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Nature and Science of Sleep

Addo Boafo, Stephanie Greenham, Shuliweeh Alenezi, Rébecca Robillard, Kathleen Pajer, Paniz Tavakoli, Joseph De Koninck
Exogenous melatonin can be used to treat sleep disturbance in adults, children, and adolescents. While its short-term use is considered safe, there are some concerns that long-term use might delay children's sexual maturation, possibly by disrupting the decline in nocturnal melatonin levels that occur at the onset of puberty. This narrative review aimed to summarize some of the current knowledge about the potential effects of exogenous melatonin on puberty. We found no clinical studies that experimentally tested the effects of melatonin on pubertal timing in children, but we reviewed the small number of observational studies...
2019: Nature and Science of Sleep
Dafna Wajszilber, José Arturo Santiseban, Reut Gruber
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in childhood, enduring through adolescence and adulthood and presenting with symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity and significantly impairing functioning. Primary sleep disorders such as sleep-disordered breathing, restless leg syndrome, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, insomnia, and narcolepsy are commonly comorbid in these individuals but not often assessed and are therefore often left untreated...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Daniel J Levendowski, Erik K St Louis, Luigi Ferini Strambi, Andrea Galbiati, Philip Westbrook, Chris Berka
Objective: Submentalis electromyography ( s EMG) and frontalis electromyography ( f EMG) muscle activities have been used to assist in the staging of sleep and detection of disruptions in sleep. This study was designed to assess the concordance between s EMG and f EMG power, by and across sleep stages. Methods: Forty-three records with simultaneous acquisition of differential signals from the submental and frontalis muscles were evaluated. Sleep stages were assigned using the poly-somnography signals based on majority agreement of five technicians...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Aljohara S Almeneessier, Ahmed S BaHammam
Mealtimes and feeding schedules may interfere with the circadian system and impact sleep. The practice of intermittent fasting (IF) in its different formats is increasing worldwide. However, most studies addressing the effect of IF on circadian rhythms, daytime sleepiness, and sleep architecture have been conducted during diurnal IF for Ramadan. In this article, we analyze the effect of diurnal IF on the circadian clock, sleep, and daytime sleepiness. In free-living, unconstrained environments that do not control for lifestyle changes such as sleep/wake schedules, sleep duration, and light exposure, studies have demonstrated sudden and significant delays in bedtime and wake time during diurnal intermittent fasting for Ramadan...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Caroline Dutil, Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga
The objective of this narrative review paper is to discuss about sleep duration needed across the lifespan. Sleep duration varies widely across the lifespan and shows an inverse relationship with age. Sleep duration recommendations issued by public health authorities are important for surveillance and help to inform the population of interventions, policies, and healthy sleep behaviors. However, the ideal amount of sleep required each night can vary between different individuals due to genetic factors and other reasons, and it is important to adapt our recommendations on a case-by-case basis...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Ali A El-Solh
Nightmares are considered the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the characteristics of these distressing dreams may vary with the type of traumatic event, the pathophysiology exposes central dysfunction of brain structures at the level of the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, modulated by neurochemical imbalance in nor-adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonin pathways. Underlying comorbid conditions, including other sleep disorders, may contribute to worsening symptoms. Addressing sleep disruption can alleviate the severity of these nocturnal events and augment the effectiveness of other PTSD treatments...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Elise Jortberg, Ikaro Silva, Viprali Bhatkar, Ryan S McGinnis, Ellora Sen-Gupta, Briana Morey, John A Wright, Jesus Pindado, Matt T Bianchi
Background: Although in-lab polysomnography (PSG) remains the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring, the use of at-home sensor systems has gained popularity in recent years. Two categories of monitoring, autonomic and limb movement physiology, are increasingly recognized as critical for sleep disorder phenotyping, yet at-home options remain limited outside of research protocols. The purpose of this study was to validate the BiostampRC® sensor system for respiration, electrocardiography (ECG), and leg electromyography (EMG) against gold standard PSG recordings...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Yousef D Alqurashi, Takashi Nakamura, Valentin Goverdovsky, James Moss, Michael I Polkey, Danilo P Mandic, Mary J Morrell
Objectives: Detecting sleep latency during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) using electroencephalogram (scalp-EEG) is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel in-ear sensor (in-ear EEG) to detect the sleep latency, compared to scalp-EEG, during MSLT in healthy adults, with and without sleep restriction. Methods: We recruited 25 healthy adults (28.5±5.3 years) who participated in two MSLTs with simultaneous recording of scalp and in-ear EEG...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Christian Veauthier, Sophie K Piper, Gunnar Gaede, Thomas Penzel, Friedemann Paul
Background: The first night effect (FNE) is a polysomnography (PSG) habituation effect in the first of several consecutive in-laboratory PSGs (I-PSGs). The FNE is caused by the discomfort provoked by electrodes and cables and the exposure to an unfamiliar environment. A reverse FNE (RFNE) with an improved sleep in the first night is characteristic of insomnia, presumably because the video PSG in the sleep laboratory leads to a decrease in the negatively toned cognitive activity. Therefore, two or more I-PSGs are required for an accurate diagnosis...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Eva Schenkels, Nicky Steinfort, Marek Wojciechowski, Stijn Verhulst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Hailey Meaklim, John Swieca, Moira Junge, Irena Laska, Danielle Kelly, Rosemarie Joyce, David Cunnington
Purpose: Referrals to sleep psychology services, even for a perceived single problem such as insomnia, can present with complex, coexistent psychiatric symptoms and comorbid disorders. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure (CCSM) into a sleep psychology clinic to identify coexistent psychiatric symptomatology in insomnia referrals. Patients and methods: Patients were 50 consecutive referrals to a private sleep psychology service within a sleep disorders center in Melbourne, Australia...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Marie Bruyneel, Thomas Sersté
Sleep-wake disturbances are common in liver cirrhosis and associated with impaired quality of life. The most common abnormalities are insomnia (difficulties falling asleep and maintaining sleep, or unrefreshing sleep), excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep-wake inversion (disturbances of circadian rhythmicity). The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for sleep disturbances in cirrhosis are complex and may include disturbed metabolism of melatonin and glucose, alterations in thermoregulation, and altered ghrelin secretion profiles...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Dan Denis
Sleep paralysis is the unusual experience of waking up in the night without the ability to move. Currently little is known about the experience, despite the fact that the vast majority of episodes are associated with extreme fear and in a minority of cases can lead to clinically significant levels of distress. The aim of this work was to review the existing literature pertaining to the relationship sleep paralysis has to sleep more generally, measured both with subjective questionnaires and objective laboratory recordings...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Nyambura Shawa, Dale E Rae, Laura C Roden
Diurnal preference, or chronotype, determined partly by genetics and modified by age, activity, and the environment, defines the time of day at which one feels at his/her best, when one feels sleepy, and when one would prefer to start his/her day. Chronotype affects the phase relationship of an individual's circadian clock with the environment such that morning types have earlier-phased circadian rhythms than evening types. The phases of circadian rhythms are synchronized to the environment on a daily basis, undergoing minor adjustments of phase each day...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Masahiro Takeshima, Tetsuo Shimizu, Masaru Echizenya, Hiroyasu Ishikawa, Takashi Kanbayashi
Purpose: The efficacy of inpatient phase-advance therapy among patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) has not been adequately investigated because response rates are considered low. We aimed to examine the efficacy of such treatment in this patient population. Patients and methods: The present retrospective study included data from 66 patients with DSWPD who had been admitted to Akita University Hospital for inpatient phase-advance therapy between September 1, 2005, and April 30, 2018...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Veronica Menghi, Francesca Bisulli, Paolo Tinuper, Lino Nobili
Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE), previously called nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), is a focal epilepsy characterized by asymmetric tonic/dystonic posturing and/or complex hyperkinetic seizures occurring mostly during sleep. SHE fulfills the definition of rare disease with an estimated minimum prevalence of 1.8/100,000 individuals, and it represents about 10% of drug-resistant surgical cases. Although SHE and autosomal-dominant SHE (ADSHE) have been considered benign epileptic conditions for a long time, emerging data have shed light on the severity of this disorder and some peculiar features can impact negatively on the quality of life of SHE patients...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Burton Abrams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Sarah F Allen, Greg J Elder, Laura F Longstaff, Zoe M Gotts, Rachel Sharman, Umair Akram, Jason G Ellis
Purpose: While the concept of "sleep health" has only recently been defined, how it relates to both subjective and objective sleep parameters is yet to be determined. The current study aimed to identify potential indicators of poorer sleep health, from subjective and objective daily sleep characteristics, in normal sleepers. Participants and methods: Eighty-three individuals aged 18-65 years with no history of sleep disorders, chronic physical or psychiatric illnesses, or substance misuse were recruited from the North of England...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Anna Miley-Åkerstedt, Jerker Hetta, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Background: The public often seeks rule-of-thumb criteria for good or poor sleep, with a particular emphasis on sleep duration, sleep latency, and the number of awakenings each night. However, very few criteria are available. Aim: The present study sought to identify such criteria. Methods: Whether or not a person has sought medical help for sleep problems was selected as an indicator of poor sleep. The group that was studied constituted a representative sample of the general Swedish population (N=1,128), with a response rate of 72...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Ryne Simpson, Anthony A Oyekan, Zarmina Ehsan, David G Ingram
For individuals with Down syndrome (DS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disorder with significant clinical consequences. OSA is seen frequently in DS, and when present, it tends to be more severe. This increased prevalence is likely related to common anatomic abnormalities and a greater risk of additional comorbidities such as hypotonia and obesity. Because signs and symptoms do not often correlate with disease, all children and adults with DS should receive routine screening for OSA. Similar to the general population, polysomnography remains the gold standard for diagnosis...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
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