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Biomolecules & Therapeutics

A-Reum Kim, Jee Young Sung, Seung Bae Rho, Yong-Nyun Kim, Kyungsil Yoon
Suppressor of Variegation 3-9 Homolog 2 (SUV39H2) methylates the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 and induces heterochromatin formation, resulting in transcriptional repression or silencing of target genes. SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 have a role in embryonic development, and SUV39H1 was shown to suppress cell cycle progression associated with Rb. However, the function of human SUV39H2 has not been extensively studied. We observed that forced expression of SUV39H2 decreased cell proliferation by inducing G₁ cell cycle arrest...
February 15, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jin-Sun Park, Yea-Hyun Leem, Jung-Eun Park, Do-Yeon Kim, Hee-Sun Kim
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree ( Tabebuia avellanedae ), elicits neuroprotective effects in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. β-LAP reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fiber loss induced by MPTP in the dorsolateral striatum, and alleviated motor dysfunction as determined by the rotarod test...
February 8, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Minjeong Kim, Haengdueng Jeong, Buhyun Lee, Yejin Cho, Won Kee Yoon, Ahreum Cho, Guideock Kwon, Ki Taek Nam, Hunjoo Ha, Kyung-Min Lim
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often suffer from diverse skin disorders, which might be attributable to skin barrier dysfunction. To explore the role of lipid alterations in the epidermis in DM skin disorders, we quantitated 49 lipids (34 ceramides, 14 free fatty acids (FFAs), and cholesterol) in the skin epidermis, liver, and kidneys of db/db mice, a Type 2 DM model, using UPLC-MS/MS. The expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis was also evaluated. With the full establishment of hyperglycemia at the age of 20 weeks, remarkable lipid enrichment was noted in the skin of the db/db mice, especially at the epidermis and subcutaneous fat bed...
February 8, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sun Mi Gu, Sung Yeon Kim, Santosh Lamichhane, Jin Tae Hong, Jaesuk Yun
Limonene is a cyclic terpene found in citrus essential oils and inhibits methamphetamine- induced locomotor activity. Drug dependence is a severe neuropsychiatric condition that depends in part on changes in neurotransmission and neuroadaptation, induced by exposure to recreational drugs such as morphine and methamphetamine. In this study, we investigated the effects of limonene on the psychological dependence induced by drug abuse. The development of sensitization, dopamine receptor supersensitivity, and conditioned place preferences in rats was measured following administration of limonene (10 or 20 mg/kg) and methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) for 4 days...
February 8, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Schley Valencia, Edson Luck Gonzales, Keremkleroo Jym Adil, Se Jin Jeon, Kyoung Ja Kwon, Kyu Suk Cho, Chan Young Shin
Behavioral analysis in mice provided important contributions in helping understand and treat numerous neurobehavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders. The behavioral performance of animals and humans is widely different among individuals but the neurobehavioral mechanism of the innate difference is seldom investigated. Many neurologic conditions share comorbid symptoms that may have common pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy. The forced swim test (FST) has been commonly used to evaluate the "antidepressant" properties of drugs yet the individual difference analysis of this test was left scantly investigated along with the possible connection among other behavioral domains...
January 11, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jinhyuk Na, Soo An Choi, Adnan Khan, Joo Young Huh, Lingjuan Piao, Inah Hwang, Hunjoo Ha, Youngja H Park
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased with the incidence of obesity; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) along with transcriptomics were applied on animal models to draw a mechanistic insight of NAFLD. Wild type (WT) and catalase knockout (CKO) mice were fed with normal fat diet (NFD) or high fat diet (HFD) to identify the changes in metabolic and transcriptomic profiles caused by catalase gene deletion in correspondence with HFD...
January 11, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Seonmin Kim, Do Gyeong Kim, Edson Luck Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Dongpil Shin, Se Jin Jeon, Chan Young Shin, TaeJin Ahn, Kyoung Ja Kwon
Dysregulation of excitatory neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is widely used to model neurobehavioral pathologies and underlying mechanisms. There is ample evidence that overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent neurotransmission may induce neurobehavioral abnormalities, such as repetitive behaviors and hypersensitization to nociception and cognitive disruption, pharmacological modeling using N-methyl-D-aspartate has been limited due to the induction of neurotoxicity and blood brain barrier breakdown, especially in young animals...
December 24, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Myung-A Cho, Songhee Han, Young-Ran Lim, Vitchan Kim, Harim Kim, Donghak Kim
The study of the genus Streptomyces is of particular interest because it produces a wide array of clinically important bioactive molecules. The genomic sequencing of many Streptomyces species has revealed unusually large numbers of cytochrome P450 genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many macrolide biosynthetic pathways are catalyzed by a series of enzymes in gene clusters including polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. In general, Streptomyces P450 enzymes accelerate the final, post-polyketide synthesis steps to enhance the structural architecture of macrolide chemistry...
December 18, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hyangmi Kim, Nayoung Yi, Byung-Rok Do, Ai-Young Lee
Coculture with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes. To enhance outcomes of skin disorders caused by melanocyte loss or death, mixed transplantation with ADSCs has been suggested. However, role of cocultured ADSCs in proliferation and migration of melanocytes remains unclear. This study determined the effect of ADSCs on production of growth factors and expression levels of intergrins in primary culture of adult human melanocytes with or without ADSCs and in nude mice grafted with such melanocytes...
December 11, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sorim Nam, Aram Lee, Jihyun Lim, Jong-Seok Lim
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that are able to suppress T cell function are a heterogeneous cell population frequently observed in cancer, infection, and autoimmune disease. Immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells and its ligand (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells or antigen-presenting cells, have received extensive attention in the past decade due to the dramatic effects of their inhibitors in patients with various types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PD-1 on MDSCs in bone marrow, spleen, and tumor tissue derived from breast tumor-bearing mice...
December 6, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Youra Kang, Ji-Ha Lee, Young Ho Seo, Jung-Hee Jang, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Byoungduck Park
Methamphetamine (METH) acts strongly on the nervous system and damages neurons and is known to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, red wine and several fruits exhibit antioxidant properties that protect neurons from oxidative damage and promote neuronal survival. Especially, epicatechin (EC) is a powerful flavonoid with antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and antimutagenic effects as well as antioxidant effects. We therefore investigated whether EC could prevent METH-induced neurotoxicity using HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells...
December 5, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hyun-Jung Kim
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can proliferate and differentiate into multiple cell types that constitute the nervous system. NSCs can be derived from developing fetuses, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. NSCs provide a good platform to screen drugs for neurodegenerative diseases and also have potential applications in regenerative medicine. Natural products have long been used as compounds to develop new drugs. In this review, natural products that control NSC fate and induce their differentiation into neurons or glia are discussed...
November 27, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Ju Hwan Kim, Jin-Koo Lee, Hyung-Gun Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, Hak Rim Kim
Technological advances of mankind, through the development of electrical and communication technologies, have resulted in the exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). Technological growth is expected to continue; as such, the amount of EMF exposure will continue to increase steadily. In particular, the use-time of smart phones, that have become a necessity for modern people, is steadily increasing. Social concerns and interest in the impact on the cranial nervous system are increased when considering the area where the mobile phone is used...
November 27, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Suk Ju Cho, Kyoung Ah Kang, Mei Jing Piao, Yea Seong Ryu, Pincha Devage Sameera Madushan Fernando, Ao Xuan Zhen, Yu Jae Hyun, Mee Jung Ahn, Hee Kyoung Kang, Jin Won Hyun
Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy and in diabetes complications, such as nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic neuropathy, which is the most frequent complications of diabetes, affect sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. This study aimed to investigate whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) protects SH-SY5Y neuronal cells against high glucose-induced toxicity. In the current study, we found that diabetic patients exhibited higher lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress than healthy subjects...
November 27, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
So Jung Sung, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Yong-Kil Hong, Young Ae Joe
Mebendazole (MBZ), a microtubule depolymerizing drug commonly used for the treatment of helminthic infections, has recently been noted as a repositioning candidate for angiogenesis inhibition and cancer therapy. However, the definite anti-angiogenic mechanism of MBZ remains unclear. In this study, we explored the inhibitory mechanism of MBZ in endothelial cells (ECs) and developed a novel strategy to improve its anti-angiogenic therapy. Treatment of ECs with MBZ led to inhibition of EC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in several culture conditions in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or FBS, without selectivity of growth factors, although MBZ is known to inhibit VEGF receptor 2 kinase...
January 31, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sang Chul Kim, Eun-Hye Lee, Ji Hea Yu, Sang-Mi Kim, Bae-Geun Nam, Hee Yong Chung, Yeon-Soo Kim, Sung-Rae Cho, Chang-Hwan Park
Cell therapeutic agents for treating degenerative brain diseases using neural stem cells are actively being developed. However, few systems have been developed to monitor in real time whether the transplanted neural stem cells are actually differentiated into neurons. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a technology capable of specifically monitoring neuronal differentiation in vivo . In this study, we established a system that expresses cell membrane-targeting red fluorescent protein under control of the Synapsin promoter in order to specifically monitor differentiation from neural stem cells into neurons...
November 21, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Ao Xuan Zhen, Mei Jing Piao, Yu Jae Hyun, Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Suk Ju Cho, Hee Kyoung Kang, Young Sang Koh, Mee Jung Ahn, Tae Hoon Kim, Jin Won Hyun
Purpurogallin, a natural phenol obtained from oak nutgalls, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, in addition to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation that induces cell apoptosis via oxidative stress, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) was shown to trigger excessive production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we observed that UVB radiation and PM2.5 severely damaged human HaCaT keratinocytes, disrupting cellular DNA, lipids, and proteins and causing mitochondrial depolarization...
November 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jong Soo Han, Su Jin Kim, Yoonjin Nam, Hak Yeong Lee, Geon Min Kim, Dong Min Kim, Uy Dong Sohn
Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM...
November 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Asad Ul-Haq, Ming Li Jin, Kwang Won Jeong, Hwan-Mook Kim, Kwang-Hoon Chun
Mixed lineage leukemia proteins (MLL) are the key histone lysine methyltransferases that regulate expression of diverse genes. Aberrant activation of MLL promotes leukemia as well as solid tumors in humans, highlighting the urgent need for the development of an MLL inhibitor. We screened and isolated MLL1-binding ssRNAs using SELEX (<u>S</u>ystemic <u>E</u>volution of <u>L</u>igands by <u>E</u>xponential enrichment) technology. When sequences in sub-libraries were obtained using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the most enriched aptamers-APT1 and APT2-represented about 30% and 26% of sub-library populations, respectively...
November 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Dong-Geun Kang, Hyun Jae Lee, Choong Jae Lee, Jin Sung Park
In the present study, we tried to examine whether resveratrol regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through affecting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in articular chondrocytes. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), ADAMTS-5 and type II collagen...
November 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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