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Journal of Ginseng Research

Jeong-Oog Lee, Eunju Choi, Kon Kuk Shin, Yo Han Hong, Han Gyung Kim, Deok Jeong, Mohammad Amjad Hossain, Hyun Soo Kim, Young-Su Yi, Donghyun Kim, Eunji Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Background: Compound K (CK) is an active metabolite of ginseng saponin, ginsenoside Rb1, that has been shown to have ameliorative properties in various diseases. However, its role in inflammation and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this report, the antiinflammatory role of CK was investigated in macrophage-like cells. Methods: The CK-mediated antiinflammatory mechanism was explored in RAW264.7 and HEK293 cells that were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exhibited overexpression of known activation proteins...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
So Wun Kim, Ravi Gupta, Cheol Woo Min, Seo Hyun Lee, Ye Eun Cheon, Qing Feng Meng, Jeong Woo Jang, Chi Eun Hong, Ji Yoon Lee, Ick Hyun Jo, Sun Tae Kim
Background: Ginseng is one of the well-known medicinal plants, exhibiting diverse medicinal effects. Its roots possess anticancer and antiaging properties and are being used in the medical systems of East Asian countries. It is grown in low-light and low-temperature conditions, and its growth is strongly inhibited at temperatures above 25°C. However, the molecular responses of ginseng to heat stress are currently poorly understood, especially at the protein level. Methods: We used a shotgun proteomics approach to investigate the effect of heat stress on ginseng leaves...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Min-Sik Jeong, Si-Kwan Kim
Background: Panax ginseng Meyer, known as Korean Red Ginseng (KRG), is one of the important age-old traditional herbs used in boosting libido and improving male fertility. In this study, the effects of Rg3-enriched KRG extract (KGC04P) on heat stress-induced testicular damage in experimental rats was evaluated. Methods: Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided into four groups (n = 10): normal control (NC), heat-stressed control (HC), heat-stressed plus KGC04P-100 mg/kg (HK100), and heat-stressed plus KGC04P-200 mg/kg (HK200) groups...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Sang-Ho Lee, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Un-Kyu Park, Min-Sik Jeong, Jae-Yup Hong, Chang-Kyun Han, Gyo In, Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Si-Kwan Kim
Background: Excessive stress causes varied physiological and psychological disorders including male reproductive problems. Here, we attempted to investigate the protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng ( Panax ginseng Meyer; KRG) against sub-acute immobilization stress-induced testicular damage in experimental rats. Methods: Male rats (age, 4 wk; weight, 60-70 g) were divided into four groups ( n  = 8 in each group): normal control group, immobilization control group, immobilization group treated with 100 mg/kg of KRG daily, and immobilization group treated with 200 mg/kg of KRG daily...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Lu Yu, Yuan Chen, Jie Shi, Rufeng Wang, Yingbo Yang, Li Yang, Shujuan Zhao, Zhengtao Wang
Background: Ginsenosides are known as the principal pharmacological active constituents in Panax medicinal plants such as Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and Notoginseng. Some ginsenosides, especially the 20( R ) isomers, are found in trace amounts in natural sources and are difficult to chemically synthesize. The present study provides an approach to produce such trace ginsenosides applying biotransformation through Escherichia coli modified with relevant genes. Methods: Seven uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes originating from Panax notoginseng , Medicago sativa , and Bacillus subtilis were synthesized or cloned and constructed into pETM6, an ePathBrick vector, which were then introduced into E...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Fang Liu, Ni Ma, Fang-Bo Xia, Peng Li, Chengwei He, Zhenqiang Wu, Jian-Bo Wan
Background: Ginsenosides with less sugar moieties may exhibit the better adsorptive capacity and more pharmacological activities. Methods: An efficient method for the separation of four minor saponins, including gypenoside XVII, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rd2, and notoginsenoside Fd, from Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) was established using biotransformation, macroporous resins, and subsequent preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The dried PNL powder was immersed in the distilled water at 50°C for 30 min for converting the major saponins, ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, to minor saponins, gypenoside XVII, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rd2, and notoginsenoside Fd, respectively, by the enzymes present in PNL...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Shan Lu, Yun Luo, Ping Zhou, Ke Yang, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Background: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) causes vascular endothelial cell inflammatory response and apoptosis and plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a metabolite produced by the hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1, possesses strong anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether or not CK protects ox-LDL-damaged endothelial cells and the potential mechanisms have not been elucidated. Methods: In our study, cell viability was tested using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Han-Hee Park, Seung-Won Choi, Gwang Jin Lee, Young-Dae Kim, Hyun-Jin Noh, Seung-Jae Oh, Iseul Yoo, Yu-Jin Ha, Gi-Bang Koo, Soon-Sun Hong, Sung Won Kwon, You-Sun Kim
Background: Ginseng is believed to have antitumor activity. Autophagy is largely a prosurvival cellular process that is activated in response to cellular stressors, including cytotoxic chemotherapy; therefore, agents that inhibit autophagy can be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatment. We examined the ability of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) to prevent autophagic flux and to make hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells become more sensitive to doxorubicin. Methods: The cytotoxic effects of total RGE or its saponin fraction (RGS) on HCC cells were examined by the lactate dehydrogenase assay in a dose- or time-dependent manner...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Xue Zhou, Shasha Luo, Jianfeng Zhang, Baohui Lu, Chunjie Tian
Background: Glomus intraradices is a species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that, as an obligate endomycorrhiza, can form mutually beneficial associations with plants. Panax ginseng is a popular traditional Chinese medicine; however, problems associated with ginseng planting, such as pesticide residues, reduce the ginseng quality. Methods: In this experiment, we studied the effect of inoculating G . intraradices on several physiological properties and microbial communities of ginseng...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Seong-Hwan Park, Hee Dong Jeon, Seung-Heon Hong
Background: In colorectal cancer (CRC), 40-60% of patients develop metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal and intricate process that increases the metastatic potential of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) on colorectal metastasis through inhibition of EMT and the metastatic abilities of CRC cells. Methods: To investigate the effect of RGE on the metastatic phenotypes of CRC cells, CT26 and HT29 cells were evaluated by using an adhesion assay, a wound-healing assay, an invasion assay, zymography, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jee Youn Lee, Hae Young Choi, Chan Sol Park, Mi Kyung Pyo, Tae Young Yune, Go Woon Kim, Sung Hyun Chung
Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most devastating ailments of the peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain develops in ∼30% of diabetics. Here, we examined the suppressive effect of GS-KG9 on neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Rats showing blood glucose level > 250 mg/dL were divided into five groups, and treatment groups received oral saline containing GS-KG9 (50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, or 300 mg/kg) twice daily for 4 wk...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Minkyoung Cho, Garam Choi, Inbo Shim, Yeonseok Chung
Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng Meyer) is a widely used medicinal herb known to exert various immune modulatory functions. KRG and one of its purified components, ginsenoside Rg3, are known to possess anti-inflammatory activities. How they impact helper T cell-mediated responses is not fully explored. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of KRG extract (KRGE) and ginsenoside Rg3 on Th1 cell responses. Methods: Using well-characterized T cell in vitro differentiation systems, we examined the effects of KRGE or enhanced Rg3 on the Th1-inducing cytokine production from dendritic cells (DC) and the naïve CD4+ T cells differentiation to Th1 cells...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong Youn Kim, Prakash Babu Adhikari, Chang Ho Ahn, Dong Hwi Kim, Young Chang Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Subramanyam Kondeti, Yong Eui Choi
Background: Interspecific ginseng hybrid, Panax ginseng  ×  Panax quenquifolius ( Pgq ) has vigorous growth and produces larger roots than its parents. However, F1 progenies are complete male sterile. Plant tissue culture technology can circumvent the issue and propagate the hybrid. Methods: Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations (0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis (SE)...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xin Huang, Yan Liu, Yong Zhang, Shuai-Ping Li, Hao Yue, Chang-Bao Chen, Shu-Ying Liu
Background: The structural conversions in ginsenosides induced by steaming or heating or acidic condition could improve red ginseng bioactivities significantly. In this paper, the chemical transformations of red American ginseng from fresh Panax quinquefolium L. under steaming were investigated, and the possible mechanisms were discussed. Methods: A method with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSn )-equipped electrospray ionization ion source was developed for structural analysis and quantitation of ginsenosides in dried and red American ginseng...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jieun Jung, Hye Ji Jang, Su Jin Eom, Nam Soon Choi, Na-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik
Background: Ginsenosides, which are bioactive components in ginseng, can be converted to smaller compounds for improvement of their pharmacological activities. The conversion methods include heating; acid, alkali, and enzymatic treatment; and microbial conversion. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconversion of ginsenosides in fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE). Methods: Red ginseng extract (RGE) was fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jun-Nan Hu, Xing-Yue Xu, Wei Li, Yi-Ming Wang, Ying Liu, Zi Wang, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Frequent overdose of paracetamol (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of ginsenoside Rk1 on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and investigate the underlying mechanisms for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with Rk1 (10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg) by oral gavage once per d for 7 d. On the 7th d, all mice treated with 250 mg/kg APAP exhibited severe liver injury after 24 h, and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Jeong A Han, Yeon-Ju Kim, Jae Chun Kim, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Background: Korean ginseng is an important cash crop in Asian countries. However, plant yield is reduced by pathogens. Among the Ilyonectria radicicola- species complex, I. mors-panacis is responsible for root-rot and replant failure of ginseng in Asia. The development of new methods to reveal the existence of the pathogen before cultivation is started is essential. Therefore, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method was developed to detect and quantify the pathogen in ginseng soils...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Evelyn Saba, Yuan Yee Lee, Minki Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Seung-Bok Hong, Man Hee Rhee
Background: Ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) is a widely used traditional herbal supplement that possesses various health-enhancing efficacies. Various ginseng products are available in market, especially in the Korean peninsula, in the form of drinks, tablets, and capsules. The different ginseng types include the traditional red ginseng extract (RGE), white ginseng, and black red ginseng extract (BRGE). Their fermented and enzyme-treated products are also available. Different treatment regimens alter the bioavailability of certain compounds present in the respective ginseng extracts...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Go Woon Kim, Hee Kyung Jo, Sung Hyun Chung
Background: Despite the large number of studies on ginseng, pharmacological activities of ginseng seed oil (GSO) have not been established. GSO is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mostly oleic and linoleic acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are known to exert a therapeutic effect in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of GSO against NAFLD using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods: In vitro lipid accumulation was induced by free fatty acid mixture in HepG2 cells and by 3 wk of high fat diet (HFD)-feeding in Sprague-Dawley rats prior to hepatocyte isolation...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Sang-Wook Song, Ha-Na Kim, Jae-Yong Shim, Byeong-Yeon Yoo, Dae-Hyun Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Joo-Sung Park, Moon-Jong Kim, Jun-Hyun Yoo, BeLong Cho, Hee-Cheol Kang, Kwang-Min Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim
Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been used in Asia for its various biological effects, but no studies have investigated the safety of its long-term intake. Therefore, the present study evaluated the safety of KRG intake for 24 weeks. Methods: We randomized 1,000 participants in a 1:1 ratio into two groups, which were treated daily with 2 g of KRG or a placebo for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was all adverse events and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that occurred after KRG or placebo administration, which were reported at week 4, 12, and 24 after the baseline visit...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
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