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Infectious Disease Reports

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30662693/mycetoma-in-timor-leste-and-first-report-of-nocardiosis
#1
Nicola Townell, Thomas Locke, Margaret Gibbons, Dan Murphy, Joshua Francis, Clare Nourse
Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease with an unknown global burden. Although considered endemic to South-east Asia, it has not previously been reported from Timor-Lest. We describe two cases in Timor-Leste, highlighting the challenges surrounding microbiological diagnosis and management shared by many low to middle-income countries. As characteristically described, both patients lived rurally and presented late with marked soft tissue involvement and multiple draining sinuses following a prolonged period of high morbidity...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30662692/a-case-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-during-treatment-for-acute-exacerbation-of-interstitial-lung-disease
#2
Motoi Ugajin, Hisanori Kani
Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy is a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We report a case of a 79-yearold man who underwent immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclosporine for an acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease. Ten days after initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, the patient reported night sweats and purulent sputum, and chest computed tomography scan revealed consolidation. He was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and required vasopressor support with oxygen therapy...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30662691/aortitis-caused-by-abiotrophia-defectiva-description-of-two-cases
#3
David Nygren, Martin Älverbrandt, Torgny Sunnerhagen, Erika Fagman, Ellen Ostenfeld, Magnus Rasmussen
Abiotrophia defectiva is a well-known endocarditis pathogen, however it has never been described as a cause of primary aortitis. Here we describe the first published case of thoracic aortitis and an unusual case of aortic graft infection due to A. defectiva , which were both managed conservatively.
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30662690/changes-in-the-incidence-and-epidemiology-of-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-over-the-last-two-decades-in-crete-greece
#4
Eleni Vergadi, Antonia Manoura, Emmanouil Chatzakis, Emmanouil Karavitakis, Sofia Maraki, Emmanouil Galanakis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal disease. However, GBS rates and prevention strategies vary considerably worldwide. Herein, we investigated the burden and epidemiological trends of neonatal GBS infections in our area (Greece) over the last two decades. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that includes all cases of culture-proven GBS disease in infants <90 days old in the last 22 years. Neonatal GBS incidence was 0.17/1000 live births (95%CI: 0.11-0.21). A significant increase was noted during the second decade (0...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631407/transplacental-transmission-a-rare-case-of-ebola-virus-transmission
#5
Lawrence Okoror, Abdul Kamara, Brima Kargbo, James Bangura, Mat Lebby
During the mid-transmission period of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone, a 19-year-old pregnant woman, who was a petty trader in a health facility in Freetown, noticing no fetal movement for the past 3 days, reported to a health facility. Medical history and laboratory testing showed no abnormalities except that she was positive for sickle cell. She was not known to any surveillance team of having any epidemiological link to EVD case. She was induced with oral medications as well as IV infusion...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30542523/aortic-valve-endocarditis-with-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-a-rare-zoonosis
#6
Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen, Bjørn Blomberg, Shahin Gaïni, Steinar Lundemoen
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has an economic impact in animal husbandry by causing infection in swine, sheep and poultry. E. rhusiopathiae is present in the surface mucoid slime on fish, although fishes do not seem to be affected. Humans can get infected, maost often through occupational exposure and may suffer typical erysipeloid infection on exposed skin such as on hands and fingers, or deeper skin infections, and sometimes sepsis and endocarditis, associated with high case-fatality rate. We describe a case of aortic valve endocarditis caused by E...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344971/addison-s-disease-due-to-bilateral-adrenal-tuberculosis-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#7
Sung Ae Koh
We present a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis with bilateral adrenalitis resulting in Addison's disease. The 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) was performed, which revealed increased FDG uptake in the neck, mediastinal, and abdominal lymph nodes, and both adrenal glands, similar to the lesions noted on CT. We suspected the patient to have a lymphoma; therefore, axillary biopsy was performed, which revealed chronic granulomatous lesion with focal caseous necrosis...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344970/deferiprone-as-adjunctive-treatment-for-patients-with-invasive-mucormycosis-a-retrospective-case-series
#8
Maria N Chitasombat, Pimjai Niparuck
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening disease requiring multimodal treatment with antifungals and surgery. The mortality rate remains high, prompting consideration of alternative treatment strategies. Deferiprone has in vitro activity against Mucorales , but its efficacy has never been evaluated in humans. Here, we retrospectively analyzed patients with confirmed mucormycosis who received deferiprone from 2011 to 2017. Five patients had hematologic malignancies and one was diabetic. The sites of infection included sinus-orbit-cerebral (67%), lung (17%), and disseminated infection (17%)...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344969/aspergillus-aortitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-presenting-with-acute-endophthalmitis
#9
Joseph M Rocco, Maggie K Benson
Aspergillus is a common environmental mold most often recognized as an infectious agent in patients with severe immune compromise. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis in the absence of other infectious symptoms. The search for a systemic source revealed an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm. Surgical resection and pathology revealed angioinvasive aspergillus aortitis. Recent cardiac surgery has been noted to be a risk factor for angioinvasive aspergillosis...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344968/-streptobacillus-moniliformis-mitral-valve-endocarditis-and-septic-arthritis-the-challenges-of-diagnosing-rat-bite-fever-endocarditis
#10
Daisy Torres-Miranda, Mahdi Moshgriz, Marc Siegel
Streptobacillus moniliformis , the cause of rat-bite fever (RBF) in the United States, has rarely been reported as a cause of infectious endocarditis. In the majority of previously reported cases, the diagnosis was clinically- based in patients with underlying valvular abnormalities in the setting of positive blood culture for Streptobacillus moniliformis . We report a case of native valve endocarditis secondary to Streptobacillus moniliformis in a woman with a mitral valve vegetation but negative blood cultures where the diagnosis was established using molecular diagnostics on the valvular tissue...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30344967/wound-botulism-caused-by-clostridium-subterminale-after-a-heroin-injection
#11
Paris A Cook, Aimee Mishler, Dan Quan, Ashley Parrish-Garcia
Botulism is caused by toxin production from many species of Clostridium , most commonly Clostridium botulinum as well as C. baratii and C. butyricum . Development of wound botulism is associated with injection drug users but has also been described in traumatic injuries with exposure to soil. A patient presented to the emergency department with a complaint of descending, progressive weakness. He recently reported skin popping with heroin injections. Heptavalent botulinum antitoxin was obtained from the [Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283616/bacteremic-meningitis-due-to-pasteurella-multocida-resistant-to-first-line-antibiotic-therapy
#12
Damiano Larnè, Manuela Ceccarelli, Fabrizio Condorelli, Emmanuele Venanzi Rullo, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni Francesco Pellicanò
Pasteurella species reside in the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, especially in pets such as cats or dogs. Zoonotic transmission of Pasteurella to human is documented. We describe a case of meningitis in a 66-year-old woman with positive blood culture for Pasteurella multocida. Meningitis caused by zoonosis agents is a rare event, but it should be suspected in patients that have recreational or professional exposure to animals. In this case, not only the etiologic agent was rare, but the microorganism was also resistant to firstline antibiotic drugs...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721243/opportunistic-infections-in-end-stage-liver-disease
#13
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Sara Tedeschi, Pierluigi Viale
Liver cirrhosis is the 10th most common cause of death in Western world and infection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and represents the leading cause of acute liver decompensation. Patients with end-stage liver disease exhibit an important impairment of immune system. This condition, called cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction, summarizes both local and systemic immune system alterations in liver cirrhosis that play a pivotal role in determining both the high incidence of infections and the ominous infections related mortality in this population...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721242/abdominal-rectus-muscle-pyomyositis-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Tilemachos Fountoukis, Nikolaos Tsatsanidis, Maria Tilkeridou, Ioannis Konstantinou, Pantelis Fytas, Ioannis Skandalos
Pyomyositis is an uncommon primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscles, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Predisposing factors for pyomyositis include immunodeficiency, trauma, injection drug use, concurrent infection and malnutrition. The diagnosis, staging of the disease and differential diagnosis are established by ultrasound, CT and MRI. Treatment involves surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. We report a case of abdominal rectus muscle pyomyositis, which constitutes, as far as we know, the second reported in bibliography, while Prevotella disiens is firstly reported as causative agent...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721241/syphilis-infection-in-an-hiv-patient-presenting-with-leukemoid-reaction-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Athina Lioni, Markela-Pagonitsa Zorzou, Christina Kollia, Dimitrios Loulakis, Fotini Ntziora, Fotini Stergiou, Maria Boboli, Maria Chini
Leukemoid reaction (LR) is an uncommon though dreadful sign for the treating physician, as it is related to increased mortality. In the few series that have addressed its incidence and clinical significance, infectious causes count for about half of the cases of LR, the rest accounting for cancer, drugs or rarer causes. In the HIV setting, it represents an even rarer event, owing probably to the impaired granulocytic response of AIDS patients to bacterial agents. However no report exists as to the incidence of LR to the immune-restored HIV patients adequately treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721240/mexican-patients-with-hiv-have-a-high-prevalence-of-vertebral-fractures
#16
José Antonio Mata-Marín, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza, María de Los Ángeles Berrospe-Silva, Alberto Chaparro-Sánchez, Ana Gil-Avila, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low andmiddle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIVinfected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721239/meningitis-spondylodiscitis-pneumonia-and-septic-shock-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-a-previously-healthy-woman-with-isolated-igg2-igg3-iga-deficiency-and-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance
#17
Shahin Gaini, David Gudnason, Bjarni Á Steig, Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen
A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X-ray confirmed left lobar pneumonia. Two years later she was diagnosed with a pneumococcal pneumonia in her left lung with septic shock. An immune deficiency screen revealed slightly reduced IgA levels, low IgG2 levels, low IgG3 levels and high IgG1 levels...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721238/unresolved-issues-in-hepatitis-c-the-role-of-liver-non-parenchymal-cells-and-semaphorins
#18
Adriana Vince, Neven Papic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29071048/changes-in-antimicrobial-prescribing-behavior-after-the-introduction-of-the-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-a-pre-and-post-intervention-survey
#19
Ruchir Chavada, Harry N Walker, Deborah Tong, Amy Murray
The introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program is associated with a change in antimicrobial prescribing behavior. A proposed mechanism for this change is by impacting the prescribing etiquette described in qualitative studies. This study sought to detect a change in prescribing attitudes 12 months after the introduction of AMS and gauge utility of various AMS interventions. Surveys were distributed to doctors in two regional Australian hospitals on a convenience basis 6 months before, and 12 months after, the introduction of AMS...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29071047/patterns-of-vitamin-d-parathyroid-hormone-and-c-terminal-telopeptide-of-collagen-type-1-in-caucasian-and-african-descent-hiv-infected-populations-in-central-europe
#20
Sebastian Noe, Celia Oldenbuettel, Silke Heldwein, Hans Jaeger, Eva Wolf
Risk factors for bone loss in HIV patients might differ or have a different impact in African descent compared to Caucasian populations. The aim of the paper is to analyze the relevance of risk factors on surrogate markers of bone metabolism in HIV-infected African descent and Caucasian patients. This is a cross-sectional study in a single HIV-specialized research and clinical care center in Munich, Germany. We included 889 patients in the study, among them 771 Caucasians (86.7%). Only in Caucasians lower vitamin D levels [OR: 2...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
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