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Cancer Growth and Metastasis

Lynn Roy, Alexander Bobbs, Rachel Sattler, Jeffrey L Kurkewich, Paige B Dausinas, Prakash Nallathamby, Karen D Cowden Dahl
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an attractive therapeutic target due to their predicted role in both metastasis and chemoresistance. One of the most commonly agreed on markers for ovarian CSCs is the cell surface protein CD133. CD133+ ovarian CSCs have increased tumorigenicity, resistance to chemotherapy, and increased metastasis. Therefore, we were interested in defining how CD133 is regulated and whether it has a role in tumor metastasis. Previously we found that overexpression of the transcription factor, ARID3B , increased the expression of PROM1 (CD133 gene) in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors...
2018: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Kimberly M Arnold, Nicole J Flynn, Adam Raben, Lindsay Romak, Yan Yu, Adam P Dicker, Firas Mourtada, Jennifer Sims-Mourtada
In addition to inducing lethal DNA damage in tumor and stromal cells, radiation can alter the interactions of tumor cells with their microenvironment. Recent technological advances in planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy have allowed delivery of larger doses per fraction (hypofractionation) while minimizing dose to normal tissues with higher precision. The effects of radiation on the tumor microenvironment vary with dose and fractionation schedule. In this review, we summarize the effects of conventional and hypofractionated radiation regimens on the immune system and tumor stroma...
2018: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Tanja Grimmig, Eva-Maria Moll, Kerstin Kloos, Rebecca Thumm, Romana Moench, Simone Callies, Jennifer Kreckel, Malte Vetterlein, Joerg Pelz, Buelent Polat, Sudipta Tripathi, Roberta Rehder, Carmen M Ribas, Anil Chandraker, Christoph-T Germer, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Martin Gasser
In patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) represents a promising treatment strategy. Here, we studied the role of hyperthermic chemotherapy on heat shock protein (HSP) expression and induction of tumor cell death and survival. HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 combined with effects on tumor cell proliferation and chemosensitivity were analyzed in human colon cancer. Hyperthermic chemotherapy resulted in significant HSP27/HSP70 and HSP90 gene/protein overexpression in analyzed HT-29/SW480/SW620 colon cancer cells and peritoneal metastases from patients displaying amplified expression of proliferation markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Sandrine Bekaert, Marianne Fillet, Benoit Detry, Muriel Pichavant, Raphael Marée, Agnes Noel, Natacha Rocks, Didier Cataldo
Mechanisms explaining the propensity of a primary tumor to metastasize to a specific site still need to be unveiled, and clinical studies support a link between chronic inflammation and cancer dissemination to specific tissues. Using different mouse models, we demonstrate the role of inflammation-generated extracellular matrix fragments ac-PGP ( N -acetyl-proline-glycine-proline) on tumor cells dissemination to lung parenchyma. In mice exposed to cigarette smoke or lipopolysaccharide, lung neutrophilic inflammation produces increased levels of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) that contributes to collagen breakdown and allows the release of ac-PGP tripeptides...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Kim Donati, Christelle Sépult, Natacha Rocks, Silvia Blacher, Catherine Gérard, Agnès Noel, Didier Cataldo
The premetastatic niche in distant organs prior to metastatic cell arrival emerged as an important step in the metastatic cascade. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In particular, whether neutrophil recruitment at a premetastatic stage promotes or inhibits metastatic cell seeding has to be clarified. We aimed at unraveling how neutrophil infiltration in lung parenchyma induced by the distant primary tumor influences the establishment of lung metastasis. Elevated neutrophil counts and IL-16 levels were found in premetastatic lungs in a syngenic mouse model using 4T1 tumor cells...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
John K Cowell, Yong Teng, N George Bendzunas, Roxan Ara, Ali S Arbab, Eileen J Kennedy
The WASF3 gene facilitates the metastatic phenotype, and its inactivation leads to suppression of invasion and metastasis regardless of the genetic background of the cancer cell. This reliance on WASF3 to facilitate metastasis suggests that targeting its function could serve as an effective strategy to suppress metastasis. WASF3 stability and function are regulated by the WASF Regulatory Complex (WRC) of proteins, particularly CYFIP1 and NCKAP1. Knockdown of these proteins in vitro leads to disruption of the WRC and suppression of invasion...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Farid G Khalafalla, Mohammad W Khan
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer and one of the most lethal human cancers. Inflammation is a critical component in PDAC initiation and progression. Inflammation also contributes to the aggressiveness of PDAC indirectly via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), altogether leading to enhanced resistance to chemotherapy and poor survival rates. This review gives an overview of the key pro-inflammatory signaling pathways involved in PDAC pathogenesis and discusses the role of inflammation in induction of EMT and development of chemoresistance in patients with PDAC...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Satya S Sadhu, Shenggang Wang, Rakesh Dachineni, Ranjith Kumar Averineni, Yang Yang, Huihui Yin, G Jayarama Bhat, Xiangming Guan
Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is an endogenous peptide and the oxidized form of glutathione. The impacts of GSSG on cell function/dysfunction remain largely unexplored due to a lack of method to specifically increase intracellular GSSG. We recently developed GSSG liposomes that can specifically increase intracellular GSSG. The increase affected 3 of the 4 essential steps (cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of cancer metastasis in vitro and, accordingly, produced a significant inhibition of cancer metastasis in vivo...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Satya S Sadhu, Shenggang Wang, Rakesh Dachineni, Ranjith Kumar Averineni, Teresa Seefeldt, Jiashu Xie, Hemachand Tummala, G Jayarama Bhat, Xiangming Guan
Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer mortality. Despite extensive research efforts, effective treatment for cancer metastasis is still lacking. Cancer metastasis involves 4 essential steps: cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion. Detachment is the first and required step for metastasis. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is derived from the oxidation of glutathione (GSH), which is present in biological systems in millimolar concentration. Although GSSG is commercially available, the impact of GSSG on cell functions/dysfunctions has not been fully explored due to the fact that GSSG is not cell membrane permeable and a lack of method to specifically increase GSSG in cells...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Ahmed M Abd El-Aziz, Eman A Ibrahim, Ashraf Abd-Elmoghny, Mohammed El-Bassiouny, Zina M Laban, Somaia A Saad El-Din, Youhanna Shohdy
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a relatively rare type of neoplasms. In Egypt, it represents 2.5% of gastrointestinal tumors and 0.3% of all malignancies. Most of the GISTs develop in the stomach. AIM: To reveal the significance of Her2/neu immunohistochemical expression in GIST and its correlation with other histopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after regular follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective and prospective cohort...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Barry H Smith, Tapan Parikh, Zoe P Andrada, Thomas J Fahey, Nathaniel Berman, Madeline Wiles, Angelica Nazarian, Joanne Thomas, Anna Arreglado, Eugene Akahoho, David J Wolf, Daniel M Levine, Thomas S Parker, Lawrence S Gazda, Allyson J Ocean
PURPOSE: Agarose macrobeads containing mouse renal adenocarcinoma cells (RMBs) release factors, suppressing the growth of cancer cells and prolonging survival in spontaneous or induced tumor animals, mediated, in part, by increased levels of myocyte-enhancing factor (MEF2D) via EGFR-and AKT-signaling pathways. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of RMBs in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic cancers, and then its efficacy (survival), which is the secondary objective...
2016: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Hadi A Goubran, Mohamed Elemary, Miryana Radosevich, Jerard Seghatchian, Magdy El-Ekiaby, Thierry Burnouf
For many years, transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma units has been part of the standard therapeutic arsenal used along the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with malignancies. Although the benefits of these blood products are not a matter of debate in specific pathological conditions associated with life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, increasing clinical evidence is nevertheless suggesting that deliberate transfusion of these blood components may actually lead to negative clinical outcomes by affecting patient's immune defense, stimulating tumor growth, tethering, and dissemination...
2016: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Nelson S Yee, Natalia Ignatenko, Niklas Finnberg, Nikki Lee, Douglas Stairs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Arabinda Das, Ron Ron Cheng, Megan L T Hilbert, Yaenette N Dixon-Moh, Michele Decandio, William Alex Vandergrift, Naren L Banik, Scott M Lindhorst, David Cachia, Abhay K Varma, Sunil J Patel, Pierre Giglio
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Sten Friberg, Andreas Nyström
BACKGROUND: Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Julianna Padavano, Rebecca S Henkhaus, Hwudaurw Chen, Bethany A Skovan, Haiyan Cui, Natalia A Ignatenko
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RAS (G12C) oncogene in both alleles...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Omer F Kuzu, Felix D Nguyen, Mohammad A Noory, Arati Sharma
Despite the considerable progress in understanding the biology of human cancer and technological advancement in drug discovery, treatment failure remains an inevitable outcome for most cancer patients with advanced diseases, including melanoma. Despite FDA-approved BRAF-targeted therapies for advanced stage melanoma showed a great deal of promise, development of rapid resistance limits the success. Hence, the overall success rate of melanoma therapy still remains to be one of the worst compared to other malignancies...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Susan LeGendre-McGhee, Photini S Rice, R Andrew Wall, Kyle J Sprute, Ramireddy Bommireddy, Amber M Luttman, Raymond B Nagle, Edward R Abril, Katrina Farrell, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Denise J Roe, Eugene W Gerner, Natalia A Ignatenko, Jennifer K Barton
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, nondestructive imaging modality that enables time-serial assessment of adenoma development in the mouse model of colorectal cancer. In this study, OCT was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions with the experimental antitumor agent α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac during early [chemoprevention (CP)] and late stages [chemotherapy (CT)] of colon tumorigenesis. Biological endpoints for drug interventions included OCT-generated tumor number and tumor burden...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Marie-Pier Tétreault
Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Alexander S Bobbs, Jennifer M Cole, Karen D Cowden Dahl
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from a gynecological malignancy in the United States. By the time a woman is diagnosed with OC, the tumor has usually metastasized. Mouse models that are used to recapitulate different aspects of human OC have been evolving for nearly 40 years. Xenograft studies in immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice have enhanced our knowledge of metastasis and immune cell involvement in cancer. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) can accurately reflect metastasis, response to therapy, and diverse genetics found in patients...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
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