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European Journal of Sport Science

Yixiong Cui, Miguel-Ángel Gómez, Bruno Gonçalves, Jaime Sampaio
The study was aimed to explore distinct players' groups according to their anthropometric and individual features, and to identify the key performance indicators that discriminate player groups. Match statistics, anthropometric and personal features of 1188 male players competing during 2015-2017 main draw Grand Slam singles events were collected. Height, weight, experience, handedness and backhand style were used to automatically classify players into different clusters through unsupervised learning model...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Amr Zaatar, Zdenek Svoboda, Michal Botek, Renata Varekova, Petr Stastny
Poor neuromuscular control and fatigue have been proposed as a risk factor for non-contact injuries especially around peak height velocity (PHV). This study explored the effects of competitive soccer match-play on neuromuscular performance and muscle damage in male youth soccer players. 24 youth players aged 13-16y were split into a PHV group (-0.5 to 0.5y) and post PHV group (1.0-2.5y) based on maturity off-set. Leg stiffness, reactive strength index (RSI), muscle activation, creatine kinase (CK), and muscle soreness were determined pre and post a competitive soccer match...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Lee Kevin Page, Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron
This study investigated the effects of oral taurine supplementation on cycling time to exhaustion at a fixed-intensity and thermoregulation in the heat. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design, 11 healthy males participated in a time to exhaustion test in the heat (35°C, 40% RH), cycling at the power output associated with ventilatory threshold, 2 h after ingesting: Taurine (50 mg kg-1 ) or placebo (3 mg kg-1  maltodextrin). Core and mean skin temperature, mean sweat rate, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort and thermal sensation were measured during exercise and blood lactate concentration (B[La]) was measured after exercise...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Hossein Rafiei, Emily Robinson, Julianne Barry, Mary Elizabeth Jung, Jonathan Peter Little
Exercise is recognized as a frontline therapy for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) but the optimal type of exercise is not yet determined. We compared the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvement of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived markers of glycaemic variability, and biomarkers of endothelial cell damage (CD31+ and CD62+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs)) within a population at elevated risk of developing T2D...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, Alessia Lanzillotta, Bruno Ruscello, Stefano D'ottavio, Marco Alessandrini
Individuals have to reweight the respective contribution of the different sources of sensorial information for regulating posture and balance, especially during fine task execution. Given the evidences indicating strategy during swing performance as associated with prioritization of task-relevant visuospatial information for skill execution, the aim of the present work is to assess differences in visual dependency (VD) and postural control in a population of expert (EXP) and non-expert (NEXP) golfers when compared with healthy subjects (HC) and to discover possible relationships between these outcomes and swing performance...
February 17, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Twan Ten Haaf, Carl Foster, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Selma van Staveren, Leo Koenderman, Jos J de Koning
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the change in (sub)maximal heart rate after intensified training is associated with the change in performance. Thirty subjects were recruited who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests to exhaustion 2 weeks before (pre), 1 week after (post) and 5 weeks after (follow-up) an 8-day non-competitive amateur cycling event (TFL). The exercise volume during the TFL was 7.7 fold the volume during the preparation period. Heart rate and cardiopulmonary parameters were obtained at standardised absolute submaximal workloads (low, medium and high intensity) and at peak level each test...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Kirstine Obling, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Cuno Rasmussen, Kristian Overgaard
Performing physical activity is considered health promoting but may induce a need for subsequent rest periods. This study aimed to determine the within-day interactions between vigorous physical activity (VPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness. We tested the hypothesis that VPA is associated with a temporary subsequent increase in SB. One week of accelerometer data containing a minimum of one 10-min bout of VPA from 62 participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (31-50 years old) were obtained from the MILE study...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Said El-Ashker, Joanna M Allardyce, Brian P Carson
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fatiguing exercise on sex-related differences in the function of hamstring and quadriceps muscles at several angular velocities and joint angles. Physically active participants (50 male: 28.7 ± 4.5y, 1.82 ± 0.07 m, 82.3 ± 6.87 kg; 50 female: 27.0 ± 5.8y, 1.61 ± 0.08 m, 68.75 ± 9.24 kg) carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at three different angular velocities (60/180/300°/s)...
February 10, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Matthew Stewart Brook, Daniel James Wilkinson, Ken Smith, Philip James Atherton
Skeletal muscle has indispensable roles in regulating whole body health (e.g. glycemic control, energy consumption) and, in being central in locomotion, is crucial in maintaining quality-of-life. Therefore, understanding the regulation of muscle mass is of significant importance. Resistance exercise training (RET) combined with supportive nutrition is an effective strategy to achieve muscle hypertrophy by driving chronic elevations in muscle protein synthesis (MPS). The regulation of muscle protein synthesis is a coordinated process, in requiring ribosomes to translate mRNA and sufficient myonuclei density to provide the platform for ribosome and mRNA transcription; as such MPS is determined by both translational efficiency (ribosome activity) and translational capacity (ribosome number)...
February 9, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Parvin Farzanegi, Amir Dana, Zeynab Ebrahimpoor, Mahdieh Asadi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disorder which is associated with accumulation of fats in the liver. It causes a wide variety of pathological effects such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the initiation and progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are likely a significant mechanism which can lead to hepatic cell death and tissue injury...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Paul Macadam, Sergi Nuell, John B Cronin, Ryu Nagahara, Aaron M Uthoff, Scott P Graham, Farhan Tinwala, Jono Neville
This study aimed to understand the kinematic and kinetic differences between two sprint starts: block and split-stance standing. Fourteen sub-elite male sprinters (100 m time: 11.40 ± 0.39 s) performed block and split-stance standing starts sprints over 30 m of in-ground force platforms in a randomised order. Independent t-tests and repeated measures mixed model analysis of variance were used to analyse the between-condition variables across conditions, and over four step phases. Block start sprints resulted in significantly (p < ...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Carl Jewell, Joseph Hamill, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Katherine A Boyer
INTRODUCTION: In response to fatigue during an exhaustive treadmill run, forefoot runner's muscles must adapt to maintain their pace. From a neuromuscular control perspective, certain muscles may not be able to sustain the force to meet the run's demands; thus, there may be alternative muscle coordination in the lower extremity that allows for continued running for an extended period of time. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in muscle coordination during a prolonged run in forefoot runners...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Julia E Hussey, Brad Donohue, Kimberly A Barchard, Daniel N Allen
Limited research has examined the contributions of sport-specific family relationship problems to athlete mental health. In the current study we examined the extent to which collegiate athletes' family problems (as measured by the Student Athlete Relationship Instrument factors, SARI) predict athletes' general mental health distress and specific mental health symptoms that are relatively common in athletes (i.e. depression, anxiety, and drug and alcohol use). The study included 85 collegiate athletes (intramural, n = 26; club sport, n = 12; NCAA Division I, n = 47)...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
André Klostermann
The quiet eye (QE) is a gaze phenomenon that has been studied over more than two decades. However, the underlying mechanisms of the well-known expertise effect, namely, longer QE durations in experts when compared to less-skilled athletes remain unclear. Therefore, from a functional perspective, an inhibition hypothesis was proposed that explains long QE durations in experts with increased inhibition requirements over movement parametrisation. This hypothesis was tested by making use of the especial-skill effect in basketball free throw which refers to the observation of higher actual performance than would be predicted on the basis of performance at the nearby locations...
February 6, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Ramon Martins de Oliveira, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, James Derek Kingsley, Deivid Gomes da Silva, Diego Bittencourt, Flávia Rossi Caruso, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Cleiton Augusto Libardi
The aim of the present study was to investigate if resistance training (RT), performed with individualized recovery between sessions (RT-IND), promotes greater gains in strength and muscle mass and reduces the variability on adaptations compared to RT with fixed recovery intervals (RT-FIX). Twenty young men (age 21.9 ± 3.3 years) were randomized in the RT-IND and RT-FIX groups. Five days before the beginning of the training, measurements of the root mean square of successive R-R intervals differences (RMSSD) values of each individual were performed to establish the baseline values...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Guillermo J Olcina, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Linda H Chung, Elena Marín-Cascales, Pedro E Alcaraz, Rafael Timón
Hypoxic training methods are increasingly being used by researchers in an attempt to improve performance in normoxic ambients. Moreover, previous research suggests that resistance training in hypoxia can cause physiological and muscle adaptations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity resistance circuit-based (HRC) training in hypoxia on body composition and strength performance. The secondary aim was to examine the effects of HRC on metabolic parameters. Twenty-eight male participants were randomly assigned to either hypoxia (Fraction of inspired oxygen [FI O2 ] = 15%; HRChyp : n = 15; age: 24...
January 13, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Marvin Gaudino, Guillaume Martinent, Guillaume Y Millet, Michel Nicolas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to: (a) examine the time courses of runners' recovery-stress states within the month following a demanding Mountain Ultra-Marathon (MUM) race; and (b) explore the role of primary and secondary appraisals in these trajectories. DESIGN: A seven-wave one-month longitudinal design was used with one measurement point within two days before the race to measure appraisals and six time points within the month following the race to assess recovery-stress states experienced by athletes...
January 13, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Terje Dalen, Håvard Lorås, Geir Håvard Hjelde, Terje Naess Kjøsnes, Ulrik Wisløff
The aim of the current study was (1) to investigate whether the number of accelerations is a more precise estimate of performance decline in soccer compared to distances with high-speed running (HSR) and (2) to compare changes in the number of accelerations and HSR distances across playing positions in order to examine whether the match profiles of the physical measures are consistent or demonstrate high interposition variability. The dataset includes domestic home games (N = 34) over three full seasons (2012-2014) for a team in the Norwegian Elite League...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Vicente Lizondo, Jordi Caplliure-Llopis, Dolores Escrivá, Jose Enrique De La Rubia, Carlos Barrios
The objective of this study was to analyse bone quality parameters of football players with intellectual disability (ID) participating in adapted competitive football. Sixty-seven male football players with ID were studied: 22 with Down syndrome (DS) and 45 without DS. The average age was 26 years (range: 16 ̶ 50 years). A group of 25 age-matched sedentary individuals with ID (11 DS and 14 non-DS) and another group of 20 healthy participants of the same age group not involved in competitive football were comparatively analysed...
January 9, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Brisamar Estébanez, Osvaldo C Moreira, Mar Almar, José A de Paz, Javier Gonzalez-Gallego, María J Cuevas
Aging has been related with a decline in the ability to handle protein folding, which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and alterations in unfolded protein response (UPR). Importantly, physical activity could activate the UPR and attenuate or prevent age-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction. The current study evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise on UPR and mitochondrial functions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from elderly subjects. Thirty healthy women and men (age, 72...
January 7, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
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