1947. Famines of 1932 to 1933 and 1946 were most severe among them. Long-term health consequences of these famines remain insufficiently investigated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus screening was conducted between June 2013 and December 2014. A total of 198 rural residents of Kyiv region more than 44 years of age, not registered as patients with T2D, were randomly selected...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Shirley F Evans, Maureen Beebe, Maryam Mahmood, Sawanya Janthachotikun, Heba Eldoumi, Sandra Peterson, Mark Payton, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Brenda J Smith, Edralin A Lucas
This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango ( Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometric measurements, lipid parameters, and inflammatory mediators in obese individuals. A total of 20 obese (body mass index [BMI]: 30-35 kg/m2 ) adults (11 men and 9 women), aged 20 to 50 years, received 10 g/d of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, lipids, and inflammatory mediators were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of mango supplementation. There were no differences between baseline and final visits in inflammatory mediators, lipids, diet, physical activity, and anthropometrics...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Suhad M Bahijri, Lubna Alsheikh, Ghada Ajabnoor, Anwar Borai
The aim was to investigate effect of chitosan on markers of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in rats fed normal chow (NC) or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HF/HCD). Forty male rats were fed NC or HF/HCD for 3 months, then divided into 4 groups: group A fed NC, group B: NC + chitosan, group C: HF/HCD, and group D: HF/HCD + chitosan. Food intake and weight were recorded, and serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, leptin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and tumor necrosis factor α were measured at beginning and after 12 weeks...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Ai Tsuji, Toshinobu Nakamura, Katsumi Shibata
We investigated the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR) mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group) or a vitamin B1-free diet (test group). The vitamin B1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Virginia Luchini, Salma M Musaad, Sharon M Donovan, Soo-Yeun Lee
Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE) is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC) and home-based childcare (HBCC), or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Carina Ladeira, Elisabete Carolino, Manuel C Gomes, Miguel Brito
The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Maria C Della Vedova, Marcos D Muñoz, Lucas D Santillan, Maria G Plateo-Pignatari, Maria J Germanó, Martín E Rinaldi Tosi, Silvina Garcia, Nidia N Gomez, Miguel W Fornes, Sandra E Gomez Mejiba, Dario C Ramirez
Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Hiromi Iwakawa, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tomiho Fukui, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Yukio Doi, Katsumi Shibata
We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Salma A Abdelmagid, Jessica L MacKinnon, Sarah M Janssen, David W L Ma
Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Syed Asher Hussain Zaidi, Gurjit Singh, Olukolade Owojori, Ram Kela, Shirley Spoors, Mohamed Abbas, Florence Barton, Caroline Rogers
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency may further increase fracture risk in patients with decreased bone mineral density. A cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D concentrations in medical inpatients was conducted at Bassetlaw District General Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015 (10 months), and the relationship of serum vitamin D concentrations with calcium and alkaline phosphatase was evaluated. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D immunoassays were used and analyzed in the local laboratory. The total number of patients analyzed was 200, age range 18-99 years, with mean age of 76 years...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Juliano Garavaglia, Melissa M Markoski, Aline Oliveira, Aline Marcadenti
Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
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