Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections may increase morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Until recently, standard antiviral drugs against CMV were limited to viral DNA polymerase inhibitors (val)ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir with a risk for cross-resistance. These drugs may also cause serious side effects. This narrative review provides an update on new antiviral agents that were approved for the prevention and treatment of CMV infections in transplant recipients. Letermovir was approved in 2017 for CMV prophylaxis in CMV-seropositive adults who received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant...
January 18, 2024: Infectious Disease Reports
Glenn Webb, Xinyue Evelyn Zhao
A model of epidemic dynamics is developed that incorporates continuous variables for infection age and vaccination age. The model analyzes pre-symptomatic and symptomatic periods of an infected individual in terms of infection age. This property is shown to be of major importance in the severity of the epidemic, when the infectious period of an infected individual precedes the symptomatic period. The model also analyzes the efficacy of vaccination in terms of vaccination age. The immunity to infection of vaccinated individuals varies with vaccination age and is also of major significance in the severity of the epidemic...
January 10, 2024: Infectious Disease Reports
Takanobu Hoshi, Satoshi Fujii, Kei Watanabe, Yuta Fukumura, Koji Miyazaki, Madoka Takahashi, Sakae Taniguchi, Shingo Kimura, Arisa Saito, Naoki Wada, Masaji Saijo, Kazunori Yamada, Kuninori Iwayama, Marie Itaya, Hideki Sato
Carbapenems are antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Although cefmetazole (CMZ) is considered effective for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) bacteremia, previous studies showed its limitations, including the influence of the initial antimicrobial agent. Here, we examined the effects of different approaches to antimicrobial therapy with CMZ and meropenem (MEPM) on the time to defervescence in ESBL-EC bacteremia. Notably, the influence of previous antimicrobial agents was excluded...
December 27, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Francesco Pizzo, Andrea Marino, Alessandra Di Nora, Serena Spampinato, Giovanni Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe Costanza, Federica Scarlata, Arturo Biasco, Maria Chiara Consentino, Riccardo Lubrano, Bruno Cacopardo, Giuseppe Nunnari, Martino Ruggieri, Piero Pavone
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been chiefly linked with substantial respiratory complications. However, emerging studies have brought attention to the occurrence of severe muscle inflammation (myositis) related to COVID-19, potentially leading to multi-organ failure and increased mortality. Myositis is generally characterized by heightened serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Acute myositis is characterized by an infiltration of viruses into calf muscle fibers, which may cause a subsequent inflammatory response leading to calf muscle pain...
December 25, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Christina-Michailia Sideratou, Christos Papaneophytou
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), instigated by the zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly transformed from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, into a widespread global pandemic. A significant post-infection condition, known as 'long- COVID-19' (or simply 'long- COVID'), emerges in a substantial subset of patients, manifesting with a constellation of over 200 reported symptoms that span multiple organ systems. This condition, also known as 'post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection' (PASC), presents a perplexing clinical picture with far-reaching implications, often persisting long after the acute phase...
December 15, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Hubert Dawid Ciepłucha, Mateusz Bożejko, Paweł Piesiak, Sylwia Serafińska, Bartosz Szetela
A large number of monkeypox (MPOX) cases have been reported in Europe and North America in 2022, and a new outbreak of this disease was declared. We describe a case of a patient with probable monkeypox during the height of this epidemic in Poland. The patient's symptoms resolved within two weeks, but over the next two months, he developed community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and, subsequently, non-specific pleuritis. The simultaneous occurrence of such severe infections in a previously healthy young man is not typical and suggests a potential underlying cause...
December 13, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Matthias Halfter, Ulrich Müseler, Marius Schawaller, Hagen Frickmann
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, German public health authorities launched various infection control procedures. In line with this, anti-pandemic infection control was also implemented for German military and police deployments. The presented study assessed the impact of this increased infection control effort on deployment-associated infections in a holistic approach. To do so, the results of post-deployment assessments offered to German soldiers and police officers at the Department of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases of the Bundeswehr Hospital Hamburg obtained during the pandemic period were compared to the results recorded during the pre-pandemic period in an exploratory, hypothesis-forming comparative study...
December 11, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Anna Gidari, Sara Benedetti, Sara Tordi, Anastasia Zoffoli, Debora Altobelli, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Daniela Francisci
BACKGROUND: Bictegravir (BIC), a recently introduced integrase inhibitor, is available in a single tablet regimen with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and emtricitabine (FTC) (BIC-STR). This study aimed to describe a real-life experience with BIC-STR. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with BIC-STR followed by the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Perugia (Perugia, Italy) from September 2019 to February 2023...
December 11, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Francesca Mariotti, Francesco Sponchiado, Filippo Lagi, Chiara Moroni, Riccardo Paggi, Seble Tekle Kiros, Vittorio Miele, Alessandro Bartoloni, Jessica Mencarini, The Cocora Working Group
Data regarding the relationship between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and active or latent tuberculosis (TB) are discordant. We conducted a retrospective study examining the impact of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) on the clinical progression of COVID-19 patients. We selected 213 patients admitted with COVID-19 in a tertiary-level Italian hospital (February-December 2020), who underwent a QuantiFERON-TB test (QFT) and/or chest radiological exam. The population was divided into three groups: (i) QFT negative and without radiological TB sequelae (Neg); (ii) QFT positive and without radiological TB sequelae (Pos); (iii) radiological TB sequelae regardless of QFT result (Seq)...
December 10, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Simona Kirbiš, Nina Sobotkiewicz, Barbara Antolinc Schaubach, Jernej Završnik, Peter Kokol, Matej Završnik, Helena Blažun Vošner
In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to pose a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influences of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remain unclear. This study aimed to assess these influences. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection...
December 6, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Gina Gualano, Drieda Zace, Silvia Mosti, Paola Mencarini, Maria Musso, Raffaella Libertone, Carlotta Cerva, Delia Goletti, Alessia Rianda, Franca Del Nonno, Laura Falasca, Fabrizio Palmieri
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) secondary to ATT treatment (TB-DILI) is reported in 2-28% of patients. We present here a series of clinical cases of suspected DILI arising during antituberculosis treatment, studied with the aid of liver biopsy. METHODS: this was a retrospective descriptive study including 10 tuberculosis patients who underwent liver biopsy for suspected TB-DILI at the "Lazzaro Spallanzani" Institute from 2017 to 2022. RESULTS: Ten patients who underwent LB were extracted from the database and included in the retrospective study cohort...
November 28, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Benjamin W French, Rajat Kaul, Jerrin George, Steven T Haller, David J Kennedy, Deepa Mukundan
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are increasing in prevalence and severity in the Great Lakes region, as well as both globally and locally. CyanoHABs have the potential to cause adverse effects on human health due to the production of cyanotoxins from cyanobacteria. Common routes of exposure include recreational exposure (swimming, skiing, and boating), ingestion, and aerosolization of contaminated water sources. Cyanotoxins have been shown to adversely affect several major organ systems contributing to hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal distress, and pulmonary inflammation...
November 20, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Alexandre Ansorge, Michael Betz, Oliver Wetzel, Marco Dimitri Burkhard, Igor Dichovski, Mazda Farshad, Ilker Uçkay
This study evaluates potential associations between the perioperative urinary catheter (UC) carriage and (Gram-negative) surgical site infections (SSIs) after spine surgery. It is a retrospective, single-center, case-control study stratifying group comparisons, case-mix adjustments using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Around half of the patients (2734/5485 surgeries) carried a UC for 1 day (median duration) (interquartile range, 1-1 days). Patients with perioperative UC carriage were compared to those without regarding SSI, in general, and Gram-negative, exclusively...
November 10, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Lucas S Blanton
Murine typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi , an obligately intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillus. Rats ( Rattus species ) and their fleas ( Xenopsylla cheopis ) serve as the reservoir and vector of R. typhi , respectively. Humans become infected when R. typhi -infected flea feces are rubbed into flea bite wounds or onto mucous membranes. The disease is endemic throughout much of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical seaboard regions where rats are common. Murine typhus is reemerging as an important cause of febrile illness in Texas and Southern California, where an alternate transmission cycle likely involves opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) and cat fleas ( Ctenocephalides felis )...
October 26, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Varol Tunali, Metin Korkmaz
In a rapidly evolving global landscape characterized by increased international travel, migration, and ecological shifts, this study sheds light on the emergence of protozoal and helminthic infections targeting the central nervous system (CNS) within Europe. Despite being traditionally associated with tropical regions, these infections are progressively becoming more prevalent in non-endemic areas. By scrutinizing the inherent risks, potential outcomes, and attendant challenges, this study underscores the intricate interplay between diagnostic limitations, susceptibility of specific population subsets, and the profound influence of climate fluctuations...
October 25, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Ioannis Karniadakis, Nikolaos Mazonakis, Constantinos Tsioutis, Michail Papadakis, Ioulia Markaki, Nikolaos Spernovasilis
Vaccines remain the cornerstone of medical prevention and are highly effective in reducing the risk of severe disease and death due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the context of expanding the therapeutic armamentarium against COVID-19, molnupiravir (Lagevrio) and ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid) were developed, constituting the first effective oral treatments against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this narrative review, we retrospectively inquired into the clinical trials and real-world studies investigating the efficacy of these agents...
October 25, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Saleh A K Saleh, Heba M Adly
UNLABELLED: Evidence suggests that air pollution, specifically the particulate matters PM2.5 and PM10, plays a key role in exacerbating the risk of prolonged symptoms following COVID-19 infection. AIM: This study endeavors to elucidate the potential interaction between chronic air pollution exposure and the manifestation of long COVID symptoms within a cohort based in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Participants included residents from the Makkah region who had recovered from COVID-19 between 2022 and 2023...
October 19, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Ornela Velollari, Christian Malte Reinhardt, Maike Knorr, Katharina Schnitzler, Dirk Graafen, Matthias Miederer, Ralph Stephan von Bardeleben, Thomas Münzel, Kai-Helge Schmidt, Christian Giebels, Hans-Joachim Schäfers, Lukas Hobohm
Cutibacterium acnes , an integral component of the skin's customary bacterial flora, represents a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium characterized by its low virulence. Despite its low virulence, the pathogen can cause profound-seated infections as well as infections linked to medical devices. We report a case study of a prosthesis endocarditis accompanied by a paraaortic abscess caused by C. acnes , a development occurring five years prior to composite aortic root and valve replacement. At the point of admission, the patient presented with a combination of symptoms hinting at a subacute progression, such as weight loss, chest pain, and limitations of cardiopulmonary functionality...
October 18, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Rodney P Jones, Andrey Ponomarenko
Since 2020, COVID-19 has caused serious mortality around the world. Given the ambiguity in establishing COVID-19 as the direct cause of death, we first investigate the effects of age and sex on all-cause mortality during 2020 and 2021 in England and Wales. Since infectious agents have their own unique age profile for death, we use a 9-year time series and several different methods to adjust single-year-of-age deaths in England and Wales during 2019 (the pre-COVID-19 base year) to a pathogen-neutral single-year-of-age baseline...
October 8, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
Elfira Yusri, Syandrez Prima Putra, Liganda Endo Mahata, Andani Eka Putra
Limited evidence exists on whether initial viral load and patient characteristics can predict unfavorable outcomes in future outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between the initial viral load, patient characteristics, and outcomes during the second-wave COVID-19 outbreak in West Sumatra, Indonesia. We analyzed the COVID-19 patients admitted to a secondary hospital between the 1 June 2021 and the 31 August 2021. The initial viral load was determined using the real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) cycle threshold (Ct) value, categorized as low (LIVL, Ct > 20) or high (HIVL, Ct ≤ 20)...
October 8, 2023: Infectious Disease Reports
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